List of computer criminals
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Convicted computer criminals are people who are caught and convicted of computer crimes such as breaking into computers or computer networks. Computer crime can be broadly defined as criminal activity involving information technology infrastructure, including illegal access (unauthorized access), illegal interception (by technical means of non-public transmissions of computer data to, from or within a computer system), data interference (unauthorized damaging, deletion, deterioration, alteration or suppression of computer data), systems interference (interfering with the functioning of a computer system by inputting, transmitting, damaging, deleting, deteriorating, altering or suppressing computer data), misuse of devices, forgery (or identity theft) and electronic fraud.
In the infancy of the hacker subculture and the computer underground, criminal convictions were rare because there was an informal code of ethics that was followed by white hat hackers. Proponents of hacking claim to be motivated by artistic and political ends, but are often unconcerned about the use of criminal means to achieve them. White hat hackers break past computer security for non-malicious reasons and do no damage, akin to breaking into a house and looking around. They enjoy learning and working with computer systems, and by this experience gain a deeper understanding of electronic security. As the computer industry matured, individuals with malicious intentions (black hats) would emerge to exploit computer systems for their own personal profit.
Convictions of computer crimes, or hacking, began as early as 1983 with the case of The 414s from the 414 area code in Milwaukee. In that case, six teenagers broke into a number of high-profile computer systems, including Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Security Pacific Bank. On May 1, 1983, one of the 414s, Gerald Wondra, was sentenced to two years of probation.
In 2006, a prison term of nearly five years was handed down to Jeanson James Ancheta, who created hundreds of zombie computers to do his bidding via giant bot networks or botnets. He then sold the botnets to the highest bidder who in turn used them for Denial-of-service (DoS) attacks.
The next longest sentences are those of 13 years for Blake Easterling, 108 months of Brian Salcedo in 2004 and upheld in 2006 by the U.S. 4th Circuit Court of Appeals, and 68 months of Kevin Mitnick in 1999.
|Hao Jingwen||Unknown||China||Accused of hacking into a bank computer network and stealing 260,000 renminbi ($US31,400).||1999||Sentenced to death and executed.|
|Abene, MarkMark Abene||Phiber Optik||United States||Misdemeanor theft-of-service for a free-call scam to a 900 number||1991||35 hours of community service|
|One count of computer trespass and one count of computer conspiracy||1993||One-year jail sentence|
|Ancheta, Jeanson JamesJeanson James Ancheta||Gobo||United States||Pled guilty to four federal charges of violating United States Code Section 1030, Fraud and Related Activity in Connection with Computers, specifically subsections (a)(5)(A)(i), 1030 (a)(5)(B)(i) and 1030(b)||May 8, 2006||57 months in prison, forfeit a 1993 BMW and more than US$58,000 in profit
Restitution of US$15,000 to the U.S. federal government for infecting military computers
|Assange, Julian PaulJulian Paul Assange||Mendax / profff||Australia||31 charges of hacking and related charges. pleaded guilty to 25 charges, the remaining 6 were dropped.||December 5, 1996||A recorded conviction on all counts, a reparation payment of A$2,100 to ANU (to be paid in 3 months time) and a A$5,000 good-behaviour bond.|
|Binder, MarkusMarkus Binder||Murf||Australia||Worked with Ripmax and was also arrested. He was charged with 34 charges of telecommunications fraud (phreaking).||May 1, 1992||Served a three-year $10,000 good-behavior bond, 150 hours of community service and fined $2000|
|Botbyl, AdamAdam Botbyl||—||United States||Conspiracy to steal credit card numbers from the Lowe's chain of home improvement stores||December 16, 2004||Two years and two months imprisonment, followed by two years of supervised release|
|Calce, MichaelMichael Calce||MafiaBoy||Canada||Pled guilty to 56 charges of "mischief to data"||September 12, 2001||Eight months "open custody", by the Montreal Youth Court, one year of probation, restricted use of the Internet and a small fine|
|Davis, ChadChad Davis||Mindphasr||United States||Intentionally hacking a protected computer and willfully causing damage||March 1, 2000||Six months in prison, US$8,054 in restitution and three years probation|
|Even-Chaim, NahshonNahshon Even-Chaim||Phoenix||Australia||15 charges including trespassing on the University of Texas computer network, altering data at NASA and the theft of the ZARDOZ file||1993||One-year suspended sentence: A$1,000 good-behaviour bond and 500 hours community service|
|Gray, RaphaelRaphael Gray||Curador||United Kingdom||Pled guilty to theft and hacking offenses which fall under the Computer Misuse Act and six charges of intentionally accessing sites containing credit card details and using this information for financial gain||July 6, 2001||Three years of psychiatric treatment after evidence emerged that he was suffering from a mental condition which needed medical treatment rather than incarceration|
|Frisenholt, RasmuzRasmuz Frisenholt||Red Phibes||Sweden||2 charges of government related hacking and violating Swedish law of private security, 1 charge of identity fraud by Id-security. pleaded guilty of all charges accordingly.||October 13, 2012||80 hours of community service
320 hours of government support for the department of security and identity protection
|Heckenkamp, JeromeJerome Heckenkamp||MagicFX||United States||Admitted the hacking and pleaded guilty to two felonies in 2004.||2004||Sentenced to Time Served after spending 7 months in prison.|
|James, JonathanJonathan James||c0mrade||United States||Two counts of juvenile delinquency||September 21, 2000||Six-month prison sentence and probation until the age of eighteen|
|Jeffery, JamesJames Jeffery||Pablo Escobar||United Kingdom||Hacked into the British Pregnancy Advisory Service, stole patient information and defaced the webpage. pleaded guilty to 2 counts of computer misuse.||April 13, 2012||32 months imprisonment |
|Jones, RichardRichard Jones||Electron||Australia||Trespassing on the University of Texas computer network and theft of the ZARDOZ file||1993||One year and six months suspended sentence, 300 hours of community service and psychiatric assessment and treatment|
|Kamkar, SamySamy Kamkar||samy||United States||Pled guilty to violating California Penal Code 502(c)(8) for creating the "Samy is my hero" XSS worm that spread across the MySpace social networking site||2007||Three years of formal probation, 90 days of community service, restitution paid to MySpace, restrictions on computer use|
|Knight, NicholasNicholas Knight||logic||United States||Pled guilty to one count of "unauthorised acts with intent to impair operation of or prevent/hinder access to a computer". Former member of Team Digi7al. Guilty of hacking US Navy, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Department of Homeland Security, Library of Congress, and countless other government/educational institutions.||November 21, 2014||Two years imprisonment|
|Lacroix, CameronCameron Lacroix||cam0||United States||Pled guilty to hacking into the cell-phone account of celebrity Paris Hilton and participated in an attack on data-collection firm LexisNexis Group that exposed personal records of more than 300,000 consumers||September 13, 2005||11 months in a Massachusetts juvenile detention facility|
|Lamo, AdrianAdrian Lamo||—||United States||One-count of computer crimes against Microsoft, LexisNexis and The New York Times||July 15, 2004||Six months detention at his parent's home plus two years probation and roughly US$65,000 in restitution|
|Martin, LewysLewys Martin||sl1nk||United Kingdom||Pled guilty to five counts of "unauthorised acts with intent to impair operation of or prevent/hinder access to a computer", two of "unauthorised computer access with intent to commit other offences", one of "unauthorised computer access with intent to commit other offences", and one of "unauthorised access to computer material".
Hacking attempt on the websites of Kent Police, Cambridge University and Oxford University. Former member of NullCrew and said to have penetrated the servers of Department of Defense (DoD), Pentagon, NASA, NSA, other UK government websites.
|May 16, 2013||Two years imprisonment|
|Mitnick, KevinKevin Mitnick||Condor||United States||Four counts of wire fraud, two counts of computer fraud and one count of illegally intercepting a wire communication||August 9, 1999||46 months in federal prison and US$4,125 in restitution|
|Moran, DennisDennis Moran||Coolio||United States||Misdemeanor charges of hacking||March 9, 2001||Nine months in jail and US$5,000 in restitution to each victim|
|Morris, Robert TappanRobert Tappan Morris||rtm||United States||Intentional access of federal interest computers without authorization thereby preventing authorized access and causing a loss in excess of US$1,000||Mar 7, 1991||Three years probation and 400 hours of community service in a manner determined by the Probation Office and approved by the Court|
|Parson, Jeffrey LeeJeffrey Lee Parson||T33kid||United States||Pled guilty on August 11, 2004 to one count of intentionally causing or attempting to cause damage to a protected computer via his version of the Blaster computer worm||January 28, 2005||18 months in prison and 100 hours of community service|
|Pile, ChrisChris Pile||The Black Baron||United Kingdom||Writing and distributing computer viruses||1995||18 months in prison|
|Poulsen, KevinKevin Poulsen||Dark Dante||United States||Pled guilty to seven counts of mail, wire and computer fraud, money laundering and obstruction of justice||June 1, 1994||51 months in prison and ordered to pay US$56,000 in restitution|
|Rose, LeonardLeonard Rose||Terminus||United States||Illicit use of proprietary software (UNIX 3.2 code) owned by AT&T and 2 counts of computer fraud and three counts of interstate transportation of stolen property.||June 12, 1991||One-year jail sentence|
|Smith, David L.David L. Smith||Kwyjibo||United States||Pled guilty to knowingly spreading a computer virus, the Melissa virus, with the intent to cause damage||May 1, 2002||20 months in federal prison, US$5,000 fine and 100 hours of community service upon release|
|Tenenbaum, EhudEhud Tenenbaum||Analyzer||Israel||Admitted to cracking US and Israeli computers, and pleaded guilty to conspiracy, wrongful infiltration of computerized material, disruption of computer use and destroying evidence||June 15, 2001||Six months of community service, one year of probation, a two-year suspended prison sentence and fined about US$18,000|
|Vallor, SimonSimon Vallor||Gobo||United Kingdom||Writing and distributing three computer viruses||January 21, 2003||Two-year jail sentence|
|Williamson, SimonSimon Williamson||Ripmax||Australia||Was arrested in 1992 on 38 charges of Telecommunications fraud (Phreaking).||May 1, 1992||served a three-year $10,000 good behavior bond, and was fined $2000, 150 Community Service Hours|
|Wit, Jan deJan de Wit||OnTheFly||Netherlands||Spreading data into a computer network with the intention of causing damage as the creator of the Anna Kournikova virus||September 27, 2001||150 hours community service|
|Wondra, GeraldGerald Wondra||The 414s||United States||Unauthorized access to computers at the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York and a Los Angeles bank and two counts of "making harassing telephone calls"||May 1, 1983||Two years probation|
|, unknownunknown||Trax||Australia||6 counts of hacking and phreaking. pleaded guilty to all charges.||September 20, 1995||(Due to a history of mental illness) no recorded conviction and a A$500 three-year good-behaviour bond|
|Cal Leeming||foxx||United Kingdom||UKs youngest convicted hacker, charged at age 12 for computer misuse and deception. Several years later, convicted for hacking into several organisations and committing fraud to the sum of £750k||7 July 2006||15 month jail sentence, served 5 months + home curfew, license and probation.|
- Bruce Sterling (1993). The Hacker Crackdown—Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier (January 1994 ed.). Project Gutenberg. p. 336. ISBN 0-553-56370-X.
- Paul Taylor. Hackers: Crime in the Digital Sublime (November 3, 1999 ed.). Routledge; 1 edition. p. 200. ISBN 0-415-18072-4.
- Steve Mizrach (2009). "The electronic discourse of the computer underground". Florida International University. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
Gordon Meyer, a sociologist who has since left academia but continues to be involved in the computer industry (and to publish the Computer Underground Digest), wrote in his seminal paper The Social Organization of the Computer Underground that the "computer underground consists of actors in three roles – computer hackers, phone phreaks, and software pirates."
- "Interview with Chris Davis". Public Broadcasting Service. 2001. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- Brian Blomquist (May 29, 1999). "FBI'S web site socked as hackers target feds". New York Post. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- Andrew Brandt (April 2, 2001). "Hacker Speak". PC World (magazine). Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- "Computer User Sentenced". The New York Times. May 1, 1983. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- pg 26—Richard Gissel. Digital Underworld (August 23, 2005 ed.). Lulu. p. 222. ISBN 1-4116-4423-9.
- Robert Vamosi (January 27, 2006). "Cybercrime does pay; here's how". CNET Reviews. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- Zetter, Kim (March 25, 2010). "TJX Hacker Gets 20 Years in Prison". Wired (magazine). Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- Poulsen, Kevin (February 12, 2010). "Record 13-Year Sentence for Hacker Max Vision". Wired (magazine). Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Hacker Sentenced to Prison for Breaking into Lowe's Companies' Computers with Intent to Steal Credit Card Information". cybercrime.gov. December 15, 2004. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Crazy-Long Hacker Sentence Upheld". Wired (magazine). July 11, 2006. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Kevin Mitnick Sentenced to Nearly Four Years in Prison". cybercrime.gov. August 9, 1999. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Chinese hackers reportedly get death sentence". Retrieved 2016-10-11.
- "Phiber Optik Goes to Prison—Issue 2.04". Wired. April 1994. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- Elinor Mills (June 23, 2009). "Q&A: Mark Abene, from 'Phiber Optik' to security guru". CNET Networks. Retrieved June 28, 2009.
- "American owns up to hijacking PCs". BBC News. January 24, 2006. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- Debra Wong Chang - United States Attorney (May 8, 2006). ""Botherder" Dealt Record Prison Sentence for Selling and Spreading Malicious Computer Code". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- Dreyfus, Suelette (1997). Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier (PDF). pp. 48–49.
- Dreyfus, Suelette (1997). Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier (PDF). pp. 48–49.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2013-12-07.
- "Untitled". April 16, 2012. Archived from the original on September 26, 2012.
- Kevin Poulsen (2009). "Michigan Wi-Fi hacker jailed for nine years". The Register. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- "Judgement in a Criminal Case, 5:03CR53-02, Western District of North Carolina" (PDF). timmins. December 16, 2004. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- Tony Long (February 7, 2007). "February 7, 2000: Mafiaboy's Moment". Wired. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- "Mafiaboy given eight months". The Register. September 13, 2001. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- "FBI Facts and Figure 2003". Federal Bureau of Investigation. April 2003. Archived from the original on March 26, 2007. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- "Chad Davis, "Global Hell" Hacker, Sentenced to Six Months in Prison, Three Years Probation., For Air Force Network Hacks". United States Department of Justice. March 1, 2000. Archived from the original on May 11, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
- "Hack to the future". Melbourne: The Age. May 25, 2003. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- John Leyden (July 6, 2001). "'Bill Gates' hacker escapes jail". The Register. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- "Teen hacker escapes jail sentence". BBC News. July 6, 2001. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- Poulsen, Kevin (April 6, 2007). "Court Okays Counter-Hack of eBay Hacker's Computer". Wired News. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Michael Newton (2004). The Encyclopedia of High-Tech Crime and Crime-Fighting (November 2003 ed.). Checkmark Books, an imprint of Facts on File Inc. p. 416. ISBN 0-8160-4978-5.
- "Hacker jailed for 32 months for attack on abortion-provider site". The Register. April 16, 2012.
- "MySpace speaks about Samy Kamkar's sentencing". TechSpot. January 31, 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2010.
- , Times Dispatch, United States, 21 November 2014.[dead link]
- Brian Krebs (February 27, 2007). "They'll Always Have Paris". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- George V. Hulme (July 15, 2004). "Hacker Lamo Sentenced To Home Detention". Information Week. United Business Media, Inc. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- Is Department of Defense (DoD), Pentagon, NASA, NSA secure?, TheHackerNews, May 14, 2011.
- Man jailed for attempting to compromise websites, Kent Police, United Kingdom, 16 May 2013. Archived September 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Kevin Mitnick sentenced to nearly four years in prison". United States Department of Justice. August 9, 1999. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- "Hacker sentenced, must program jail computers". USA Today. Associated Press. February 6, 2002. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- Ronald B. Standler (August 14, 2002). "Judgment in U.S. v. Robert Tappan Morris". rbs2. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- "Teen Pleds Guilty in Blaster Worm Attack". CRN Magazine. August 12, 2004. Retrieved May 11, 2009.[dead link]
- "Blaster-B worm author sentenced to 18 months in jail - but bigger villain remains free, Sophos reports". Sophos Plc. January 28, 2005. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
- Henry Weinstein (March 23, 1991). "Hacker Enters Guilty Plea in Theft of Computer Data". Business; PART-D; Financial Desk: Los Angeles Times. p. 2. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- Rodney Hoffman (March 27, 1991). "Legion of Doom's "Terminus" sentenced". RISKS Digest. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- Rodney Hoffman (March 31, 1991). "Correction Re: Terminus". RISKS Digest. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
Under the plea agreements, ... Rose ... will serve a year in prison.
- "Creator of Melissa Computer Virus Sentenced to 20 Months in Federal Prison". United States Department of Justice. May 1, 2002. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
- Kevin Poulsen (June 15, 2001). "Solar Sunrise hacker 'Analyzer' escapes jail". The Register. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- "Two years jail for UK virus writer who infected 27,000 PCs, Sophos reacts". Sophos Plc. January 21, 2003. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- Robert Blincoe (September 27, 2001). "Kournikova virus kiddie gets 150 hours community service". The Register. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- John Leyden (September 14, 2001). "Anna Kournikova virus author stands trial". The Register. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- Joris Evers (September 28, 2001). "Kournikova Virus Writer Found Guilty". PC World. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- "Two who raided computers pleading guilty—Late City Final Edition, Section 1, Page 6, Column 1, 383 words". The New York Times. March 17, 1984. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- Dreyfus, Suelette (1997). Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier (PDF). pp. 43–45.
- Dreyfus, Suelette (1997). Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier (PDF). pp. 45–46.
- "How Criminal Hackers Turn Legit". Retrieved 2016-08-22.
- "Cal Leeming". youth partnership. Retrieved 2016-08-22.