List of mammals of California
This is a list of mammals in California, including both current and recently historical inhabitants.
The California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) monitors certain species and subspecies of special concern. These are mammals whose populations may be locally threatened, but which are excluded from federal and international conservation lists. Taxa of special concern in California are noted below, as are endemic, introduced, harvest, and vagrant species.
Total Number of species listed: 221, including 181 terrestrial and 40 marine mammals.
One species of opossum occurs in California.
|Common Name||Species Name||Status||Distribution|
|Virginia opossum||Didelphis virginiana||Common,
|Statewide up to
1,000 m (3,000 ft)
Shrews and Moles
13 species of shrews occur in California.
|Common Name||Species Name||Status||Distribution|
|Mount Lyell shrew||Sorex lyelli||Endemic
|Central Sierra Nevada
|Vagrant shrew||Sorex vagrans||1 ssp of
|Montane shrew||Sorex monticolus||Sierra Nevada and
San Bernardino ranges
|Pacific shrew||Sorex pacificus||Northwest|
|Ornate shrew||Sorex ornatus||5 ssp of
|Fog shrew||Sorex sonomae||Northwest|
|Inyo shrew||Sorex tenellus||East central|
|American water shrew||Sorex palustris||Sierra Nevada, Cascades
and Coast Ranges above
|Preble's shrew||Sorex preblei||Cascades above 1,200 m (4,000 ft)|
|Marsh shrew||Sorex bendirii||Northwest|
|Trowbridge's shrew||Sorex trowbridgii||North outside
|Merriam's shrew||Sorex merriami'||Great Basin|
|Desert (or Crawford's gray) shrew||Notiosorex crawfordi||Southern deserts|
4 species of moles occur in California.
- Shrew-mole, Neurotrichus gibbsii
- Broad-footed mole, Scapanus latimanus
- Alameda Island mole, S. latimanus parvus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Coast mole, Scapanus orarius
- Townsend's mole, Scapanus townsendii
4 species of leaf-nosed bats occur in California.
- Mexican long-tongued bat, Choeronycteris mexicana (CDFW special concern)
- Southern long-nosed bat, Leptonycteris curasoae
- Lesser long-nosed bat, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae
- California leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus californicus (CDFW special concern)
19 species of vesper bats occur in California.
- Pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus (CDFW special concern)
- Silver-haired bat, Lasionycteris noctivagans
- California myotis, Myotis californicus
- Western small-footed myotis, Myotis ciliolabrum
- Long-eared myotis, Myotis evotis
- Little brown myotis, Myotis lucifugus
- Arizona myotis, Myotis occultus (CDFW special concern)
- Fringed myotis, Myotis thysanodes
- Cave myotis, Myotis velifer (CDFW special concern)
- Long-legged myotis, Myotis volans
- Yuma myotis, Myotis yumanensis
- Townsend's big-eared bat, Corynorhinus townsendii (formerly Plecotus townsendii; CDFW special concern)
- Pale big-eared bat - C. townsendii pallescens (CDFW special concern)
- Big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus
- Spotted bat, Euderma maculatum (CDFW special concern)
- Allen's big-eared bat, Idionycteris phyllotis
- Western red bat, Lasiurus blossevillii
- Hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus
- Western yellow bat, Lasiurus xanthinus
- Western pipistrelle, Parastrellus hesperus
4 species of free-tailed bats occur in California.
- Western mastiff bat, Eumops perotis
- California mastiff bat, E. perotis californicus (CDFW special concern)
- Pocketed free-tailed bat, Nyctinomops femorosaccus (CDFW special concern)
- Big free-tailed bat, Nyctinomops macrotis (CDFW special concern)
- Brazilian (or Mexican) free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis
Rabbits, hares and pikas
One species of pika occurs in California.
- American pika, Ochotona princeps
- Pygmy rabbit, Brachylagus idahoensis (CDFW special concern, harvest)
- Snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus (harvest)
- Oregon snowshoe hare, L. americanus klamathensis (CDFW special concern)
- Sierra Nevada snowshoe hare, L. americanus tahoensis (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus (harvest)
- San Diego black-tailed jackrabbit, L. californicus bennettii (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- White-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus townsendii (CDFW special concern, harvest)
- European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (introduced)
- Desert cottontail, Sylvilagus audubonii (harvest)
- Brush rabbit, Sylvilagus bachmani (harvest, except for endangered Riparian subspecies)
- Riparian brush rabbit, S. bachmani riparius (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Mountain cottontail, Sylvilagus nuttallii (harvest)
One species of mountain beaver occurs in California.
- Mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa
- Sierra Nevada mountain beaver, A. rufa californica (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Point Arena mountain beaver, A. rufa nigra (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Point Reyes mountain beaver, A. rufa phaea (CDFW special concern; endemic)
Subfamily Sciurinae (tree squirrels and flying squirrels)
- Northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus
- San Bernardino flying squirrel, G. sabrinus californicus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis (introduced, harvest)
- Western gray squirrel, Sciurus griseus (harvest)
- Eastern fox squirrel, Sciurus niger (introduced, harvest)
- Douglas' squirrel, Tamiasciurus douglasii (harvest)
Subfamily Xerinae (chipmunks and ground squirrels)
- White-tailed antelope ground squirrel, Ammospermophilus leucurus
- Nelson's antelope ground squirrel, Ammospermophilus nelsoni (Endemic)
- Yellow-bellied marmot, Marmota flaviventris
- California ground squirrel, Spermophilus beecheyi
- Belding's ground squirrel, Spermophilus beldingi
- Golden-mantled ground squirrel, Spermophilus lateralis
- Mohave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis (Endemic)
- Round-tailed ground squirrel, Spermophilus tereticaudus
- Palm Springs round-tailed ground squirrel, S. tereticaudus chlorus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Townsend's ground squirrel, Spermophilus townsendii
- Rock squirrel, Spermophilus variegatus
- Alpine chipmunk, Tamias alpinus (endemic)
- Yellow-pine chipmunk, Tamias amoenus
- Merriam's chipmunk, Tamias merriami
- Least chipmunk, Tamias minimus
- California chipmunk, Tamias obscurus
- Yellow-cheeked chipmunk, Tamias ochrogenys (endemic)
- Panamint chipmunk, Tamias panamintinus
- Long-eared chipmunk, Tamias quadrimaculatus
- Allen's chipmunk, Tamias senex
- Siskiyou chipmunk, Tamias siskiyou
- Sonoma chipmunk, Tamias sonomae (endemic)
- Lodgepole chipmunk, Tamias speciosus
- Uinta chipmunk, Tamias umbrinus
One species of beaver occurs in California.
- American beaver, Castor canadensis (harvest)
5 species of pocket gophers occur in California.
- Botta's pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae
- Western pocket gopher, Thomomys mazama
- Mountain pocket gopher, Thomomys monticola
- Northern pocket gopher, Thomomys talpoides
- Townsend's pocket gopher, Thomomys townsendii
Subfamily Dipodomyinae (kangaroo rats and mice)
- Pacific (or agile) kangaroo rat, Dipodomys agilis (endemic)
- California kangaroo rat, Dipodomys californicus
- Marysville California kangaroo rat, D. californicus eximus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Desert kangaroo rat, Dipodomys deserti
- Big-eared kangaroo rat, Dipodomys elephantinus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Heermann's kangaroo rat, Dipodomys heermanni (endemic)
- Giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens (endemic)
- Merriam's kangaroo rat, Dipodomys merriami
- San Bernardino Merriam's kangaroo rat, D. merriami parvus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Chisel-toothed kangaroo rat, Dipodomys microps]
- Fresno kangaroo rat, Dipodomys nitratoides (endemic)
- Short-nosed kangaroo rat, D. nitratoides brevinasus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Tipton kangaroo rat, D. nitratoides nitratoides (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Ord's kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ordii
- Panamint kangaroo rat, Dipodomys panamintinus
- San Diego kangaroo rat, Dipodomys simulans
- Stephens' kangaroo rat, Dipodomys stephensi (endemic)
- Narrow-faced kangaroo rat, Dipodomys venustus (endemic)
- Dark kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops megacephalus
- Pale kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops pallidus
Subfamily Perognathinae (pocket mice)
- Bailey's pocket mouse, Chaetodipus baileyi
- California pocket mouse, Chaetodipus californicus
- Dulzura pocket mouse, C. californicus femoralis (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- San Diego pocket mouse, Chaetodipus fallax
- Northwestern San Diego pocket mouse, C. fallax fallax (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Pallid San Diego pocket mouse, C. fallax pallidus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Long-tailed pocket mouse, Chaetodipus formosus
- Desert pocket mouse, Chaetodipus penicillatus
- Spiny pocket mouse, Chaetodipus spinatus
- White-eared pocket mouse, Perognathus alticola (endemic)
- White-eared pocket mouse, P. alticola alticola (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Tehachapi pocket mouse, P. alticola inexpectatus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- San Joaquin pocket mouse, Perognathus inornatus (endemic)
- Salinas pocket mouse, P. inornatus psammophilus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Little pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris
- Palm Springs pocket mouse, P. longimembris bangsi (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Los Angeles pocket mouse, P. longimembris brevinasus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Jacumba pocket mouse, P. longimembris internationalis (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Pacific pocket mouse, P. longimembris pacificus (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Great Basin pocket mouse, Perognathus parvus
Subfamily Arvicolinae (lemmings, voles, and muskrat)
- White-footed vole, Arborimus albipes (CDFW special concern)
- Sonoma tree vole, Arborimus pomo (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Western red-backed vole, Clethrionomys californicus
- Sagebrush vole, Lemmiscus curtatus
- California vole, Microtus californicus
- Monterey vole, M. californicus halophilus (endemic)
- Mojave River vole, M. californicus mohavensis (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- San Pablo vole, M. californicus sanpabloensis (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Amargosa vole, M. californicus scirpensis (Federal and State endangered; endemic)
- South coast marsh vole, M. californicus stephensi (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Owens Valley vole, M. californicus vallicola (CDFW special concern; endemic)
- Long-tailed vole, Microtus longicaudus
- Montane vole, Microtus montanus
- Creeping vole, Microtus oregoni
- Townsend's vole, Microtus townsendii
- Muskrat, Ondatra zibethicus (introduced, harvest)
- Heather vole, Phenacomys intermedius
Subfamily Neotominae (North American rats and mice)
- White-throated woodrat, Neotoma albigula
- Bushy-tailed woodrat, Neotoma cinerea
- Dusky-footed woodrat, Neotoma fuscipes
- Desert woodrat, Neotoma lepida
- Large-eared woodrat, Neotoma macrotis
- Northern grasshopper mouse, Onychomys leucogaster
- Southern grasshopper mouse, Onychomys torridus
- Brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii
- California mouse, Peromyscus californicus
- Canyon mouse, Peromyscus crinitus
- Cactus mouse, Peromyscus eremicus
- Baja mouse, Peromyscus fraterculus
- Deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus
- Pinyon mouse, Peromyscus truei
- Salt marsh harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys raviventris (endemic)
- Western harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys megalotis
Subfamily Sigmodontinae (cotton rats)
- House mouse, Mus musculus (introduced)
- Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus (introduced)
- Black rat, Rattus rattus (introduced)
2 species of jumping mice occur in California.
One species of porcupine occurs in California.
- Common porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum
Whales, dolphins and porpoises
One species of gray whale occurs in California's waters.
- Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus (migrant)
6 species of rorquals occur in California's waters.
- Minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata
- Bryde's whale Balaenoptera cf. brydei (vagrant)
- Sei whale, Balaenoptera borealis
- Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus
- Fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus
- Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae
One species of right whale occurs in California's waters.
11 species of dolphins occur in California's waters.
- Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis 
- Long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis 
- Short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus
- Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus
- Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
- Northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis
- Killer whale, Orcinus orca
- False killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens (vagrant)
- Pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata (vagrant)
- Striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba
- Rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis (vagrant)
- Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus
2 species of porpoises occur in California's waters.
2 species of small sperm whales occur in California's waters.
1 species of sperm whale occur in California's waters.
- Sperm whale - Physeter macrocephalus
8 species of beaked whales occur in California's waters.
- Giant beaked whale, Berardius bairdii
- Hubbs' beaked whale, Mesoplodon carlhubbsi
- Blainville's beaked whale, Mesoplodon densirostris
- Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale, Mesoplodon ginkgodens
- Perrin's beaked whale, Mesoplodon perrini
- Pygmy beaked whale Mesoplodon peruvianus (one record)
- Stejneger's beaked whale, Mesoplodon stejnegeri
- Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris
6 species of canids occurred in California. One was recently extirpated.
- Coyote, Canis latrans
- Gray Wolf, Canis lupis (extirpated, but occasionally seen wandering in from another state, may re-colonize in the future)
- Feral dog, C. l. familiaris (introduced)
- Gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus (harvest)
- Island fox, Urocyon littoralis (endemic)
- Red fox, Vulpes vulpes (introduced)
- Kit fox, Vulpes macrotis
- Dire wolf, Canis dirus (extinct)
2 species of bears occurred in California. One was recently extirpated.
2 species of this nocturnal, omnivorous family occur in California.
2 species of skunks occur in California.
- Striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis (harvest)
- Western spotted skunk, Spilogale gracilis (harvest)
- Channel Islands spotted skunk, S. gracilis amphiala (CDFW special concern; endemic)
4 species of cats occurred in California. One was recently extirpated.
- American lion, Panthera leo atrox (extinct)
- Feral cat, Felis catus
- Bobcat, Lynx rufus (harvest)
- Jaguar, Panthera onca (extirpated 1826)
- Mountain lion, Puma concolor
- Sabre toothed tiger, Smilodon fatalis (extinct)
- Wolverine, Gulo Gulo (currently only one known individual)
- American marten, Martes americana
- Fisher, Martes pennanti
- Long-tailed weaselMustela frenata
- Ermine Mustela erminea
- American mink, Neovison vison
- Sea otter, Enhydra lutris
- North American river otter, Lontra canadensis
- American badger, Taxidea taxus
Seals and sea lions
4 species of eared seals occur in California.
- Guadalupe fur seal, Arctocephalus townsendi
- Northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus
- Northern (Steller) sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus
- California sea lion, Zalophus californianus
2 species of earless seals occur in California.
One species of pronghorn occurs in California.
- Pronghorn, Antilocapra americana (harvest)
- Barbary sheep, Ammotragus lervia (introduced, harvest)
- Bison, Bison bison (extirpated in the early 1800s;semi-wild animals on private ranches may occur in CA, introduced wild population on Santa Catalina Island)
- Bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis (harvest)
- Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, O. c. sierrae
- Tule elk, C. c. nannodes (endemic)
- Fallow deer, Dama dama (introduced, harvest)
- Mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus (harvest)
- California mule deer, O. h. californicus
- Southern mule deer, O. h. fuliginatus
- Inyo mule deer, O. h. inyoensis
- Columbian black-tailed deer, O. h. columbianus
One species of pig occurs in California.
- Wild boar, Sus scrofa (introduced, harvest)
- European wild boar, Sus scrofa scrofa
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mammals of California.|
- California Department of Fish and Game (September 2008). "Complete List of Amphibian, Reptile, Bird and Mammal Species in California" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-08. This is the primary source for most species on this list.
- California Department of Fish and Game. "Mammal Species of Special Concern". Retrieved 2012-08-08. This is the primary source for special statuses, and for including certain subspecies in addition to species.
- "Mammals of California". American Society of Mammalogists website. Retrieved 2012-07-30. The ASM list provides the distribution and other information.
- Wilson, Don; Deeann Reeder (2005). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4. Whenever possible, the taxonomy of mammals here has been updated to agree with the latest edition of MSW.
- Jameson, E. W., Jr.; H. J. Peeters (2004). Mammals of California. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23582-7.