Little Boxes

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An example of the middle-class housing satirized in "Little Boxes": Levittown, Pennsylvania, one of the first major post-World War II housing developments in the United States.

"Little Boxes" is a song written and composed by Malvina Reynolds in 1962, which became a hit for her friend Pete Seeger in 1963.

The song is a political satire about the development of suburbia, and associated conformist middle-class attitudes. It mocks suburban tract housing as "little boxes" of different colors "all made out of ticky-tacky", and which "all look just the same." "Ticky-tacky" is a reference to the shoddy material used in the construction of the houses.[1]


Reynolds was a folk singer-songwriter and political activist in the 1960s and 1970s. Nancy Reynolds, her daughter, explained that her mother came up with the song when she saw the housing developments around Daly City, California, built in the post-war era by Henry Doelger, particularly the neighborhood of Westlake.

My mother and father were driving South from San Francisco through Daly City when my mom got the idea for the song. She asked my dad to take the wheel, and she wrote it on the way to the gathering in La Honda where she was going to sing for the Friends Committee on Legislation. When Time magazine (I think, maybe Newsweek) wanted a photo of her pointing to the very place, she couldn’t find those houses because so many more had been built around them that the hillsides were totally covered.[2]

Reynolds' version first appeared on her 1967 Columbia Records album Malvina Reynolds Sings the Truth,[3] and can also be found on the Smithsonian Folkways Records 2000 CD re-issue of Ear To The Ground. However, Pete Seeger's rendition of the song is known internationally, and reached number 70 in the Billboard Hot 100. Seeger was a friend of Reynolds, also a political activist, and like many others in the 1960s he used folk songs as a medium for protest.


The profundity of the satire was attested to by a university professor quoted in 1964 in Time magazine as saying, "I've been lecturing my classes about middle-class conformity for a whole semester. Here's a song that says it all in 1½ minutes."[4]

The term "ticky-tacky" became a catchphrase during the 1960s, attesting to the song's popularity.[4] However, according to Christopher Hitchens, satirist Tom Lehrer described "Little Boxes" as "the most sanctimonious song ever written".[5]


The song has been recorded by many musicians and bands, some of whom have arranged and translated the song to meet their styles. The lyrics have been reprinted with photographs of "Little Box" houses in environmental publications.

Artists who have covered the song include Pete Seeger, Devendra Banhart, Linkin Park, Elvis Costello, Death Cab for Cutie, The Decemberists (who added several new lyrics), Tim DeLaughter of The Polyphonic Spree, Donovan, Anjan Dutt, Ben Folds, Skott Freedman, Engelbert Humperdinck, The Individuals, Jenny and Johnny, Angélique Kidjo, Rilo Kiley, Kinky, Man Man, The Mountain Goats, Randy Newman, Nina & Frederik, Ozomatli, Phosphorescent, The Real Tuesday Weld, The Shins, Regina Spektor, The Submarines, Billy Bob Thornton, Walk off the Earth, The Womenfolk and Rise Against.

The version of the song by The Womenfolk is the shortest single ever to chart on the Billboard Hot 100, at 1:03 minutes long.[citation needed] The Spanish songwriter Adolfo Celdrán wrote the first Spanish version of the song, called "Cajitas", which was published in 1969 and had several successive reissues. Another Spanish version of the song, "Las Casitas del Barrio Alto", was written by the Chilean songwriter Víctor Jara in 1971, depicting in a mocking way the over-Europeanized and bourgeois lifestyle of the residents of the "Barrio Alto" (high-class neighborhood) in Santiago de Chile. A French version with the title "Petites boîtes" was performed by Graeme Allwright and was later covered by Kate & Anna McGarrigle on their 2003 album La vache qui pleure and by Weepers Circus on their 2009 album à la récré.

In popular culture[edit]

  • 1964: The song was performed on the NBC satirical television program That Was The Week That Was on April 13, 1964, sung by Nancy Ames and accompanied by a film montage by Guy Fraumeni and Lou Myers depicting tract housing and other related images.
  • 1975: In the novel Ecotopia by Ernest Callenbach, describing a secessionist ecological utopia in the western United States, the protagonist (visiting the country as a US journalist) is informed that "cheaply built houses in newer districts" are scornfully referred to as "ticky-tacky boxes" by the population.[6]
  • 1980s: Russ Abbot took the music to the song and its general theme to satirize The Spinners, a contemporary popular folk group whose songs apparently "all sound the same", as a parody act "The Spanners" on his 1980s London Weekend Television Madhouse series.
  • 2001–05: "Little Boxes" is the signature tune of BBC Radio 4 comedy series Robin and Wendy's Wet Weekends, sung by Kay Stonham in the character of "Wendy Mayfield" to a background of inept coaching by Simon Greenall as her husband "Robin".
  • 2003-present: "Little Boxes" is the theme song for "Xurupita's Farm II", a recurring sketch about a reality TV show on the Brazilian comedy program Pânico na TV.
  • 2005: The song is sung by both Keith Carradine (as "Elton Tripp") and Kate Mara (as "Zoe Tripp") in the film The Californians
  • 2005–12: The song was used as the opening theme song for the Showtime television series Weeds. The first season used Reynolds's version. In the second and third seasons, various artists and celebrities performed covers of the song for the different episodes. The song was not used regularly during seasons four through seven, but was covered by various artists in the eighth and final season. See also: opening music of Weeds.[7]
  • 2006: A book about Westlake, Daly City, California, Little Boxes: The Architecture of a Classic Midcentury Suburb, is named for the song.[8]
  • 2006-?: The song is used by the Italian journalist Gianluca Nicoletti as the opening song for his radio show Melog, on air daily on the Italian national network Radio 24 since January 9, 2006.
  • 2008: The lyrics to the song appear in the teen novel Bliss by Lauren Myracle.
  • 2013: A re-worded version of the song, written by Sniffy Dog, was used in a UK TV commercial for mobile telephone operator O2. Three versions are known to have been broadcast, one of them is sung by Adrienne Stiefel,[9] while another is sung by Jedd Holden.[10] The third is an instrumental non-vocal version.[11]
  • 2014: A variation of "Little Boxes" appears in the film The Boxtrolls, performed by the band Loch Lomond.[12][13]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Merriam-Webster definition of 'Ticky-tacky'
  2. ^ "Artist Spotlight: Malvina Reynolds". HomeGrown Humor. Showtime Networks. July 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  3. ^ Reynolds, Malvina. Malvina Reynolds Sings the Truth Columbia Records, 1967. CS-9414
  4. ^ a b "Tacky into the Wind". Time. February 28, 1964. 
  5. ^ Hitchens, Christopher (December 2008). "Suburbs of Our Discontent". Atlantic Monthly. 
  6. ^ Callenbach, Ernest (1975). Ecotopia (Google Books). p. 14. ISBN 978-0-9604320-1-1. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ Keil, Rob (October 2006). Little Boxes: The Architecture of a Classic Midcentury Suburb. Daly City, CA: Advection Media. ISBN 978-0-9779236-4-9. 
  9. ^ Brown, Paul. "O2 – Things Are Changing". Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
  10. ^ Brown, Paul. "O2 Priority Moments – Things Are Changing". Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
  11. ^ Brown, Paul. "O2 – On & On". Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
  12. ^ Rooney, David (30 August 2014). "A villainous troll catcher sets out to eradicate the underclass and join the cheese-eating elite in the latest from the animation house behind 'Coraline' and 'ParaNorman'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 8 March 2015. 
  13. ^ Pagan, Beatrice (5 October 2014). "BOXTROLLS - LE SCATOLE MAGICHE: LA COLONNA SONORA" (in Italian). Movie Player. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 

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