Jump to content

Homeless shelter

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Peachtree-Pine shelter in Atlanta, Georgia, US

Homeless shelters are a type of service that provides temporary residence for homeless individuals and families. Shelters exist to provide residents with safety and protection from exposure to the weather while simultaneously reducing the environmental impact on the community. They are similar to, but distinguishable from, various types of emergency shelters, which are typically operated for specific circumstances and populations—fleeing natural disasters or abusive social circumstances. Extreme weather conditions create problems similar to disaster management scenarios, and are handled with warming centers, which typically operate for short durations during adverse weather.

Homeless population

The Good Shepherd, a Salvation Army homeless shelter in Toronto
The homeless shelter and a service center at the Kenttätie street in Myllytulli, Oulu, Finland

Health issues


Hundreds of homeless individuals die each year from diseases, untreated medical conditions, lack of nutrition, and exposure to extreme cold or hot weather. In a mild-wintered San Francisco in 1998, homeless people were purportedly 58% more likely to perish than the general population. In New Orleans, approximately 10,000 homeless were unaccounted for after Hurricane Katrina in 2005.[1] Residents of homeless shelters may also be exposed to bed bugs which have been growing more prevalent in countries such as the United States, Canada and in Europe.[2] Some residents of shelters have reported sleeping in roach-infested spaces at various shelters.[3]

Researchers have found that homeless people are at high risk for respiratory tract diseases, such as tuberculosis, peripheral vascular disease, dermatology problems, and infectious diseases, including sexually transmitted diseases. These high rates are attributed to environmental pollution and other risks associated with street life, including trauma, poor nutrition, a lack of access to personal hygiene facilities, and crowding and debilitation, which increase the risk of infectious disease.[4] Besides physical health problems, homeless people are also at great risk of mental health issues resulting from alcohol and drug abuse as a lack of societal concern and care.[5] These issues are also related to public health. Without proper housing, these infectious diseases have a higher rate to affect other people in society.[6]

In Washington, D.C., statistics indicate that 63% of homeless people suffer from a lack of access to regular bathing. Another estimated 58% within the same city are unable to obtain sufficient levels of sleep. Areas such as showers and bathrooms in shelters often have restricted access with limited hours.[7] Homeless individuals also have great trouble finding storage locations for their belongings. Homeless individuals in the United States are subject to being arrested and held in jail for "quality of life" violations or for public intoxication.[8] In Hawaii, homeless people are banned from sitting or lying on the streets.[9]

In 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, homeless shelters were recommended to use a "whole community approach" and to provide sufficient communications relevant to the pandemic.[10]

LGBT+ community


The LGBT homeless are at increased risk of violence compared to other groups.[11] Transgender people are also at danger of being placed into the incorrect shelters. In some cases, transgender women can be turned away from women's shelters.[12] This can place their safety at risk.[12]



In a national survey conducted in the United States the findings showed that of the surveyed homeless, two-thirds are men and most likely to be single adults between the ages of 25 and 54.[13]

Young men who have been abused as children are more likely to become homeless and are at risk of becoming chronically homeless if they are not living in a permanent situation by age 24.[14] Poverty has been shown to have a large effect on men's health in general, leading to an extremely unhealthy lifestyle. Some of the challenges include low self-esteem, weakening, mental strain and poor physical and health. Although women tend to have higher poverty rates, men still experience the same negative effects. [15] [16]



Women are at great risk of both homelessness and poverty because they are most likely to bear child-rearing responsibilities and vulnerable to become victims of family members or intimate partners.[17]

Homeless women, both those with children and without, experience higher rates of physical illness than men.[18] They are also more likely to be hyper-vigilant and have high levels of stress.[19] Women seeking refuge from domestic violence are not always able to find rooms in shelters. Some women have been turned away from homeless shelters because shelter staff believe that turning women away will stop people from having sex inside the shelter.[20]

Homeless women who are of childbearing age also face unique hygiene issues because of menstruation.[21] Homeless shelters have noted that both tampons and sanitary pads "top the list of needs at shelters" because of their high cost and because they are not donated often.[21]

Alternative models and management philosophies


Housing first practice


The homeless shelters across the country act merely as emergency shelter systems that can only hold a fraction of the rapidly increasing homeless population. The Housing First practice provides an alternative to the current network of homeless shelters. The program targets the large problem within the United States which is a lack of affordable housing. This methodology attempts to place homeless families back into independent living situations as quickly as possible. The Housing First practice has achieved success because homeless families are more responsive to social services support once when they are in their own housing. It provides crisis intervention, affordable rental housing, and gives each family a grace period of six months to a year of social service to allow the family to get back on their feet. The effectiveness of this concept is that it assists homeless families in identifying their needs and recognizing the choices they must make. From this point families can create better options for themselves and plan strategies for living on their own.[22]

Religious shelters


The Rescue Mission in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is an example of helping homeless people through religion. In order to receive a free meal at the Rescue Mission, residents must first attend a Christian prayer service.[23] The Salvation Army is a social support service organization that also functions as a religious group.[24]

Vehicles as shelter


Around the late 2000s, in Santa Barbara and other areas in California, groups of recently homeless began to camp out in their cars in parking lots with the coordinated support of a local non-profit group.[25] These individuals and families were often unable to afford rent or mortgage, but still had jobs, cars, insurance and other types of support structures.[25] In Santa Barbara, an estimated 55 individuals camped out every night in various private and public lots, some reserved for women only.[25] As more people began to camp in their vehicles, California cities began to pass laws against sleeping in vehicles, like the 2013 ordinance passed in Palo Alto.[26] However, many of these laws in different municipalities were later struck down in higher courts as unconstitutional,[26] like the Los Angeles ban which was judged by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in 2014.[27] Some cities chose to repeal their own bans on sleeping in vehicles.[26] In Los Angeles in 2015, approximately 9,500 homeless have turned their cars into homes.[27] In Hawaii, a Honolulu-based company is retrofitting five retired city buses into mobile shelters which provide a place to sleep and get a shower.[28]

Community attitudes


Community attitude towards homeless shelters varies widely, but one study found that older people, men, homeowners and all people making larger incomes were often averse to the concept of homeless shelters in general.[29] Calgary neighborhoods recognize the need for shelters, but many do not want to situate a shelter near their own homes.[30] A similar response came from residents in Oahu.[31] In communities such as Portland, Oregon, where the weather can be quite harsh, there is an extensive network of supporters. These operate an informal restaurant, the "Sisters of the Road" cafe, which supports both homeless shelter residents and also some unsheltered persons. At the opposite end of the spectrum, jurisdictions such as Santa Barbara, California, feature ongoing disputes in an often highly adversarial mode.[32] Disputes have occasionally escalated to such schemes as re-arranging benches on city sidewalks to discourage panhandlers. In another 2011 incident, an eight unit supportive housing project which had been approved was called back onto city council agenda the following week in order to allow approximately 35 public comments pro and con, despite the fact that the measure had just been approved.

There have at times been concerns raised about the transmission of diseases in the homeless population housed in shelters, although public health professionals contend that such concerns are inflated.[33][34] In addition, a study published in 2014 conducted in Marseille, France, found that respiratory illnesses in homeless shelters were not significantly different from the general population.[35] In addition, during the peak influenza months, the shelter occupants did not test positive for the flu virus and the researchers hypothesize that being isolated from others may have been the reason they were virus-free.[35] However, outbreaks of tuberculosis in have been reported occurring in shelters within three large Ohio cities in the 1990s.[36]

A question has been raised as just how much money donated to the charities that run the shelters actually gets to the homeless people and the required services. In many cases, there is a large overhead in administrative costs, which compromise the money for their homeless clients.[37]

Internal problems in homeless shelters


There is sometimes corruption and theft by the employees of a shelter as evidenced by a 2011 investigative report by FOX 25 TV in Boston wherein a number of Boston public shelter employees were found stealing large amounts of food over a period of time from the shelter's kitchen for their private use and catering.[38][39] Residents have reported that personal items, such as underwear, were stolen by other residents while they were occupied.[40]

Shelters can become dangerously overcrowded when too many occupants are allowed entry to the shelter.[41]

Shelters sometimes are unable to meet state standards for occupancy, such as testing fire sprinklers or ensuring that exits are clearly marked.[41] In New York City, 2015, the state withheld funding from many shelters which did not meet standards or which had poor conditions.[42]

Shelter employees are sometimes at risk from violence perpetrated by the residents they are serving.[43] In order to address problems faced by employees who are trying to help homeless people in New York, the Department of Homeland Security increased security at some shelters and conducted security assessments of shelters in 2015.[44] While many employees of shelters know that there is a risk when working in high-crime neighborhoods or with individuals who are mentally ill, they continue to work at homeless shelters because they feel that they are performing a public service akin to the police or firefighters.[44]

External problems


Several problems emerge when a homeless shelter is present. Homeless shelters have been argued by some to have a negative effect on nearby businesses.[45] Businesses for years have complained that they frequently witness pedestrians being stopped outside their stores by homeless people begging for money. Such instances have led to the creation of local laws that prohibit "aggressive panhandling". Another problem is that it is often difficult to decide on where a homeless shelter should be built and how to zone the area where a shelter can be built.[46]

Some neighborhoods, as well as schools, argue that homeless shelters bring in bad elements to their surroundings, or that they fail to provide job training or education that would assist the homeless population with gaining their own housing. Some fear that drugs and alcohol may be present in homeless shelters; most shelters prohibit residential use of illegal drugs and alcohol, but enforcement is sporadic in many locations. Lastly, no classification system for shelters has been put into effect. There are no mechanisms or facilities to separate those who have mental illnesses from the rest of the shelter population.[47]

In Vancouver, Washington, residents and businesses near the homelessness navigation center started experiencing elevated crime levels shortly after the center opened in 2019. A study was conduct by a crime analyst and it found that while the total crime in a cluster of five neighborhoods did not go up, a significant shift in their distribution was observed. Shortly after the homeless service center was established, a significant hotspot of localized crime have formed around the immediate vicinity of the center.[48] A business in close proximity to the center reported a loss of 40-60% in sale, and issues such as tents being pitched right in front of their business.[48] The navigation center provides transients with restrooms, showers, laundry, storage, clothing, a place to charge their phone as well as a mailing address.[48] One business experienced having power outlet locks torn off twice.[49] Others report vagrancy issues in residential streets near the navigation center after it closed at 5PM.[50]





In Australia, due to government funding requirements, most homelessness services fill the role of both daytime and night time shelters. Shelters develop empowerment based "wrap around" services in which residents are case managed and supported in their efforts to become self-reliant. An example of such a service provider in this area in Australia is Najidah.

Youth refuges in Australia provide both a residential setting for crisis accommodation as well as case management to assist young people to live independently. Youth refuges are a relatively new form of homeless shelters. In New South Wales the early refuges include Caretakers Cottage, Young People's Refuge, Taldamunde Youth Services, all founded in the mid-1970s.[51]



Canada has an estimated homeless population somewhere between 150,000 and 300,000 people as reported in 2014.[52] Canada has responded to an increase in homelessness by increasing the amount of shelter space available to individuals.[30] A study done in Canada also found that individuals entering shelters and drop-in centers experienced a loss of their own sense of personhood.[53] Therapeutic Conversation therapy has been tested and found successful in Calgary with a small group of homeless shelter residents in improving their mental health outcomes.[53] Calgary has seen an increase in the amount of homelessness, partly due to the "lack of affordable rental units".[54]

A nationwide volunteer group in Canada, the Angels in the Night, sponsored by Invis-Mortgage Intelligence, donates cold-weather clothes and other supplies to homeless people, visiting shelters and individuals on the streets.[55]

In 2015, Clean the World began a Canadian Operations Center in Montreal order to supply soap for homeless shelters.[56] Clean the World distributes and recycles hygiene supplies such as soap and shampoo.[56]



In China, homeless estimates vary, since the Social Welfare Department does not consider those living in temporary shelters to be "homeless".[57] There may be approximately 1 to 1.5 million homeless children who have left their families because of extreme poverty, family issues or abuse.[58]

Homelessness in China is mainly attributed to natural disasters, migration, and discrimination. It is not uncommon for natural disasters in China to displace many people from their homes.[59] Unlike other countries, China has an extremely high amount of homeless children. Children make up nearly one million of those experiencing homelessness in China. It is estimated that about half of these children are runaways, who are hoping to escape abusive or impoverished homes.[60] During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of homeless people has been increasing, and this is a cost of China's zero-covid policy. Because of the strict lockdown policy in China, people are restricted from leaving or going back to their residences. A lot of essential workers like delivery men are forced to become "homeless" because they cannot go back to their apartments or houses as they have a greater risk of spreading the virus. In Shanghai during the pandemic, nearly 20,000 delivery riders are facing a lack of shelter and safety.[61]

In 2014, a government-sponsored shelter in Henan province which houses 20 homeless individuals was under scrutiny for tying children to trees and providing inadequate sleeping areas.[62]



India defines homelessness as not being in residence of a "census house" which must constitute a structure with a roof.[63]

In India, youth can become homeless because of child abandonment.[64] Youth in Jammu and Kashmir who live in shelters reported high prevalence of emotional and physical abuse, and emotional and physical neglect while living in homeless shelters.[64]

Homeless individuals and families in India face challenges accessing water and hygiene services. A 2011 Census of India found that safe drinking water coverage in urban areas is at 91.9% while regular sanitation access is at 81.4%.[63] There is a significant lack of housing in major urban areas in India.[citation needed] People come from the rural part of India to look for work and when there are no accommodations for housing build their own shelters, often known as "hutments".[65]

Statistics of homeless population within India


According to the 2011 Census, there were 1.77 million homeless people in India, or 0.15% of the country's total population.[66] In India, the cities with the greatest number of homeless individuals and families are Greater Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, and Bangalore.[citation needed]



Tehran municipality has three shelters and one female shelter in district 2 a total room of 4000.[67] There are two active shelters in Qazvin, Sanandaj, and Zahedan.[68][69][70] Isfahan has a shelter with 5000 beds.[71][72] They are mostly run by charities or NGOs. Homeless people are often allowed to use them from one to two days.[73] Homeless trans people aren't allowed in these shelters.[74]



The number of homeless individuals in Japan as recorded in 2003, was around 25,296.[75] Numbers of those without homes have been "increasing dramatically" since the "bubble economy" collapsed in the 1990s.[76] In Tokyo, around 2007, many homeless individuals were cleared out of their temporary residences in city parks.[77] In 2011, the earthquake and tsunami left many individuals homeless and living in shelters.[78]

United Kingdom


"Sleeping rough" or "rough sleeping" is terminology in the United Kingdom for sleeping without shelter.[79] In addition, "not all homeless people are entitled to housing."[79] Shelters like 'Jimmy's', in Cambridge, provide access to those who would otherwise be "sleeping rough", offering temporary accommodation and support services in the basement of a Baptist church in the city centre.[80]

United States


In the United States, the "shelter movement" began to grow significantly during the 1970s when there was a high rate of unemployment, housing costs were rising and individuals with severe mental illnesses were being deinstitutionalized.[17] In the 1980s, homelessness was becoming a "national epidemic" in the United States and helping professionals created shelters as "temporary havens".[81] Shelter occupation had more than doubled by the late 1980s and it doubled again by 2000.[81] Statistics from 2011 show that "on a given night in January 2010, 407,966 individuals were housed inside homeless shelters, transitional housing or on the streets.[82] Alternatively, jails have been used for healthcare enrollment by citizens in certain states.[83]

Homeless shelters need to provide a variety of services to diverse residents. Homeless shelters, like La Posada Providencia in San Benito, Texas, may also house asylum seekers, mainly from Mexico, Central America and South America.[84] Shelters also provide outreach to residents who are unable to use a shelter or who choose not to use a shelter.[85]

Most shelters typically expect residents to exit in the morning and occupy themselves elsewhere during the day, returning for an evening meal and to sleep. During times of inclement weather, shelters may provide services outside of their normal hours.[86]

In the United States, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has shown in recent studies that about 5 million Americans qualify to use homeless shelters. As poverty levels continue to rise, it is estimated that the number of homeless shelters, in particular in the United States, will continue to rise.[87] Based on a survey of 24 U.S. cities the average stay in a homeless shelter was found to be on average about seven months out of the year.[88]

Homeless encampments have become commonplace in US cities, particularly in cities with highly visible homeless populations – most notably Seattle and San Francisco. These efforts can result from a combination of complaints by wealthier (usually newer) residents and anti-homeless political actions originating from local mayors and legislators.[89]

Statistics of homeless population within the United States


A study by the National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty estimates that 2.3 to 3.5 million Americans experience homelessness annually. Alaska, California, Nevada, Oregon, Colorado, and Hawaii are the states with the highest concentration of homeless people. Around 1.5 million children or one of out every 50 children in America are homeless. Many Americans suffer from the state of "chronic homelessness", which is where an individual has a disabling condition who has been continuously homeless for over a year or has been homeless on at least four different instances within four years. About 23% of the homeless population has been tagged as "chronic homeless". Veterans also represent close to 40% of homeless men within the United States. Racial demographics of the homeless population of the United States can be represented as:

  • Whites: 39%
  • African-Americans: 42%
  • Hispanics: 13%
  • Native Americans: 4%
  • Asians: 2%

Approximately 40% of all homeless youth in the United States identify as LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender).[11] In San Francisco, approximately 29% of all homeless people in that city are on the LGBT spectrum.[90] The National Center for Transgender Equality reports that 1 in 5 transgender individuals has experienced being homeless at least once in their lives.[91]

Pet ownership among homeless people varies, but estimates indicate that about 5 and 10 percent of homeless people in the United States have a pet.[92]

Homelessness appears to be largely concentrated within urban areas. Central cities hold 71% of the homeless population while the suburbs have 21% of the homeless population. Only 9% of homeless people are located within rural areas.[citation needed]

Operations and role in U.S. society


Shelters which are funded by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) require residents to have identification.[93]

List of national organizations in the U.S supporting homeless shelters


Across the United States there are several national organizations that assist in the founding and the upkeep of homeless shelters. The main national organizations are:

United States libraries


Homeless shelters often work with other organizations in order to support and help homeless people improve their situations, including libraries.[94] They often work with the coalition to grant a temporary library card for homeless coalition members who can use a shelter as a local address. This is intended to give new patrons the opportunity to utilize the computer services, books, programs, and more that the library offers.[95]

Government assistance programs in the United States


HUD estimates that it costs $60,000 each year to house a homeless family in a shelter.[96] Because of this, HUD has various programs in place to help families, including rapid rehousing and permanent housing vouchers.[96] Housing vouchers from HUD are considered especially important for helping to prevent families with children from becoming homeless and also to help these families be able to leave the shelter system permanently.[97]

See also



  1. ^ Webster, Richard A. (10 October 2005). "N.O. Loses 10,000 Homeless People to Uncertain Fates". New Orleans CityBusiness. Retrieved 24 July 2015 – via Regional Business News - EBSCO.
  2. ^ Hwang, Stephen W.; Svoboda, Tomislav J.; De Jong, Lain J.; Kabasele, Karl J.; Gogosis, Evie (April 2005). "Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (4): 533–538. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041126. PMC 3320350. PMID 15829190.
  3. ^ Shankar-Brown, Rajni (2008). A Case Study of the Social and Education Experiences of Homeless Children (PhD thesis). Charlotte, North Carolina: University of North Carolina at Charlotte. p. 108. ISBN 9780549749998. ProQuest 304376977.
  4. ^ Breakey, William R.; Fischer, Pamela J.; Kramer, Morton; Nestadt, Gerald; Romanoski, Alan J.; Ross, Alan; Royall, Richard M.; Stine, Oscar C. (8 September 1989). "Health and Mental Health Problems of Homeless Men and Women in Baltimore". JAMA. 262 (10): 1352–1357. doi:10.1001/jama.1989.03430100086034. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 2761036.
  5. ^ "Homelessness as a Public Health Law Issue". www.cdc.gov. 23 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  6. ^ "Homelessness & Health: What's the Connection?" (PDF). National Health Care for the Homeless Council. February 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  7. ^ De Bode, Lisa (15 April 2015). "More Pads for Homeless Women On Their Periods". Aljazeera America. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  8. ^ Marbut, Robert G. (November 2012). "An Alternative to Incarcerating the Homeless". American Jails. 26 (5): 23–26. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  9. ^ Kaneya, Rui (1 July 2015). "How One 'Mother Hen' In Hawaii Care for 63 Homeless People at a Time". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  10. ^ "Interim Guidance for Homeless Service Providers to Plan and Respond to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  11. ^ a b "LGBT Homelessness". National Coalition for the Homeless. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  12. ^ a b "Transgender Woman Upset After Being Kicked Out of Shelter". 13 ABC. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  13. ^ "Single Males: The Homeless Majority" (PDF). Healing Hands. 5 (3): 1. June 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  14. ^ "Between a Rock and a Hard Place" (PDF). Healing Hands. 5 (3): 2–3. June 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  15. ^ "Poverty rate by age and gender U.S. 2021". Statista. Statista Research Department. September 2022. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  16. ^ Porche, Demetrius J. (December 2007). "Poverty and men's health". American Journal of Men's Health. 1 (4). Sage Publications: 241. doi:10.1177/1557988307305839.
  17. ^ a b Deward, Sarah L.; Moe, Angela M. (March 2010). "'Like a Prison!': Homeless Women's Narratives of Surviving Shelter". Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. 37 (1): 115–135. doi:10.15453/0191-5096.3496. S2CID 143222732.
  18. ^ Nemiroff, Rebecca; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran (1 November 2011). "From Homelessness to Community: Psychological Integration of Women Who Have Experienced Homelessness". Journal of Community Psychology. 39 (8): 1003–1018. doi:10.1002/jcop.20486.
  19. ^ Haag, Marcy; Wood, Tom; Holloway, Linda (4 January 2011). "Impacting Quality of Life at a Homeless Shelter: Measuring the Effectiveness of Say it Straight". International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. 5 (12): 195–203. doi:10.18848/1833-1882/CGP/v05i12/51965.
  20. ^ Reighard, Angela (9 December 2015). "Women No Longer Accepted at Homeless Shelter After 'Sex Problem'". WYMT. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  21. ^ a b Goldberg, Eleanor (14 January 2015). "For Homeless Women, Getting Their Period is One of the Most Difficult Challenges". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  22. ^ "Housing First, Ending Homelessness". Beyond Shelter. Archived from the original on 2 December 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  23. ^ Hrodey, Matt (13 July 2015). "Food for the Soul". Milwaukee Magazine. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  24. ^ Young, Ben (November 2009). "Help for the Helpers". Georgia Trend. 25 (3): 18. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  25. ^ a b c Fleck, Carole (2012). "Is Homelessness a Serious Problem?". Homelessness. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Greenhaven Press. pp. 31–32. ISBN 9780737759396.
  26. ^ a b c Sheyner, Gennady (18 November 2014). "Palo Alto Strikes Down Car-Camping Ban". Palo Alto Online. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  27. ^ a b Tam, Susanica (23 July 2015). "Number of Homeless Living in Cars, RVs in LA Grows". Southern California Public Radio. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  28. ^ Goldberg, Eleanor (12 June 2015). "Hawaii to Convert Retired Buses Into Fleet of Mobil Homeless Shelters, Showers". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  29. ^ Takahashi, Lois M. (1998). "Concepts of Difference in Community Health". In Kearns, Robin A.; Gesler, Wilbert M. (eds.). Putting Health Into Place. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. pp. 153–157. ISBN 0815627688.
  30. ^ a b Muller, Larissa; Kuzmak, Natasha (2010). "Siting Homeless Shelters in Calgary: Impacts of the New Land Use Bylaw and the Local Development Process". Canadian Journal of Urban Research. 19 (2): 1–22. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  31. ^ Kerr, Keoki (10 July 2015). "State Homeless Shelters Controversial Now and 20 Years Ago". Hawaii News Now. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  32. ^ Santa Barbara Independent, January 2011
  33. ^ Najidah Association Inc. Annual return to the Dept. of Communities 2006
  34. ^ "Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis". OSHA. 17 June 1999. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  35. ^ a b Thiberville, Simon-djamel; Salez, Nicolas; Benkouiten, Samir; Badiaga, Sekene; Charrel, Remi; Brouqui, Philippe (5 February 2014). "Respiratory viruses within homeless shelters in Marseille, France". BMC Research Notes. 7 (81): 81. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-81. PMC 3918144. PMID 24499605.
  36. ^ Charney, William; Fragala, Guy, eds. (1999). "Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis". The Epidemic of Health Care Worker Injury: An Epidemiology. CRC Press. p. 78. ISBN 0849333822.
  37. ^ O'Brien, James (13 August 2007). "The High Price of Giving". Boston Now. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  38. ^ Beaudet, Mike (22 February 2011). "Money, food taken from city kitchen: Employees implicated in thefts from local homeless". FOX 25 TV. Boston. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011.
  39. ^ Smith, Stephen (23 February 2011). "Shelter kitchen theft prevalent, report says". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012.
  40. ^ Seider, Scott (2010). Shelter: Where Harvard Meets the Homeless. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 33–34. ISBN 9781441137371.
  41. ^ a b Thrasher, Steven W. (4 November 2011). "A Church. A Shelter. Is It Safe?". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  42. ^ Dawsey, Josh (12 May 2015). "State Withholds Funds From Some New York City Homeless Shelters". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  43. ^ Hu, Winnie (29 April 2015). "Police Describe Ex-Resident's Calculated Plan to Attack Bronx Homeless Shelter's Director". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  44. ^ a b Hu, Winnie (6 July 2015). "New York City Takes Steps to Increase the Safety of Employees at Homeless Shelters". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  45. ^ Nishimura, Scott (28 April 2014). "Investing in the Homeless Corridor". Fort Worth Business Press. 26 (16): 1, 23–25. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  46. ^ Ramos, Claudia (21 July 2015). "City of Yakima Struggles to Find a Solution for Homeless Shelter Zoning". KIMA TV. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  47. ^ Skolnick, Jerome H.; Currie, Elliott (2011). Crisis in American Institutions (14th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 9780205610648.
  48. ^ a b c Hair, Calley (12 June 2019). "Neighbors assail Navigation Center". The Columbian. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  49. ^ Hastings, Patty (19 August 2019). "Guide helps businesses, employees who interact with homeless people". The Columbian. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  50. ^ "Vancouver's Navigation Center sees changes after outcry from neighbors". The Columbian. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  51. ^ Coffey, Michael (November 2006). "What Ever Happened to the Revolution? Activism and the Early Days of Youth Refuges in NSW". Parity. 19 (10). Council to Homeless Persons: 23–25.
  52. ^ Matheson, Flora; Devotta, Kimberly; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Pedersen, Cheryl (June 2014). "Prevalence of Gambling Problems Among the Clients of a Toronto Homeless Shelter". Journal of Gambling Studies. 30 (2): 537–546. doi:10.1007/s10899-014-9452-7. PMID 24569904. S2CID 24477654.
  53. ^ a b Walsh, Christine A.; Rutherford, Gayle E.; Sarafincian, Kristina N.; Sellmer, Sabine E. R. (July 2010). "Making Meaning Together: An Exploratory Study of Therapeutic Conversation Between Helping Professionals and Homeless Shelter Residents" (PDF). The Qualitative Report. 15 (4). Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  54. ^ Parker, David (1 October 2014). "Resolving Homelessness in Calgary". Business in Calgary. 24 (10): 34. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  55. ^ "A Decade's Worth of Warmth and Caring". Canada Newswire. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  56. ^ a b "Clean the World Opens Canadian Operations Center to Support Growth and Expansion". PR Web. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  57. ^ Kao, Ernest (31 March 2014). "1,400 Homeless Sleeping on Hong Kong's Streets, Double government estimates". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  58. ^ "There Are One Million Children Living On the Streets in China, And They're Totally Alone". Business Insider. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  59. ^ Moiz, Mahwish (10 May 2020). "Homelessness in China - 5 great questions answered by experts". CAUF Society. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  60. ^ Worldcrunch. "There Are One Million Children Living On The Streets In China, And They're Totally Alone". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  61. ^ "Shanghai lockdown: The hard life of a homeless deliveryman". BBC News. 1 May 2022. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  62. ^ Chen, Andrea; Yu, Alan (17 December 2014). "Chinese Homeless Shelter Ties Mentally Ill Boy to Tree to 'Stop Him Running Around'". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  63. ^ a b Walters, Vicky (2014). "Urban Homelessness and the Right to Water and Sanitation: Experiences from India's Cities". Water Policy. 14 (4): 755–772. doi:10.2166/wp.2014.164.
  64. ^ a b Devi, Rachna; Sharma, Vasundhra; Shekhar, Chandra (2015). "Maltreatment Experiences as Predictors of Self-Esteem and Psychiatric Morbidity Among Sheltered Homeless Adolescents". Journal of Indian Association for Child & Adolescent Mental Health. 11 (3): 206–232. doi:10.1177/0973134220150303. S2CID 145035646. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  65. ^ Marquand, Robert (15 August 2000). "India's Moral Dilemma Over Evicting Poor". Christian Science Monitor. 92 (185). Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  66. ^ Jha, Somesh (6 December 2013). "1.77 million people live without shelter, albeit the number decline over a decade". Business Standard. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  67. ^ زنان کارتن‌خواب هم صاحب گرمخانه می‌شوند. Farheekhtegan (in Persian). Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  68. ^ "فعالیت 2 گرمخانه در زاهدان برای اسکان کارتن خواب‌ها". jamejamonline.ir (in Persian). 26 October 1401. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  69. ^ "فعالیت 2 گرمخانه در سنندج/امکان اسکان شبانه 90 نفر بی سرپناه فراهم شد". kurdpress.com (in Persian). 13 November 2021. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  70. ^ گرمخانه شهرداری قزوین آماده پذیرش افراد بی‌خانمان است. yjc.ir (in Persian). Young Journalists Club. 3 December 2022.
  71. ^ گرمخانه مردمی اصفهان به پنج هزار بی‌خانمان خدمت‌رسانی کرد. irna.ir (in Persian). Islamic Republic News Agency. 22 September 2021. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  72. ^ گرمخانه اصفهان برای حل مشکلات کارتن‌خواب‌ها ساماندهی شد. tasnimnews.com (in Persian). Tasnim News Agency. 23 February 2022. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  73. ^ گرمخانه اصفهان سرپناهی امن برای کارتن خواب های شهر. donya-e-eqtesad.com (in Persian). Donya-e-Eqtesad. 11 July 2023. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  74. ^ معتادان «ترنس» در بلاتکلیفی؛ شهرداری تهران می‌گوید سرپناه می‌دهیم. ir.voanews.com (in Persian). Voice of America. 25 November 2023. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  75. ^ Matsubara, Hiroshi (10 July 2003). "Homeless Shelters' Presence, Profits Irk Neighbors". The Japan Times. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  76. ^ Suzuki, Wataru (20 October 2008). "What Determines the Spatial Distribution of Homeless People in Japan?". Applied Economics Letters. 15 (13): 1023–1026. doi:10.1080/13504850600972394. S2CID 154255828.
  77. ^ Harden, Blaine (23 September 2007). "Clothed, Clean, and Homeless in Japan". The Washington Post. The Boston Globe.
  78. ^ "Japan's Newly Homeless Continue to Make Do In Shelters". WBUR - Boston's NPR News Station. 1 April 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  79. ^ a b "Rough Sleeping". Crisis. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  80. ^ Payne, J. (1 February 2002). "An Action Research Project in a Night Shelter for Rough Sleepers". Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 9 (1): 95–101. doi:10.1046/j.1351-0126.2001.00450.x. PMID 11896862.
  81. ^ a b Culhane, Dennis (2012). "Better Information About Homelessness Means Better Strategies". Homelessness. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Greenhaven Press. pp. 177. ISBN 9780737759396.
  82. ^ Paquette, Kristen (July 2011). "Current Statistics on the Prevalence and Characteristics of People Experiencing Homelessness in the United States" (PDF). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  83. ^ "Using Jail to Enroll Low-Income Men in Medicaid" (PDF). Urban Institute. December 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  84. ^ Rose, Ananda (9 January 2015). "Seeking Refuge". Commonweal. 142 (1): 10–12. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  85. ^ Grove, Dustin (7 January 2015). "Team Effort to Help Indy's Homeless Survive the Cold". Wish TV. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  86. ^ Champ, Anastasia (15 July 2015). "Homeless Battle Heat Through Help From Homeless Shelters". NBC Nebraska. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  87. ^ "Homeless Shelters". Homeless Shelters. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  88. ^ National Coalition for the Homeless (2012). "Multiple Factors Contribute to Homelessness". Homelessness. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Greenhaven Press. pp. 71. ISBN 9780737759396.
  89. ^ Goldfischer, Eric (20 October 2020). "From encampments to hotspots: the changing policing of homelessness in New York City". Housing Studies. 35 (9): 1550–1567. doi:10.1080/02673037.2019.1655532. ISSN 0267-3037. S2CID 203441977.
  90. ^ Hemmelgarn, Seth (23 July 2015). "No change in percent of SF LGBT homeless". The Bay Area Reporter. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  91. ^ "Housing & Homelesslessness". National Center for Transgender Equality. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  92. ^ Walquist, Scott (15 July 2015). "Pets of the Homeless Embarks on Sixth Annual Give a Dog a Bone Week". Nevada Business. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  93. ^ Taracena, Maria Ines (16 July 2015). "Dignity". Tucson Weekly. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  94. ^ "Outreach Resources for Services to Poor and Homeless People". American Library Association. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012.
  95. ^ Community Legal Aid. (2011). Library changes borrowing policy for homeless. Retrieved From: "Library changes borrowing policy for homeless - Community Legal Aid". Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  96. ^ a b Fessler, Pam (7 July 2015). "For Homeless Families, Quick Exit From Shelter is Only a Temporary Fix". National Public Radio (NPR). Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  97. ^ Sard, Barbara (2012). "Government Housing Vouchers Help Homeless Families Best". Homelessness. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Greenhaven Press. pp. 131. ISBN 9780737759396.


  • Levinson, David, ed. (2004). Encyclopedia of Homelessness. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. ISBN 0-7619-2751-4. Cf. entry and article on Shelters by Kim Hopper, pp. 498–503.

Further reading