Long Bay Correctional Centre
A watchtower on the correctional centre north-western perimeter wall
|Location||Malabar, New South Wales|
|Security class||Maximum, minimum (males and females)|
|Capacity||As of 2016[update], 1,200 inmates:|
|Managed by||Corrective Services NSW|
|Street address||1260, Anzac Parade, Malabar, New South Wales|
|Website||Long Bay Correctional Centre|
|Material||Sandstone and brick|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Walter Liberty Vernon|
|Architecture firm||Colonial Architect of New South Wales|
|Official name||Long Bay Correctional Centre; Long Bay Gaol; Long Bay Jail; Long Bay Industrial Correctional Centre; Assessment Prison|
|Type||State heritage (complex / group)|
|Designated||2 April 1999|
|Builders||Public Works Department|
The Long Bay Correctional Complex, officially known as Her Majesty's Australian Prison Long Bay, and commonly called just Long Bay for short, (nicknamed "Long Bay Hilton") is an Australian maximum and minimum security prison for males and females, is located at Malabar, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The complex is located approximately 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) south of the Sydney CBD and is contained with a 32-hectare (79-acre) site. The facility is operated by Corrective Services NSW, a department administered by the Government of New South Wales.
The Complex accepts sentenced and unsentenced felons under New South Wales and/or Commonwealth legislation and comprises three separate facilities including the Long Bay Hospital (a maximum security institution for medical and psychiatric cases); the Metropolitan Special Programs Centre (a maximum/minimum security institution); and the Special Purpose Centre (a maximum security institution for inmates requiring special protection).
The former State Penitentiary is of considerable significance. It was the first purpose-built Penitentiary in NSW and includes a rare example of back-to-back cells. In conjunction with the former Female Reformatory, it is an important development in Australian penal design and is the most complete expression of Frederick Neitenstein's philosophy of reform. The siting of the Penitentiary has a strong visual impact in the surrounding landscape. The original buildings are of a unified scale and materials resulting in a harmonious appearance. The place has been used continuously as the principal prison complex in NSW and as Sydney's major metropolitan gaol for over 80 years. It has research potential in penal practices and building technology of the time.— Statement of significance, New South Wales State Heritage Register.
- 1 History
- 2 Description
- 3 Current divisions
- 4 Notable prisoners
- 5 Cultural depictions
- 6 Music programs
- 7 Heritage listing
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
pre-1780s - local Aboriginal people in the area used the site for fishing and cultural activities - rock engravings, grinding grooves and middens remain in evidence. 1789 - Governor Philip referred to "a long bay", which became known as Long Bay. Aboriginal people are believed to have inhabited the Sydney region for at least 20,000 years. The population of Aboriginal people between Palm Beach and Botany Bay in 1788 has been estimated to have been 1500. Those living south of Port Jackson to Botany Bay were the Cadigal people who spoke Dharug, while the local clan name of Maroubra people was "Muru-ora-dial". By the mid nineteenth century the traditional owners of this land had typically either moved inland in search of food and shelter, or had died as the result of European disease or confrontation with British colonisers.
One of the earliest land grants in this area was made in 1824 to Captain Francis Marsh, who received 4.9 hectares (12 acres) bounded by the present Botany and High Streets, Alison and Belmore Roads. In 1839 William Newcombe acquired the land north-west of the present town hall in Avoca Street.
Randwick takes its name from the town of Randwick, Gloucestershire, England. The name was suggested by Simeon Pearce (1821–86) and his brother James. Simeon was born in the English Randwick and the brothers were responsible for the early development of both Randwick and its neighbour, Coogee. Simeon had come to the colony in 1841as a 21 year old surveyor. He built his Blenheim House on the 1.6 hectares (4 acres) he bought from Marsh, and called his property "Randwick". The brothers bought and sold land profitably in the area and elsewhere. Simeon campaigned for construction of a road from the city to Coogee (achieved in 1853) and promoted the incorporation of the suburb. Pearce sought construction of a church modelled on the church of St. John in his birthplace. In 1857 the first St Jude's stood on the site of the present post office, at the corner of the present Alison Road and Avoca Street.
Randwick was slow to progress. The village was isolated from Sydney by swamps and sandhills, and although a horse-bus was operated by a man named Grice from the late 1850s, the journey was more a test of nerves than a pleasure jaunt. Wind blew sand over the track, and the bus sometimes became bogged, so that passengers had to get out and push it free. From its early days Randwick had a divided society. The wealthy lived elegantly in large houses built when Pearce promoted Randwick and Coogee as a fashionable area. But the market gardens, orchards and piggeries that continued alongside the large estates were the lot of the working class. Even on the later estates that became racing empires, many jockeys and stablehands lived in huts or even under canvas. An even poorer group were the immigrants who existed on the periphery of Randwick in a place called Irishtown, in the area now known as The Spot, around the junction of St.Paul's Street and Perouse Road. Here families lived in makeshift houses, taking on the most menial tasks in their struggle to survive.
In 1858 when the NSW Government passed the Municipalities Act, enabling formation of municipal districts empowered to collect rates and borrow money to improve their suburb, Randwick was the first suburb to apply for the status of a municipality. It was approved in February 1859, and its first Council was elected in March 1859.
Randwick had been the venue for sporting events, as well as duels and illegal sports, from the early days in the colony's history. Its first racecourse, the Sandy Racecourse or Old Sand Track, had been a hazardous track over hills and gullies since 1860. When a move was made in 1863 by John Tait, to establish Randwick Racecourse, Simeon Pearce was furious, especially when he heard that Tait also intended to move into Byron Lodge. Tait's venture prospered, however and he became the first person in Australia to organise racing as a commercial sport. The racecourse made a big difference to the progress of Randwick. The horse-bus gave way to trams that linked the suburb to Sydney and civilisation. Randwick soon became a prosperous and lively place, and it still retains a busy residential, professional and commercial life.
Today, some of the houses have been replaced by home units. Many European migrants have made their homes in the areaa, along with students and workers at the nearby University of NSW and the Prince of Wales Hospital.
Long Bay Jail history
Long Bay was opened due to the imminent closure of Darlinghurst Gaol. The State Reformatory for Women was opened in 1909 and the State Penitentiary for Men was opened beside it in 1914. Gallows were in operation at the complex from 1917 to 1939. The reformatory became part of the prison in the late 1950s, known as the Long Bay Penitentiary. After the Silverwater Women's Correctional Centre (formerly known as Mulawa) was opened in 1970, the women's prison was vacated and converted into a medium security prison for men.
A report on prison reform released in 1946 found overcrowding at Long Bay. It recommended that sewerage replace pan systems in major gaols and that prisoners should have two more hours each day out of their cells.
A significant public health case arose in July 1990 when a mentally ill, HIV-positive prisoner was being escorted in the exercise yard. The prisoner took a syringe filled with his blood and stabbed a probationary prison officer. The prison officer was diagnosed with the virus five weeks later and died in 1997, aged 28.
In the late 1990s the facility was redeveloped to offer special treatment units which offer programs for sex offenders; those with intellectual disabilities; drug and alcohol abuse; or the use of violence.
In 1975 a prominent supermax prison block was completed, known as Katingal. It was designed to house terrorists as well as problematic prisoners which had been identified as difficult offenders within the NSW prison system, replacing the intractable section at Grafton Gaol. It was dubbed as an ‘electronic zoo' by inmates due to its electronically controlled confinement with artificial lights and air, depriving inmates from almost all contact from the outside world. The facility with its 40 prison cells had electronically operated doors, accompanied by several surveillance cameras, which were to supplement the existent security facilities within the unit. Although the unit did not have windows, it was serviced by a fully integrated air-conditioning system which circulated fresh air throughout. Additionally, inmates were permitted to engage in physical exercise in two purpose-built yards situated at each end of the unit. Several 'blind spots' that were not corrected during the initial design and construction of the facility led to escapes by inmates, including Russell 'Mad Dog' Cox, an armed robber and hostage-taker, who escaped after cutting through a bar on the roof of one of the exercise yards.
The facility became the centre of mainly critical media attention, and was heavily criticised by Justice John Nagle during proceedings of the Nagle Royal Commission (1976–1978) who recommended its immediate closure. The recommendation that Katingal be closed was accepted, but only after a campaign lasting months.
On 17 March 1989 Michael Yabsley, Minister for Corrective Services, announced that Katingal would be reopened as a correctional facility. When it was realised that the redevelopment of the site would cost double the A$8 million allocated, plans were put on hold until a feasibility study was completed on the entire Long Bay prison complex. Demolition of Katingal began in March 2006.
Male Penitentiary: The former Male Penitentiary comprised 6 two-storey cell wings, a debtors prison, workshop, hospital and observation ward, all arranged around three sides of the complex with a "sterile zone" between them and the perimeter wall. The kitchen block stood in the centre facing the entrance block. The Penitentiary incorporated 352 single cells of size 3.96x2.13m and 3 punishment cells.
Four of the six wings had back-to-back cells opening directly to the outdoors.
The same palette of materials was used by Vernon throughout the dual prison establishment. Walls are predominantly of brick, good quality "commons" of a drab brown colour, with plain or rusticated sandstone dressing around windows and doors, and roofs of corrugated iron.
Entrance Block: The exception is the entrance block which evokes a medieval castle gatehouse in Federation Gothic style. Technological advances such as electric lighting, reinforced concrete floors and the new tramway were made full use of in the design.
As at 8 November 2000, most of the external brickwork of the cell wings have been painted and unsympathetic alterations and additions have occurred over the years. However, most of the original fabric remains intact. All buildings appear to be in good condition.
Modifications and dates
The workshop, kitchen and observation ward have been demolished and the back-to-back cell wings have been disused for some time.
- c. 1920s the Penitentiary was reported as overcrowded, receiving 70% of all gaol entries and functioning as a remand centre. The overflow was accommodated by timber huts erected between the male and female prisons, and part of the women's prison in 1945.
- 1962 Penitentiary absorbed the old Reformatory.
- 1978 Observation Ward demolished. Christmas Day 1978, workshops were burnt down during a riot.
- 1993 after a series of name changes, the Penitentiary, together with the former Reformatory, was renamed Reception and Industrial Centre.
- 2008 Forensic Hospital established outside the prison wall on western "corner" of site. The Pharmacy was established in the ground floor of this hospital.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Long Bay Hospital
The new Long Bay Hospital is a maximum security facility which holds a total of 120 inmate patients in four wards. It is jointly administered by the Department of Corrective Services and Justice Health (NSW Department of Health). The hospital became operational in July 2008, replacing the old Long Bay Hospital which was completely demolished in October 2008. The site of the old Long Bay Hospital is now the Long Bay Forensic Hospital, which took its first patients in late November 2008.
The old hospital was prominent in the news in January 2006 when rapist and armed robber Robert Cole, who was serving a 14-year sentence, lost 14 kilograms (31 lb) and slipped through the bars of his 'A' ward cell. Cole was recaptured three days later at Bondi Junction and was sentenced to an additional and cumulative 12 months for the escape.
Metropolitan Special Programs Centre (MSPC)
Until recently called the 'Malabar Special Programs Centre', the MSPC is a maximum through to minimum security facility which houses many types of inmates. It is the second largest gaol in terms of inmate population in New South Wales. It holds remand inmates, medical transients (inmates undertaking medical treatment), inmates with short sentences and inmates undertaking therapeutic programs. The programs areas of the gaol comprises the Violent Offenders Therapeutic Program (VOTP), Developmentally Delayed Program, Lifestyles Unit (for HIV-positive inmates), which has been unused and empty since 2002, the Kevin Waller Unit for at-risk female inmates (currently used as an assessment unit for aged male inmates), Acute Crisis Management Unit (ACMU) for active suicidal and self-harmers, Multi Purpose Unit or Segregation (high risk inmates on segregation orders and inmates requiring non association for safety) and CUBIT (CUstody Based Intensive Therapy) sex offender program.
A large part of the maximum security area is a transit area where prisoners await a bed in their gaol of classification, or stay whilst obtaining medical treatment/surgery, or are held on remand whilst awaiting trial. 'Metropolitan Medical Transit Centre/LBH2' was a maximum security facility used to hold inmates who had been discharged from Long Bay Hospital or were awaiting medical appointments. Since closure in January 2006 the MSPC now undertakes the role of housing inmates receiving medical treatment. The MMTC re-opened in 2009 but now holds general population remand and medical transit inmates.
Special Purpose Centre (SPC)
The Special Purpose Centre is a maximum security facility which holds inmates requiring special, or strict, protection. As of 2001, the SPC had the capacity to hold up to 65 inmates who are placed in this unit as selected by an Interdepartmental Committee that includes senior police and correctional personnel who authenticate the information supplied by the offenders to ensure that protection is warranted. Many of these offenders are informers who never return to mainstream prison population and are only ever referred to by a number (such as CP01, Commissioners Pleasure 01). Corrective Services NSW advises that there are, however, numerous examples of inmates who make the transition from the SPC to other centres. The identities of inmates housed in this location are not disclosed and staff working there must sign confidentiality agreements.
This Centre is often referred to as the bomb shelter or super grass by other inmates and houses police informants, inmates with bad debts and anyone else the commissioner of corrective services deems to be at risk and unable to be managed in standard protective custody.
The following individuals have served all or part of their sentence at the Long Bay Correctional Centre:
|Inmate name||Date sentenced||Length of sentence||Currently
|Date eligible for release||Nature of conviction / Notoriety||Notes|
|Jai Abberton||10 September 2012||15 months with a minimum non-parole period of nine months||Time served||n/a||Assaulting police and causing grievous bodily harm; a member of the Bra Boys surf tribe.|||
|Robert Adamson||c. 1964||Time served||Theft; later a renown Australian poet.|||
|Rodney Adler||16 February 2005||4½ years with a minimum non-parole period of 2½ years||Released (13 October 2007)||n/a||Knowingly disseminating false information; obtaining money by false or misleading statements; and being intentionally dishonest and failing to discharge his duties as a director of HIH Insurance.|||
|Raymond John Denning||Life imprisonment||Deceased in 2000||Died in custody||Notorious gunman and prison escapee turned informant for NSW and Federal police.|||
|Darcy Dugan||Life imprisonment||Deceased 1991||Bank robber and a notorious prison escape artist.|||
|William Kamm||14 October 2005||15 years||Released on parole||November 2014||Multiple convictions of aggravated sexual assault in his capacity as a religious group leader.|||
|Archie McCafferty||c. 1973||Four consecutive terms of life imprisonment plus 14 years||Deported to Scotland||n/a||A serial killer and arguably one of Australia's most violent prisoners, also convicted for the manslaughter of a fellow prisoner.|||
|Milton Orkopoulos||25 August 2009||13 years; eight months with a minimum non-parole period of nine years||Yes||January 2018||Sexual assault of a minor, indecent assault and supplying heroin and cannabis; a former Australian Labor Party politician.|||
|René Rivkin||30 May 2003||Nine months of weekend detention||Deceased 2005||n/a||Insider trading; a former stockbroker and entrepreneur.|||
|Roger Rogerson||2 September 2016||Life imprisonment||Yes||Murder, drug trafficking, perverting the course of justice; a former police detective.|||
|Carmen Rupe||Deceased 2011||n/a||A New Zealand-born entertainer, cultural identity, and trans-gender activist.|||
|Bilal Skaf||16 September 2005||38 years with a minimum non-parole period of 32 years||Yes||11 February 2033||A leading perpetrator of the Sydney gang rapes whose original sentence of 55 years was reduced on multiple appeals.|||
|Neddy Smith||Life imprisonment||Armed robbery, murderer and heroin dealer, accused of being a hitman, served life.|||
|Simon Townsend||c. 1960s||One month||Time served||n/a||A conscientious objector and journalist.|||
|Robbie Waterhouse||c. 1992||Eight months' periodic detention||Time served||n/a||Lying to the Racing Appeals Tribunal; a bookmaker and racing identity.|||
Long Bay Gaol has featured in several books:
- Australia's Hardest Prison: Inside the Walls of Long Bay Gaol" (2014), a non-fiction work by James Phelps
- Long Bay (2015), a novel by Eleanor Limprecht telling the story of Rebecca Sinclair, who was sentenced to three years' Hard Labour for manslaughter after conducting an abortion, and was one of the gaol's first inmates in 1909.
- Permission to Lie (2011), a collection of short stories by Julie Chevalier set in prisons in Australia and the United States of America. Seven of the stories are set in Long Bay Gaol.
Long Bay Gaol was the first Australian Gaol to pioneer inmate music rehab programs in 1993 with the release of the Hope Album with Captive Edition and Ricky Jones, produced and directed by Vincent Ruello.
As at 8 November 2000, the former State Penitentiary is of considerable significance. It was the first purpose-built Penitentiary in NSW and includes a rare example of back-to-back cells. In conjunction with the former Female Reformatory, it is an important development in Australian penal design and is the most complete expression of Frederick Neitenstein's philosophy of reform. The siting of the Penitentiary has a strong visual impact in the surrounding landscape. The original buildings are of a unified scale and materials resulting in a harmonious appearance. The place has been used continuously as the principal prison complex in NSW and as Sydney's major metropolitan gaol for over 80 years. It has research potential in penal practices and building technology of the time.
- Reynolds, Emma (6 May 2016). "Outrage over Australia's new mega jail". news.com.au. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- Kent, Paul (29 August 2009). "Behind the bars at Long Bay, jail opened 100 years ago". The Daily Telegraph. Australia. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- "Key moments in Penal Culture in NSW 1970 - present". The Australian Prisons Project. The University of New South Wales. 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Kembrey, Melanie (7 May 2016). "Developers hungry for sale of Long Bay prison complex". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- McNally, Lucy (6 May 2016). "New prison for Sydney's south-west to manage overcrowded jails". ABC News. Australia. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- "Long Bay Correctional Centre". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00810. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- Turbet, 2001.
- Randwick Library webpage, 2003.
- City of Sydney webpage, 2003.
- Pollen, 1988, 217-8.
- Pollen, 1988, 218-9.
- "Chronology - A History of Australian Prison Reform". Four Corners. Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 7 November 2005. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
- Murphy, Sean (16 June 2001). "Hepatitis C thrives in jail: report" (transcript). The 7.30 Report. Australia: ABC TV. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Smith, Paul (28 September 2011). "Protecting prisoners is a public health priority". Australian Doctor. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Grabosky, P. N. (May 1989). "Chapter 2: The abuse of prisoners in New South Wales 1943-76". Wayward governance : illegality and its control in the public sector. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. ISBN 0 642 14605 5. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
- NSW Dept of Corrective Services Heritage and Conservation Register, 1995
- NBRS & P, 2016, 1
- Calcino, Chris (27 May 2015). "Long Bay closure puts pressure on to reopen Grafton jail". Northern Star. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
- Barnes, Lynne A (February 2001). "Protective Custody and Hardship in Prison". Sentencing Trends and Issues: An Analysis of New South Wales Sentencing Statistics and related issues. Judicial Commission of New South Wales (21). ISSN 1036-4722. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Stoltz, Greg (10 September 2012). "BRA BOY JAI ABBERTON JAILED FOR 15 MONTHS". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "The Poetry of Rogert Adamson". Radio National.
- Romei, Stephen (23 May 2015). "Poet Robert Adamson to talk poems and prison life". The Australian. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Rodney Adler Silverwater Correctional Centre Treatment". Hansard. Parliament of New South Wales. 5 May 2005. p. 15799. Retrieved 28 September 2007.
- "Rodney Adler sentenced to four-and-a-half years' jail" (Press release). Australian Securities and Investment Commission. 14 April 2005. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- Matthews, Bernie (December 1990). "Rewarding of criminal informers". Talkback (Interview: audio). Interviewed by Kathryn Greiner. Sydney: 2UE. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- "Bakery Bulletin" (PDF). Hurstville City Council. 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2007.
- "Judge punishes doomsday prophet". The Age. AAP. 14 October 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Cult leader jailed for more sexual abuse". The Age. AAP. 24 August 2007. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Aurebach, Taylor (12 November 2014). "Victims' pain as 'The Little Pebble' William Kamm rolls out of jail". The Daily Telegraph. Australia. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Kidd, Paul B. (2012). "Archibald Beattie McCafferty: Australia's Worst Prisoner". Serial killers. Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Bruce, Jim (17 September 2017). "Mad Dog McCafferty slashes wife, holds child at knifepoint". The Sun-Herald. Retrieved 11 February 2004.
- "Judges reject Orkopoulos appeal". Newcastle Herald. 26 August 2009.
- Silmalis, Linda (22 January 2017). "PAEDOPHILE MP MILTON ORKOPOULOS REFUSED PAROLE FOR NOT ATTENDING REHAB". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Insider trading sends Rivkin inside". The Age. AAP. 30 May 2003. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- Hoerr, Karl (2 September 2016). "Jamie Gao murder: Roger Rogerson and Glen McNamara sentenced to life in prison". ABC News. Australia.
- "Carmen Rupe, legend, dies in Sydney". gaynz.com. 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- O'Keefe, Tracie; Fox, Katrina (2008). "Chapter 24: Madam Carmen - Carmen Rupe". Trans People in Love. Routledge. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-7890-3572-1.
- Pelly, Michael (4 February 2006). "Free by 41 - rape gang leader's shrinking sentence". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Wallace, Natasha (28 July 2006). "Gang rapists re-sentenced". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- "Gang rapist Skaf's sentence extended". ABC News. Australia. 28 July 2006. Retrieved 31 July 2008.
- "Lock me up in Long Bay, pleads sickly gangster Neddy Smith". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 May 2003. Retrieved 28 September 2007.
- Townsend, Simon (8 August 2005). "Talking Heads - Simon Townsend". Talking Heads (Interview). Series 1; ep. 20. Interviewed by Peter Thompson. Australia: ABC TV. Archived from the original (transcript) on 2 December 2006. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- Feneley, Rick (27 November 2010). "The Waterhouse colt who was cut out from the racing clan". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- BBC Consulting Planners (2004). Long Bay Correctional Complex Master Plan. Anzac Parade, Malabar.
- Clive Lucas Stapleton & Partners (2004). Long Bay Correctional Complex Conservation Management Plan.
- Morris, Colleen (1995). Long Bay Complex Conservation Analysis and draft Policy Recommendations - Landscape Component, 3/1995.
- Curby, Pauline (2017). 'A rare opportunity - remembering the last years of capital punishment in NSW'.
- Dominic Steel Consulting Archaeologist (2017). Aboriginal & Historical Archaeological Assessment - proposed upgrades at Long Bay Correctional Centre, Anzac Parade, Malabar, NSW.
- Heritage Group, NSW Department of Public Works & Services (1997). Long Bay Correctional Complex: conservaiton plan.
- Photography by S Frizza (2008). Photography of boiler house and water tower at Long Bay Correctional Facility before demolition Correctional Facility before demolition.
- Pollon, F.; Healy, G., eds. (1988). Randwick entry, in 'The Book of Sydney Suburbs'.
- State Projects Heritage Group (1995). NSW Department of Corrective Services Heritage and Conservation Register.
- Sydney Metro Tree Services (Paul Vezgoff, for) (2014). Arborist Tree Assessment Report - Long Bay Correctional Complex.
- State Projects Heritage Group (1995). Department of Corrective Services: Interim Heritage and Conservation Register.
This Wikipedia article contains material from Long Bay Correctional Centre, entry number 00810 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 2 June 2018.
- Berry, Carol (2007). Mental illness in NSW Prisons (PDF). Public Interest Advocacy Centre. Mental Health Coordinating Council. – an interesting article by a health solicitor from the Public Interest Advocacy Centre that includes learnings from a coronial inquest formed following a death in custody, while waiting admission into the acute ward of Long Bay Hospital.