Jump to content

Daigo Fukuryū Maru

Coordinates: 35°39′04″N 139°49′35″E / 35.6510°N 139.8263°E / 35.6510; 139.8263
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Lucky dragon)

Daigo Fukuryū Maru on display in Tokyo
  • Daigo Fukuryu Maru
  • ("Lucky Dragon No.5")
StatusMuseum ship since 1976
General characteristics
TypeFishing boat
Displacement140.86 t (139 long tons)
Length28.56 m (93.7 ft)
Beam5.9 m (19 ft)
Propulsion250 hp (186 kW) engine
Speed5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph)

Daigo Fukuryū Maru (第五福龍丸, F/V Lucky Dragon 5) was a Japanese tuna fishing boat with a crew of 23 men which was contaminated by nuclear fallout from the United States Castle Bravo thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954.

The crew suffered acute radiation syndrome (ARS) for a number of weeks after the Bravo test in March. All recovered from the immediate effects of the American test detonation except for Kuboyama Aikichi, the boat's chief radioman, who died on September 23, 1954, from complications of radiation sickness.[1] Kuboyama is considered the first victim of the hydrogen bomb and of test shot Castle Bravo.[2]

Early days and final voyage


Built in March 1947 and launched from Koza, Wakayama, the boat was originally named Dainana Kotoshiro Maru (第七事代丸, Kotoshiro Maru No. 7). It was a bonito boat and moored in Misaki Fishing Harbor, Kanagawa Prefecture. It was later remodeled into a tuna fishing boat. In 1953, it moved to Yaizu Port, Shizuoka Prefecture, with a new name, Daigo Fukuryū Maru, translated as Lucky Dragon No. 5 or the Fifth Lucky Dragon.

The Lucky Dragon No. 5 took five ocean voyages, the last of which began on January 22, 1954, and ended on March 14 of that year. The crew set off to go fishing in the Midway Sea near Midway Atoll, but when they lost most of their trawl nets to the sea, they altered their course southward near the Marshall Islands and encountered fallout from the Castle Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll on March 1.[3]

A map of the varying location of the boat in the days leading up to and after the day of the explosion is available. On March 1, the map depicts the vessel very near to the border of the US Navy issued "danger zone notice" dated October 10, 1953.[3] Following March 1, the vessel charted a practically straight geodesic course back to its home port of Yaizu, passing the same latitude as Wake Island between March 4 and 6 and arriving at Yaizu on March 14.[3]

The source of the map[3] does not state how the map was created, that is, it does not state that the ship's log was consulted in the creation of the map, nor does it provide the navigator's measurements with the compass and sextant of the period.[3] The exact position of the ship on the day of the explosion is therefore uncertain. Contemporary references give a figure of "80 miles (130 km) east of Bikini Atoll" without stating the method by which the distance was computed.[4][5] According to a 1997 paper by Martha Smith-Norris, the ship was operating "14 miles" outside the 57,000 square mile "Danger Area", and it was not detected by radar or visual spotter planes.[6]

Events surrounding March 1, 1954

The Bravo fallout plume spread dangerous levels of radiation over an area over 100 miles (160 km) long, including inhabited islands. The contour lines show the cumulative radiation dose in roentgens (R) for the first 96 hours after the test.[7]
The Bikini Atoll. The Bravo crater is on the North West end of the atoll. The device's firing crew were located on Enyu island, variously spelt as Eneu island as depicted in this map.
Daigo Fukuryū Maru in early 1950s, shortly before the incident

The Daigo Fukuryū Maru (Lucky Dragon No. 5) encountered the fallout from the U.S. Castle Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll, near the Marshall Islands, on March 1, 1954. When the test was held, the Daigo Fukuryū Maru was catching fish outside the danger zone that the U.S. government had declared in advance. However, the test was more than twice as powerful as predicted, and changes in weather patterns blew nuclear fallout, in the form of a fine ash, outside the danger zone. On that day, the sky in the west lit up like a sunset. The Daigo Fukuryū Maru was not damaged by the shock wave from the blast. However, several hours later white, radioactive dust made up of radioactive particles of coral and sand fell upon the ship.[8] The fishermen attempted to escape from the area, but they took almost six hours to retrieve fishing gear from the sea and process fish (mainly shark and tuna) caught on the lines, exposing themselves to the radioactive fallout.[9] The fishermen scooped the highly radioactive dust into bags with their bare hands. One fisherman, Oishi Matashichi, reported that he "took a lick" of the dust that fell on his ship, likening the falling material to 粉雪 ("powdered snow") and describing it as gritty but with no taste. The dust stuck to their bodies and the ship, entering their nasal passages and ears, irritating their eyes and collecting inside their underwear. Radiation sickness symptoms appeared later that day. Due to this, the fishermen called the white ash shi no hai (死の灰, death ash). The ash that fell upon the ship carried strontium-90, cesium-137, selenium-141, and uranium-237.[10]

Events between March 2–14


During their return, the crew began showing symptoms of radiation poisoning as early as the evening after exposure. They experienced pain, headaches, nausea, dizziness, and diarrhea. Their eyes began to turn red and developed an itchy mucus. One crewman decided to keep some of the ash in order to have it analysed on their arrival home, but it was kept in a pouch hung from one of the bunks and was therefore in close proximity to the sleeping men for the duration of their return. Later analysis of the sample by, among others, Tokyo University determined that the ash was caused by a hydrogen bomb. The announcement of this news came as a large surprise to the Americans as they had persistently kept their nuclear experimentation secret.[11]

By the third day, the men began to develop small blisters on their bodies that had been touched by the radioactive ash. Their faces also began to turn dark. A week into their return journey, their hair began to fall out.[12] On March 11, the ship encountered rough seas causing them to dock late on March 14. This late arrival fortunately caused the contaminated fish to stay within the ship until the next morning. Thus, they were able to throw away much of the tuna once they discovered the radiation.[13]

Events after return to Yaizu port

Medical professionals, before the era of whole body counting, assessing the radioactivity of a bedridden crew member by using a geiger counter on 31 March 1954, focusing on the person's hair, which would have collected dusty fallout.
Inspection of tuna with a geiger counter before sale at a fishmonger's on 31 March 1954

After their arrival, the men went to the Yaizu Public Hospital where the surgeon, Oi Toshiaki, applied a zinc ointment to their faces and sent them home. On March 15, 1954, engineer Yamamoto, deckhand Masuda and five others who were said to make up the "elderly" members of the crew were sent to the Tokyo University Hospital for treatment.[14] There, they tested Masuda's bone marrow and found his white blood cell count at half the normal level.[15] Japanese biophysicist Nishiwaki Yasushi immediately traveled from Osaka to Yaizu to examine the crew and their boat. He quickly concluded that they had been exposed to radioactive fallout and wrote a letter to the chief of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) asking for more information on how to treat the crew. The crew members, suffering from nausea, headaches, burns, pain in the eyes, bleeding from the gums, and other symptoms, were diagnosed with acute radiation syndrome. The US did not respond to Nishiwaki's letter or to letters from other Japanese scientists requesting information and help, although the United States did dispatch two medical scientists to Japan to study the effects of fallout on the ship's crew and to assist their doctors. The remaining crew members were quarantined in Yaizu North Hospital with all of their clothes and belongings buried on the property. High levels of radiation were found in the men's hair and nails, and so the hospital was forced to cut off the rest of their hair.[16]

There is a hint of criticism from one of the crewmembers, Oishi Matashichi, aimed at the then Japanese Foreign Minister Katsuo Okazaki in his book, citing the fact that despite the lingering resentment towards the US over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, and the suspicion that US officials were only interested in research rather than attempting to cure anyone of their subsequent bombing-related ailments, Foreign Minister Okazaki is said to have spoken frequently to the crew about the need for the Americans to be present during treatment. Indeed, Oishi goes as far as to say "The Foreign Minister usually stood on the American side, and it appeared that he was the American Foreign Minister (rather than our own)".[17]

The men were all transferred to the Tokyo University Hospital. There they would remain for fourteen months or more in some cases. They were subjected to daily examinations and multiple blood samples. Bone marrow was also drawn from different areas on the men. Their red and white blood cells had dropped significantly, causing internal bleeding and bloody stools. They had constant high fevers, bled from their noses and gums, and had persistent diarrhea. Their sperm counts also fell to low numbers or in some cases, to none at all. For their treatment, the men were prescribed bed rest and given large quantities of antibiotics and blood transfusions.[18] Dr. Morita Hisao reported that the men had developed acute panmyelosis, a disease that attacked their bone marrow destroying its ability to generate blood.[19]

Aikichi Kuboyama on deathbed

Around August 20, Kuboyama Aikichi's condition deteriorated. By August 29, he fell into critical condition after developing meningitis. He became delirious and violent, having to be tied to a bed on the floor. Kuboyama soon fell into a coma and developed pneumonia. On September 23, he became the first member of the crew to die from complications of radiation sickness.[1] The remaining twenty-two crew members were released from the hospital on May 20, 1955 after fourteen months. They received yearly checkups to monitor the toll of long-term radiation sickness complications.[20]

Health history of the surviving crew


Like the hibakusha, survivors of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, the Daigo Fukuryū Maru crew were stigmatized because of the Japanese public's fear of those exposed to radiation (it was commonly believed to be contagious). The crew tried to stay quiet about their exposure for decades, beginning with their discharge from hospital. Some crew members moved away from their homes to make a fresh start. However, unlike the hibakusha, the Lucky Dragon No. 5 crew did not qualify for medical care benefits that the survivors of the atom bomb were given.[21]

After being released from the hospital, Oishi Matashichi left his hometown to open a dry cleaning business.[22] Beginning in the 1980s, he frequently gave talks advocating nuclear disarmament. His first child was stillborn, which Oishi attributed to his own exposure to radiation. In 1992, Oishi developed cirrhosis of the liver but recovered after successful surgery.[23] In 2011, he published a book titled, The Day the Sun Rose in the West: Bikini, the Lucky Dragon and I in English. The book combines his personal story, the story of the Daigo Fukuryū Maru, and declassified documents between the Japanese and American governments about the fallout's damage.

Former crew member Susumu Misaki opened a tofu shop after the incident. He died of lung cancer in Shizuoka Prefecture at the age of 92.

Another crew member, Masayoshi Kawashima (川島正義), tried to earn a living making pouches after his release from the hospital but it failed. Issues in his personal life led to a divorce. Kawashima returned to fishing but died soon after aged 47.[24]

Sanjirō Masuda in sickroom, photographed by Masaharu Yoshimura (Mainichi Shinbun) in 1954

Crew member Sanjirō Masuda (増田三次郎) died aged 54 after contracting various illnesses and diseases including cirrhosis of the liver, sepsis, stomach ulcers and diabetes.[24]

Crew member Yūichi Masuda (増田祐一) died aged 55 after collapsing suddenly in the field in which he was working and died less than ten days later. Again cirrhosis of the liver was cited as a cause.[24]

Crew member Shinzō Suzuki (鈴木慎三) died on 18 June 1982 aged 57 on the Meishin Expressway (名神高速公路) after the truck he was driving was involved in a rear-end collision, and burned to death in the wreckage. When Oishi Matashichi contacted his widow (the accident happened four years before he discovered the fact because they had lost contact), she told him that her husband had suffered from general weakness, and cirrhosis of the liver was once again mentioned.[24]

Crew member Hiroshi Kozuka (小塚博) was diagnosed with stomach cancer in March 1986. He, like some of the other crew, had been regularly attending annual check-ups which began in 1957 at the National Institute of Radiological Science (放射線医学総合研究所) in Chiba (千葉市). Despite having his regular check-up just a couple weeks before, the cancer was diagnosed by a local doctor shortly after stomach pains began and didn't subside. He underwent surgery and had two-thirds of his stomach removed. Apparently recovering well, he was diagnosed with pneumonia just a week later.[24]

In 1987, chief engineer Chūji Yamamoto (山本忠司) was admitted to a hospital in Gamagori (蒲郡) the day before he was due to undergo his latest annual check-up. He was diagnosed with liver, colon and lung cancer. Oishi Matashichi made a visit to Yamamoto in hospital along with another crew member Tsutsui (筒井) on 21 February 1987, only for Yamamoto to succumb to his cancer thirteen days later on 6 March 1987 aged 60.[24]

Crew member Kaneshige Takagi (高木兼重) succumbed to liver cancer aged 66; the news filtered through from Hoto Island (保戸島, part of Kyūshū) to Oishi Matashichi in December 1989. During the phone call received from the wife of Takagi, she mentioned that an employee at the crematorium told her that the bones of Takagi after cremation were the most thin and fragile that they'd ever seen.[24]

Responsibility and remembrance


The US government refused to disclose the fallout's composition due to "national security", as the fallout's isotopic ratios—namely a percentage of uranium-237—could reveal the design of the Castle Bravo device through radio-chemical analysis. For instance, Joseph Rotblat may have deduced the staging nature of the device by studying the ratio and presence of tell-tale isotopes present in the fallout. As of 1954, the Soviet Union had not yet been successful with thermonuclear staging and such information could have assisted in their development of a thermonuclear weapon. Lewis Strauss, the head of the AEC, issued several denials that claimed the United States were not to blame. He also hypothesized that the lesions on the fishermen's bodies were not caused by radiation but by the chemical action of the caustic burnt lime that is produced when coral is calcined, and that they were inside the danger zone. He told President Eisenhower's press secretary that the Daigo Fukuryū Maru may have been a "red spy outfit", commanded by a Soviet agent intentionally exposing the ship's crew and catch in order to embarrass the USA and gain intelligence on the test's device.[10]

Later, the United States expanded the danger zone and it was revealed that in addition to the Daigo Fukuryū Maru, many other fishing boats were in the expanded zone at the time. It is estimated that about one hundred fishing boats were contaminated to some degree by fallout from the test. Despite denials by Lewis Strauss concerning the extent of the claimed contamination of the fish caught by Daigo Fukuryu Maru and other ships, the FDA later imposed rigid restrictions on tuna imports.[citation needed]

At first, the US claimed that the extent of the Lucky Dragon incident contamination was trivial. Later, the United States paid Kuboyama's widow and children the equivalent in yen of about $2,800 ($26,700 in 2020). The tragedy of the Daigo Fukuryū Maru gave rise to a fierce anti-nuclear movement in Japan, rising especially from the fear that the contaminated fish had entered the market. The Japanese and U.S. governments negotiated a compensation settlement, with the transfer to Japan of a compensation of $15,300,000, of which the fishery received a compensation of $2 million, with the surviving crew receiving about ¥ 2 million each, ($5,550 in 1954, $52,800 in 2020). It was also agreed that the victims would not be given hibakusha status. The Japanese government pledged that it would not pursue further reparations from the U.S. government.[25]

In the 1990s, Oishi Matashichi worked to erect a memorial for the tuna impacted by the fallout. He gathered small donations and raised enough to erect a stone memorial called "The Tuna Epitaph" at the Tsukiji market. While the stone was being moved they erected a metal plaque within the market.[26]


The ship in its museum in 2007

When it was first docked at the fish market in Yaizu, the ship gave off radiation that could be detected 100 feet from the ship. A Geiger counter detected 120 millirentgens on the deck of the ship. These high numbers caused Dr. Shiokawa to order the ship moved to Yaizu's north pier and guarded by police.[27] The various items aboard the ship, from cabbage leaves to dead cockroaches, were tested and showed high levels of radiation.[16]

On March 22, the future of the ship became a debate between the U.S. military, the Japanese government and scientists. The United States military proposed moving the ship to their base at Yokosuka to be disposed of. Minister without portfolio Ando Masazumi argued that the ship should be kept for three months, parts saved for scientific research, and the rest of the ship scuttled. Professor Nakaizumi of Tokyo University argued that the Japanese government should purchase the ship for residual radiation research.[28] On August 22, the ship was purchased by the Japanese government and towed to the Tokyo University of Fisheries.[27] In 1956, the ship was refitted and renamed as Hayabusa Maru and put to use as a training vessel.[8]

The public outcry against the government's handling of the Daigo Fukuryū Maru, its crew, and the lack of information about fallout kindled an anti-nuclear and anti-American movement. After the ship docked and received national attention, municipal, prefecture and national assemblies passed resolutions in support of limiting or banning nuclear testing.[29] After the death of Kuboyama, the movement expanded. In Tokyo, the National Council for a Petition Movement to Ban Atomic and Hydrogen bombs was founded. This group began an annual ban-the-bomb convention in 1955. At the first World Conference, a new organization called the Japan Council Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs formed to expand the movement and moved to include the hibakusha.[29] The anti-nuclear movement eventually culminated in demonstrations against the United States-Japan Security Treaty in 1960.[30]

On June 11, 1970, the Daigo Fukuryū Maru received media attention as it still sat in garbage within the canal. The area was cleaned up and made into a park. The ship was pulled from the water and put on public display as a symbol of opposition to nuclear weapons in an exhibit hall in Tokyo.[31]

The Daigo Fukuryū Maru was deemed safe for public viewing and was preserved in 1976. It is now on display in Tokyo at the Tokyo Metropolitan Daigo Fukuryū Maru Exhibition Hall.



See also


Nuclear incidents involving Japan


Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 46. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  2. ^ "Castle Bravo: Sixty Years of Nuclear Pain". February 27, 2014. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Lucky Dragon No. 5 special exhibit". Archived from the original on October 10, 2008.
  4. ^ Structure shielding against fallout gamma rays from nuclear detonations By Lewis Van Clief Spencer, Arthur B. Chilton, Charles Eisenhauer, Center for Radiation Research, United States. National Bureau of Standards, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. pg 6
  5. ^ Nasaizumi, Research in the effects and influences of the nuclear bomb test explosions, Volume 2 Japan. Committee for Compilation of Report on Research in the Effects of Radioactivity, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1956 - History - page 1281 onwards of 1835 pages.
  6. ^ "Only as Dust in the Face of the Wind": An Analysis of the BRAVO Nuclear Incident in the Pacific, 1954 Martha Smith-Norris The Journal of American-East Asian Relations Vol. 6, No. 1 (SPRING 1997), pp. 1–34". JSTOR 23612829. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ "Operation Castle".
  8. ^ a b Schreiber, Mark (March 18, 2012). "Lucky Dragon's lethal catch". The Japan Times. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  9. ^ Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 20. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  10. ^ a b Schreiber, Mark, "Lucky Dragon's lethal catch Archived November 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine", Japan Times, March 18, 2012, p. 7.
  11. ^ 大石, 又七 (January 1, 1991). 死の灰を背負って―私の人生を変えた第五福竜丸. Japan: Shinchosha. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-4-10-381301-9.
  12. ^ Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 22. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  13. ^ Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 23. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  14. ^ 大石, 又七 (January 1, 1991). 死の灰を背負って―私の人生を変えた第五福竜丸. Japan: Shinchosha. p. 47. ISBN 978-4-10-381301-9.
  15. ^ Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 27. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  16. ^ a b Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 29. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  17. ^ 大石, 又七 (January 1, 1991). 死の灰を背負って―私の人生を変えた第五福竜丸. Japan: Shinchosha. p. 42. ISBN 978-4-10-381301-9.
  18. ^ Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 33–34. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  19. ^ Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 41–42. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  20. ^ Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 75. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  21. ^ "H-bomb test survivor on nuke-free crusade". The Japan Times. June 10, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  22. ^ Oishi, Matashichi; MACLELLAN, NIC (2017), "The fisherman", Grappling with the Bomb, Britain’s Pacific H-bomb tests, ANU Press, pp. 55–68, ISBN 978-1-76046-137-9, JSTOR j.ctt1ws7w90.9
  23. ^ Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 86–87. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 82. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  25. ^ Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 57. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  26. ^ "Fisherman hit by 1954 US H-bomb fallout wants Tsukiji plaque on ordeal preserved". Mainichi Daily News. September 25, 2018. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  27. ^ a b Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 43. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  28. ^ Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 31. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  29. ^ a b Orr, James J. The Victim as Hero: Ideologies of Peace and National Identity in Postwar Japan. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 47–48.
  30. ^ Kingston, Jeff (February 8, 2014). "Blast from the past: Lucky Dragon 60 years on". The Japan Times. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  31. ^ Oishi, Matashichi (December 31, 2017). The Day the Sun Rose in the West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 88. doi:10.1515/9780824860202. ISBN 978-0-8248-6020-2.
  32. ^ Souder, William (2012); On a Farther Shore - The Life and Legacy of Rachel Carson. Broadway Books, New York, 496 pp. ISBN 978-0-307-46221-3; Chapter 9.
  33. ^ "Tobiuo no Boya wa Byoki desu". Archived from the original on January 1, 2024. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  34. ^ "Nâzım HİKMET - the Japanese Fisherman".
  35. ^ Л. Петров, А. Стругацкий. Пепел Бикини // Юность, 1957, № 12.
  36. ^ И. Кулибаба, Н. Березовский, Л. Бобровская, М. Стракевич. Изложения в V—VIII классах: Учебное пособие. — М.: Учпедгиз, 1963. — С. 196—198.
  37. ^ Ralph E. Lapp (1958). The Voyage of the Lucky Dragon. ASIN B0000CJZ45.
  38. ^ Leonard Engel, "Twenty-Three Fishermen and a Bomb; The Voyage of the Lucky Dragon", New York Times", February 23, 1958, p. BR1.
  39. ^ "Remembering Hiroshima and the Lucky Dragon in Chim↑Pom's Level 7 feat. "Myth of Tomorrow"". The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  40. ^ "Epitaph für Aikichi Kuboyama / Sechs Studien". www.schott-music.com (in German). Retrieved December 17, 2023.

Further reading

  • Oishi, Matashichi (2011). The Day the Sun Rose in the West: The Lucky Dragon, and I. University of Hawaii Press.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H.; Wiecek, William M. (1984). Nuclear America: military and civilian nuclear power in the United States, 1940-1980 (1984 ed.). Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-015336-6. - Total pages: 518
  • United States. Congress. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (1967). Hearings and reports on atomic energy, Volume 20 Hearings and Reports on Atomic Energy, United States. Congress. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Compiled by Melvin Price, Publisher U.S. G.P.O., 1957, Original from University of Chicago, Digitized Dec 16, 2010.

35°39′04″N 139°49′35″E / 35.6510°N 139.8263°E / 35.6510; 139.8263