||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|• Mayor||Juan Rodríguez Aguilera|
|• Total||378.25 km2 (146.04 sq mi)|
|Elevation||150 m (490 ft)|
|• Density||53/km2 (140/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Marchena is a city in the province of Seville, southern Spain, which counts with 19,984 inhabitants. Its Moorish name was Marshēnah (مَرْشَانَة) which means "of the olive trees". The city covers 379 square kilometers and had a population estimated at 19,940 in 2014.
Marchena is known as "the unknown beauty" due to the nearby important cities of Carmona, Osuna and Ecija.
It is located at an altitude of 150 meters and 64 kilometers from the provincial capital, Seville, in the region called La Campiña. It is known for its Holy Week and, especially, for its monumental complex (declared a Historic-Artistic Site), where the church of San Juan Bautista and the Arch of the Rose (Puerta de Sevilla) stand out. In addition, the municipality is characterized by its link with flamenco and for being the birthplace of important artists such as Pepe Marchena and guitarist Melchor de Marchena.
Marchena's situation in the middle of the "La Campiña" of Seville, at a point of communication between the cities of Seville, Antequera and Ecija, brought a human population presence since prehistory. There existed a settlement of an old civilization called Tartessos, this settlement is denominated Montemolín, in the proximities of the present population. There are also remains that testify Roman villagers in this area. There are also no data on a Roman colony called Martia, as local historians have stated. 
In Roman time it had to be a farm (town) of sparsely populated population. There are testimonies of settlers in the Visigothic period, but it is not until the Islamic dominion when the city conformed with the structure that at the moment can be distinguished. It was denominated by the Muslims like Marsen'ah due to the great amount of olive trees that surrounded the population, reached a great urban development and was walled (centuries XI-XII).
It passed into Christian hands in the middle of the thirteenth century, during the reign of Ferdinand III of Castile, becoming a town of Realengo, until during the reign of Ferdinand IV of Castile in 1309 it was granted to Fernando Ponce de Leon, great-grandson Of king Alfonso IX of León; before it had belonged to Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, famous defender of the city of Tarifa. For several centuries the lordship of Marchena was in the hands of the family Ponce de León, from which comes the house of Arcos.
In 1367 Juan Ponce de León, Lord of Marchena, was executed in Seville together with the major admiral of the Egidio Boccanegra Sea, and the following year Marchena's lands were sacked and devastated by King Muhammed V Of Granada, ally of king Pedro I of Castile, that also demolished the walls of the villa.
The current name of the population comes from a decree of the Catholic Monarchs. The urban nucleus in Muslim time was composed of the alcazaba, to the north, and of the hamlet, that extended towards the south occupying all the hill. The streets started from the main doors and would have multiple squares and bumpers. The apples would be irregular, with large inner courtyards and places chained. During the medieval Christian period (XIV and XV centuries) the Arab city is reused, the house is renovated intramuros, the walls are rebuilt, the old Alcazaba is transformed into a real stately castle and works are done in the Ducal Palace.
The historical center has been located in the northern sector of the population, since the later urban developments have been oriented mainly towards the west (San Miguel neighborhood), south (Santo Domingo, San Sebastián) and southeast (San Andrés). It may have been influenced by the fact that the railroad track runs to the north, quite close to the population. In the southern sector, although somewhat separated from the nucleus, various industrial and agricultural facilities (farms, agricultural cooperatives, greenhouses, canneries, olives, flour, etc.) are dispersed. The large public facilities (sports, education) are preferentially located in the western and eastern peripheral sectors.
Marchena was declared Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1966, is very characteristic by the set of churches and convents that it possesses between which we can emphasize:
San Juan Bautista Church
San Juan Bautista Church is one of the most important in the municipality of Marchena. Of great dimensions, its architecture is characteristic of the time of the Catholic Monarchs, that is to say, it is a Gothic Mudejar but with some Renaissance adornments. You can see the Gothic architecture in the covers and in the greater altarpiece; In the first one the brick is used and in the second one it has plateresque ornaments in wood, containing evangelical images in relief, paintings of Alejo Fernández, a head of the Baptist in marble and dual shields and of the archbishop Fray Diego de Deza. We should also mention the magnificent large organ or the Epistle, the work of Francisco Rodríguez, disciple of the renowned organist Jordi Bosch i Bernat | Jorge Bosch, made in 1802, and the baroque choir that was carved by Juan Valencia with designs of Jerónimo de Valvás.
As mentioned above, it is one of the most important churches of Marchena since it houses in its interior important artistic jewels, in addition to the municipal museum, inside which are exposed several sculptures of Alonso Cano, the treasure of the church Goldsmith Francisco Alfaro and nine paintings by Zurbarán.
Santa María de la Mota Church
This church, built in the sixteenth century, is of Gothic and Mudejar style, which can be seen in its tower of four bodies. The main altarpiece is presided over by the image of the Virgen de la Mota, carved in the sixteenth century also, along with its 15th century cover are worth admiring. We must emphasize that the temple symbolizes the union of the Christian cultures (bringing to the building solidity and the basic building elements) and Islamic (providing this the imaginative ornamentation). We can also observe a Byzantine influence on the tiles.
The church itself has three naves, separated by quadrangular pillars, and the main chapel consists of two sections, the first rectangular and the second octagonal. The deck of the ships are wooden structures, in the form of a trough in the central and the hanging in the sides. The presbytery is covered with rib vaults. To the feet, in high and occupying the last section, stands a tribune with lattice of wood. The church has two facades, one side, made in brick and the other at the feet, executed in ashlar.
In the same site is the Convent of the Immaculate Conception, founded by the Dukes of Arcos. Marchena's community of Poor Clares makes a series of sweets and confectionery. They emphasize the pestiños borrachuelos and the fruits of almonds between the great variety of sweet that elaborate of artisan way and that they are a sample of the rich gastronomy of the zone.
San Agustín Church
The church was built in the second half of the eighteenth century, so the transition from the neoclassical baroque can be seen in its splendor. It is a church of plant of Latin cross, with three ships raised with pillars that take back columns. On the cruise we can see a wide dome placed on pechinas, in turn, the central nave is covered with barrel vault with lunettes.
In the interior of the temple we can observe a decoration of religious subjects and geometric elements and vegetables carved in plasterwork. If we look at the pendentives in them they include nobiliary shields and in the dome angels overhanging profuse decorative elements. In the exterior, the portico opens in three arcades which denotes that the facade has schemes of Madrid architecture of the first half of the 17th century.
San Sebastián Church
It was built outside the walled enclosure and was originally made probably as a hermitage for the veneration of the Marchena Pattern. After demolishing this hermitage in the eighteenth century, since it was in a ruinous state, the capital was inaugurated. Its interior is of three naves separated by pillars, that cross with arches of half point. The main nave is covered by a wooden paneling, however, the main altarpiece is baroque, from the mid-18th century. It has three streets separated by stipes, located on the sides of the sculptures of San Sebastián and San Pablo. In the interior we can also find a magnificent sculpture of the Crucified Christ of the sixteenth century. Access to the church is on the left wall and is dated in 1823.
We can not forget other important buildings such as the churches of San Miguel, the church of Santo Domingo and the Church of Santa Clara. Along with the convents of the Convent of Santa Isabel, the Convent of San Andrés and the Convent of the Immaculate Conception (Marchena) ], The walled enclosure, the Ducal Palace and Cilla del Cabildo.
The main economic activity of the municipality was traditionally agriculture, especially cereals and olive. This gave way to decades ago to the services and industrial sector in Marchena, although with a strong implementation of the agro-food processing industry and livestock products, highlighting PROCAVI in the killing and bottling of turkey meat. The companies "Marciense", "Molino Los Pérez" and "Casil", and for the production and distribution of "Huevos Camacho" eggs, can be packaged for oil and olive. There are also companies linked to agricultural production such as SEAGRO, dedicated to the selection and distribution of seeds and crop improvements.
The evolution of industrial activity in recent years can be considered positive, since during the number of industrial establishments has experienced a marked growth. As a large company "PROCAVI", one of the largest turkey abattoirs in Europe, dedicated to the slaughter and packaging of turkey meat for the Fuertes group. Currently, 1,000 workers are employed in Marchena.
In the textile sector, Nuribel, a clothing producer for several national brands, and Abuela Tata, dedicated to children's and baby's fashion stands out. And in the sector of transformation of the wood stands out "Cilpe". There are also several building companies booming.
Marchena has a strong specialization in the manufacturing industry, which encompasses the one that produces a physical and / or chemical transformation of materials and components into new products, with the work done by machines or labor. In this type of industry is included 97% of the industrial establishments of the municipality. Within this specialization are observed certain activities that have a more prominent role, especially food, beverages and tobacco, the manufacture of metal products, the textile industry and furniture.
The food, beverages and tobacco industry accounts for 28% of all establishments, although it is particularly notable for food, which comprises 24 establishments, which is equivalent to more than 16% of the total and more than half Of its branch; Followed by drinks, with 5 establishments, which shows the importance of establishments linked to basic products and the strong linkage of the agri-food industry with Marchena, where the transformation of products from agriculture and livestock is important for The obtaining of the final product.
Next would follow the manufacture of metal products, industrial activity with strong roots in the municipality, which represents 17% total. It is closely linked, along with other activities, to the strong weight that the construction industry represents within the local economy.
In third place is the textile and clothing industry, with 13.5%, which has become the protagonist of the local industry by contributing to its diversification, dedicating all its establishments in the manufacture of clothing and accessories, although in The reality of the existence of a high percentage of submerged economy detracts from the number of total establishments, as well as official employment figures. The clothing companies have two systems of work: making the entire production process of design, patronage, cutting, assembly, packaging, labeling and marketing; Or by diverting the assembly tasks to the production in subcontracted houses or workshops and assuming the rest of tasks.
Another activity that forms a prominent part of the diversification is the furniture industry and other manufacturing industries, with 12% total. The manufacture of furniture is recent, since the creation of most companies has been carried out in the last decade, although it is acquiring a special relevance in the productive structure and economy of the municipality as an emerging activity. This manufacturing has been traditionally handmade, but is currently introducing technology that allows it to compete outside the municipality.
The companies are characterized by their youth, the use of automated processes, wood treatment and the use of new materials. The rest of recorded activities complement diversify the local industry, although by the type of activity carried out, the existing demand and the importance of the technological component in the productive process, have less representation but not less important.
The low technological development that characterizes of Marchena's companies is manifested both by the degree of incorporation and production of new technologies and by the research capacity of the companies, although companies such as the web design company Interwes in the web design and SEO/SEM sector has helped several marketers to increase their presence and visibility on internet, although in any case its main market is the national market.
The tourism is still little developed, being the hotel supply very low. Of note are the Hostel of the convent of Santa María, the Hostel of La Hacienda La Boticaria and the country holiday house Villa Moral ( rural turism )
Marchena's wealth of museums is varied and on the rise. At the moment we can visit the Museum of Zurbarán, Goldsmithing and Embroidery and the Museum Coullaut Valera. At the moment the creation of the Ethnographic Museum "Casa del Agua" is under way, as well as the Museum of Oil Interpretation.
This museum is located in the Church of San Juan Bautista, a Gothic-Mudéjar building from the end of the 15th century.
In the sacristy, is the "Museum of Zurbarán". It is composed of nine paintings where they are represented: A Crucified, Immaculate, Peter, Santiago, Juan Evangelista, Juan the Baptist, Bartolomé, Andrés and Pablo. They were commissioned to the painter in 1634 and delivered in 1637. In all of them we must emphasize his tenebrismo and indubitable quality. The most interesting canvases are the Immaculate (with an objective and meticulous treatment of the tissues) and the Crucified (by the study of light through lunar illumination).
Among the liturgical objects stand out a series of books miniados of ends of the s. XV and the second third of the s. XVI; A liturgical suit in black velvet and gold thread; A pluvial layer with embroidery of the Apostles; Dalmatic, etc.
The great wealth of this Church is complemented by its treasure of gold work, magnanimous in quantity and quality. Two goldsmiths made magnificent works: Francisco de Alfaro and Marcos Beltrán. Of the first highlights:
- The "processional custody" in gold silver of 1.62 meters of height, with three floors simulating a Renaissance temple where the scene of the Baptist Degollation takes place. It is dated to the end of the 16th century.
- A golden silver chalice, with four enamel saints in the center and the four evangelists, highlighted in the foot
- Cristeros with Crucifix of 1592.
- Ampolleta to take the Holy Oil to the sick.
- Acetre and hyssop.
- A virile (small custody that is placed inside the big one).
The works of Marcos Beltrán are a chalice of golden silver and a portapaz of the same raw material. From the Baroque period stand the candelabra and altarpieces carved by Juan de Orea. In addition to the above, there are innumerable objects of minor authors but of great historical-artistic interest. Traductor de Google para empresas:Google Translator ToolkitTraductor de sitios webGlobal Market Finder Información del Traductor de GoogleComunidadMóvil Acerca de GooglePrivacidad y co
Coullaut Valera Museum
The museum Lorenzo Coullaut Valera is a permanent exhibition, from 1990, of originals, sketches and replicas of sculptural works of the mentioned author. Twenty-three sculptures, three reliefs and two original drawings of an altarpiece are distributed in the rooms of this museum, located in a tower Almohade of the 12th century, that in its day was one of the main doors of access to the walled enclosure of the city of Marchena . The artistic wagon of Coullaut Valera is vast and varied. His work has an international character, since it is distributed by different and diverse cities Spanish, Hispanic American and Italian.
The works that we can contemplate in the museum of Marchena are the following:
- Countess of Yebes.
- Carlos Coullaut.
- Juan Valera.
- Infanta Isabel.
- Virgin of the Epiphany.
- The Assumption.
- Mercedes Perioncely.
- Sacred Heart.
- Menéndez Pelayo.
- Isabel "La Católica".
- San Ignacio Flagbearer.
- La Raza (bronze).
- La Raza (plaster).
- The three marchers.
- Alfonso X "El Sabio".
- Lope de Vega.
Marchena is known for its festival of greater cultural potential, its [Holy Week]. The Semana Santa Marchenera is declared of National Tourist Interest of Andalusia and is one of the most important of our community for its history, its traditions and its important cultural value. The important images that procession through the streets of Marchena, its Sevillian influence, the undoubted importance that the Saeta has in the town, being maintained the cante of primitive saetas denominated molederas and an endless of traditions. Among the most celebrated traditions on the morning of Good Friday is the traditional "mandate" of the Brotherhood of Our Father Jesus Nazareno, or on Holy Saturday, the proclamation of the descent celebrated for the first time in 1568 and hundreds of Saetas, which last until dawn, try to prevent Solitude from returning to its Church of Santa Maria, are called "Moleeras" or molederas.
Feria and Fiestas: casetas, horses, Flemish costumes, dresses of faralaes, attractions, joy ... in our enclosure, where you can enjoy the hospitality of Marchenas's People.
Our traditional fair is celebrated the first weekend of September located in the surroundings of the road of Paradas, in the fair recital, celebrated of Thursday to Sunday.
Amusement huts are set up and you can taste a good wine, fresh beer, watching the beautiful ride on horseback through the royal contest of horsemen, amazons and horse-drawn carriages.
Expo Marchena. Since 2004, we have been celebrating in our municipality the Rural Development Fair, called Expo Marchena, organized by the Hon. Marchena Town Hall, [Sodemar, S.L.] (Rural Development Society of Marchena) and Asicom (Association of Industrialists and Traders of Marchena).
The main objective of Expo Marchena is the economic development of the municipality as well as promoting the approach of companies to the market so that they can make known the products and services they offer directly to consumers. This trade show is organized by the Economic Development Society, SODEMAR, SLM.
In the gastronomía marchenera they emphasize the biscuits and muffins (with more than 100 years of antiquity), as well as the typical marcherie cakes. Also typical are the delicious sweets that the nuns of cloister of the convents of Santa Maria and San Andrés elaborate.
- Châteaudun, France