|Date||Variable (follows the paschal computus, and depends on denomination)|
|Frequency||Annual (lunar calendar)|
|Related to||Exodus, Temptation of Christ|
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima, 'Fortieth') is the solemn Christian religious observance in the liturgical year commemorating the 40 days Jesus Christ spent fasting in the desert and enduring temptation by Satan, according to the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke, before beginning his public ministry. Lent is observed in the Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Methodist, Moravian, Oriental Orthodox, Church of the East, United Protestant and Roman Catholic traditions of Christianity. Some Anabaptist, Baptist, Reformed (including certain Continental Reformed, Presbyterian and Congregationalist churches), and nondenominational Christian churches also observe Lent, although many churches in these traditions do not.
Which days are enumerated as being part of Lent differs between denominations (see below), although in all of them Lent is described as lasting for a total duration of 40 days, the number of days Jesus, as well as Moses and Elijah, went without food in their respective fasts. In Lent-observing Western Churches, Lent begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later; depending on the Christian denomination and local custom, Lent concludes either on the evening of Maundy Thursday, or at sundown on Holy Saturday, when the Easter Vigil is celebrated, though in either case, Lenten fasting observances are maintained until the evening of Holy Saturday. Sundays may or may not be excluded, depending on the denomination. In Eastern Christianity – including Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholics, Eastern Lutherans, and Oriental Orthodox – Lent is observed continuously without interruption for 40 days starting on Clean Monday and ending on Lazarus Saturday before Holy Week.
Lent is a period of grief that necessarily ends with a great celebration of Easter. Thus, it is known in Eastern Orthodox circles as the season of "bright sadness" (Greek: χαρμολύπη, romanized: charmolypê). The purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer for Easter through prayer, mortifying the flesh, repentance of sins, almsgiving, simple living, and self-denial. In Lent, many Christians commit to fasting, as well as giving up certain luxuries in imitation of Jesus Christ's sacrifice during his journey into the desert for 40 days; this is known as one's Lenten sacrifice.
Many Lent-observing Christians also add a Lenten spiritual discipline, such as reading a daily devotional or praying through a Lenten calendar, to draw themselves near to God. Often observed are the Stations of the Cross, a devotional commemoration of Christ's carrying the Cross and crucifixion. Many churches remove flowers from their altars and veil crucifixes, religious statues that show the triumphant Christ, and other elaborate religious symbols in violet fabrics in solemn observance of the event. The custom of veiling is typically practiced the last two weeks, beginning on the Sunday Judica which is therefore in the vernacular called Passion Sunday until Good Friday, when the cross is unveiled solemnly in the liturgy.
In most Lent-observing denominations, the last week of Lent coincides with Holy Week, starting with Palm Sunday. Following the New Testament narrative, Jesus' crucifixion is commemorated on Good Friday, and at the beginning of the next week the joyful celebration of Easter Sunday, the start of the Easter season, which recalls the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. In some Christian denominations, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday form the Easter Triduum.
The English word Lent is a shortened form of the Old English word lencten, meaning "spring season", as its Dutch language cognate lente (Old Dutch lentin) still does today. A dated term in German, Lenz (Old High German lenzo), is also related. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, 'the shorter form (? Old Germanic type *laŋgito- , *laŋgiton-) seems to be a derivative of *laŋgo- long […] and may possibly have reference to the lengthening of the days as characterizing the season of spring'. The origin of the -en element is less clear: it may simply be a suffix, or lencten may originally have been a compound of *laŋgo- 'long' and an otherwise little-attested word *-tino, meaning "day".
In languages spoken where Christianity was earlier established, such as Greek and Latin, the term signifies the period dating from the 40th weekday before Easter. In modern Greek the term is Σαρακοστή (Sarakostí), derived from the earlier Τεσσαρακοστή (Tessarakostí), meaning "fortieth". The corresponding word in Latin, quadragesima ("fortieth"), is the origin of the terms used in Latin-derived languages and in some others.
Examples in the Romance language group are: Catalan quaresma, French carême, Galician coresma, Italian quaresima, Occitan quaresma, Portuguese quaresma, Romanian păresimi, Sardinian caresima, Spanish cuaresma, and Walloon cwareme.
In other languages, the name used refers to the activity associated with the season. Thus it is called "fasting period" in Czech (postní doba), German (Fastenzeit), and Norwegian (fasten/fastetid), and it is called "The Great Fast" in Arabic (الصوم الكبير – al-ṣawm al-kabīr), Syriac (ܨܘܡܐ ܪܒܐ ṣawmā rabbā), Polish (wielki post), Russian (великий пост – vieliki post), Ukrainian (великий піст – velyky pist), and Hungarian (nagyböjt). Romanian, apart from a version based on the Latin term referring to the 40 days (see above), also has a "great fast" version: postul mare. Dutch has three options, one of which means fasting period, and the other two referring to the 40-day period indicated in the Latin term: vastentijd, veertigdagentijd and quadragesima, respectively. In India, it is called चरम चालीसा (Charam Chalisa - meaning, "climax forty").
The pattern of fasting and praying for forty days is seen in the Christian Bible, on which basis the liturgical season of Lent was established. In the Old Testament, the prophet Moses went into the mountains for forty days and forty nights to pray and fast "without eating bread or drinking water" before receiving the Ten Commandments (cf. Exodus 34:28). Likewise, the prophet Elijah went into the mountains for forty days and nights to fast and pray "until he reached Horeb, the mountain of God" when "the word of the Lord came to him" (cf. 1 Kings 19:8–9). The early Christian bishop Maximus of Turin wrote that as Elijah by "fasting continuously for a period of forty days and forty nights...merited to extinguish the prolonged and severe dryness of the whole world, doing so with a stream of rain and steeping the earth's dryness with the bounty of water from heaven", in the Christian tradition, this is interpreted as being "a figure of ourselves so that we, also fasting a total of forty days, might merit the spiritual rain of baptism...[and] a shower from heaven might pour down upon the dry earth of the whole world, and the abundant waters of the saving bath might saturate the lengthy drought of the Gentiles." In the New Testament, Jesus went into the desert to fast and pray for forty days and forty nights; it was during this time that Satan tried to tempt him (cf. Matthew 4:1–3). The forty day and night fasts of Moses, Elijah, and Jesus prepared them for their work.
Early Christianity records the tradition of fasting before Easter. The Apostolic Constitutions permit the consumption of "bread, vegetables, salt and water, in Lent" with "flesh and wine being forbidden." The Canons of Hippolytus authorize only bread and salt to be consumed during Holy Week. The practice of fasting and abstaining from alcohol, meat and lacticinia during Lent thus became established in the Church.
In AD 339, Athanasius of Alexandria wrote that the Lenten fast was a forty-day fast that "the entire world" observed. Saint Augustine of Hippo (AD 354–AD 430) wrote that: "Our fast at any other time is voluntary; but during Lent, we sin if we do not fast."
Three main prevailing theories exist on the finalization of Lent as a forty-day fast prior to the arrival of Easter Sunday: First, that it was created at the Council of Nicea in 325 and there is no earlier incarnation. Second, that it is based on an Egyptian Christian post-theophany fast. Third, a combination of origins syncretized around the Council of Nicea. There are early references to periods of fasting prior to baptism. For instance, the Didache, a 1st or 2nd-century Christian text, commends "the baptizer, the one to be baptized, and any others that are able" to fast to prepare for the sacrament.
For centuries it has been common practice for baptisms to take place on Easter, and so such references were formerly taken to be references to a pre-Easter fast. Tertullian, in his 3rd-century work On Baptism, indicates that Easter was a "most solemn day for baptism." However, he is one of only a handful of writers in the ante-Nicene period who indicates this preference, and even he says that Easter was by no means the only favored day for baptisms in his locale.
Since the 20th century, scholars have acknowledged that Easter was not the standard day for baptisms in the early church, and references to pre-baptismal periods of fasting were not necessarily connected with Easter. There were shorter periods of fasting observed in the pre-Nicene church (Athanasius noted that the 4th-century Alexandrian church observed a period of fasting before Pascha [Easter]). However it is known that the 40-day period of fasting – the season later named Lent – before Eastertide was clarified at the Nicene Council. In 363-64 AD, the Council of Laodicea prescribed the Lenten fast as "as of strict necessity."
Date and duration
The 40 days of Lent are calculated differently among the various Christian denominations that observe it, depending on how the date of Easter is calculated, but also on which days Lent is understood to begin and end, and on whether all the days of Lent are counted consecutively. Additionally, the date of Lent may depend on the calendar used by the particular church, such as the (revised) Julian or Gregorian calendars typically used by Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox churches, or the Ethiopian and Coptic calendars traditionally used by some Oriental Orthodox churches.
Since 1970, in the Roman Rite Lent starts on Ash Wednesday and ends on the evening of Holy Thursday with the Mass of the Lord's Supper. This comprises a period of 44 days. The Lenten fast excludes Sundays and continues through Good Friday and Holy Saturday, totaling 40 days (though the Eucharistic Fast still applies). Although Lent formally ends on Holy Thursday, Lenten fasting practices continue until the Easter Vigil and additionally, the celebration of Easter is preceded by the Paschal fast.
In the Ambrosian Rite, Lent begins on the Sunday that follows what is celebrated as Ash Wednesday in the rest of the Latin Catholic Church, and ends as in the Roman Rite, thus being of 40 days, counting the Sundays but not Holy Thursday. The day for beginning the Lenten fast in the Ambrosian Rite is the Monday after Ash Wednesday. The special Ash Wednesday fast is transferred to the first Friday of the Ambrosian Lent. Until this rite was revised by Saint Charles Borromeo, the liturgy of the First Sunday of Lent was festive, celebrated in white vestments with chanting of the Gloria in Excelsis and Alleluia, in line with the recommendation in Matthew 6:16, "When you fast, do not look gloomy."
During Lent, the Church discourages marriages, but couples may marry if they forgo the special blessings of the Nuptial Mass and limit social celebrations.
Protestantism and Western Orthodoxy
In Protestant and Western Orthodox Churches that celebrate it, the season of Lent lasts from Ash Wednesday to the evening of Holy Saturday. This calculation makes Lent last 46 days if the 6 Sundays are included, but only 40 days if they are excluded. This definition is still that of the Moravian Church, Lutheran Church, Anglican Church, Methodist Church, Western Rite Orthodox Church, United Protestant Churches, and those of the Reformed Churches (i.e., Continental Reformed, Presbyterian, and Congregationalist) that observe Lent.
Eastern Orthodoxy and Byzantine Rite
In the Byzantine Rite, i.e., the Eastern Orthodox Great Lent (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days" and "Great Fast" respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year.
The 40 days of Great Lent include Sundays, and begin on Clean Monday. The 40 days are immediately followed by what are considered distinct periods of fasting, Lazarus Saturday and Palm Sunday, which in turn are followed straightway by Holy Week. Great Lent is broken only after the Paschal (Easter) Divine Liturgy.
The Eastern Orthodox Church maintains the traditional Church's teaching on fasting. The rules for lenten fasting are the monastic rules. Fasting in the Orthodox Church is more than simply abstaining from certain foods. During the Great Lent Orthodox Faithful intensify their prayers and spiritual exercises, go to church services more often, study the Scriptures and the works of the Church Fathers in depth, limit their entertainment and spendings and focus on charity and good works.
Among the Oriental Orthodox, there are various local traditions regarding Lent. Those using the Alexandrian Rite, i.e., the Coptic Orthodox, Coptic Catholic, Ethiopian Orthodox, Ethiopian Catholic, Eritrean Orthodox, and Eritrean Catholic Churches, observe eight continuous weeks of fasting constituting three distinct consecutive fasting periods:
- a Pre-Lenten fast in preparation for Great Lent
- Great Lent itself
- the Paschal fast during Holy Week which immediately follows Lent
As in the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the date of Easter is typically reckoned according to the Julian Calendar, and usually occurs later than Easter according to Gregorian Calendar used by Catholic and Protestant Churches.
In Ethiopian Orthodoxy, fasting (tsome) lasts for 55 continuous days before Easter (Fasika), although the fast is divided into three separate periods: Tsome Hirkal, the eight-day Fast of Heraclius, commemorating the fast requested by the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius before he reputedly set out to fight the Sassanian Empire and recover the True Cross which had been seized and taken from Jerusalem; Tsome Arba, 40 days of Lent; and Tsome Himamat, seven days commemorating Holy Week. Fasting involves abstention from animal products (meat, dairy, and eggs), and refraining from eating or drinking before 3:00 pm. Ethiopian devotees may also abstain from sexual activity and the consumption of alcohol.
Quartodeciman Christians end the fast of Lent on the Paschal full moon of the Hebrew calendar, in order to celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread beginning on the 14th of Nisan, whence the name derives. For this practice, they were excommunicated in the Easter controversy of the 2nd century A.D.
Three traditional practices to be taken up with renewed vigour during Lent; these are known as the three pillars of Lent:
Self-reflection, simplicity, and sincerity (honesty) are emphasised during the Lenten season.
During the season of Shrovetide, it is customary for Christians to ponder what Lenten sacrifices they will make for Lent. Another hallmark of Shrovetide is the opportunity for a last round of merrymaking associated with Carnival and Fastelavn before the start of the somber Lenten season. The traditions of carrying Shrovetide rods and consuming Shrovetide buns after attending church is celebrated.
On the final day of the season, Shrove Tuesday, many traditional Christians, such as Lutherans, Anglicans, Methodists and Roman Catholics, "make a special point of self-examination, of considering what wrongs they need to repent, and what amendments of life or areas of spiritual growth they especially need to ask God's help in dealing with." During Shrovetide, many churches place a basket in the narthex to collect the previous year's Holy Week palm branches that were blessed and distributed during the Palm Sunday liturgies; on Shrove Tuesday, churches burn these palms to make the ashes used during the services held on the very next day, Ash Wednesday.
In historically Lutheran nations, Shrovetide is known as Fastelavn. After attending the Mass on Shrove Sunday, congregants enjoy Shrovetide buns (fastelavnsboller), "round sweet buns that are covered with icing and filled with cream and/or jam." Children often dress up and collect money from people while singing. They also practice the tradition of hitting a barrel, which represents fighting Satan; after doing this, children enjoy the sweets inside the barrel. Lutheran Christians in these nations carry Shrovetide rods (fastelavnsris), which "branches decorated with sweets, little presents, etc., that are used to decorate the home or give to children."
In English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom and Canada, the day before Lent is known as Shrove Tuesday, which is derived from the word shrive, meaning "to administer the sacrament of confession to; to absolve." In these countries, pancakes are associated with Shrove Tuesday because they are a way to use up rich foods such as eggs, milk, and sugar – rich foods which are not eaten during the season.
Mardi Gras and carnival celebrations
Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday") refers to events of the Carnival celebration, beginning on or after the feast of Epiphany and culminating on the day before Lent. The carnival celebrations which in many cultures traditionally precede Lent are seen as a last opportunity for excess before Lent begins. Some of the most famous are the Carnival of Barranquilla, the Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the Carnival of Venice, Cologne Carnival, the New Orleans Mardi Gras, the Rio de Janeiro carnival, and the Trinidad and Tobago Carnival.
In stark contrast to traditions of merrymaking and feasting, Oriental Orthodox Churches practice a Pre-Lenten fast in preparation for Lent which is immediately followed by the fast of Great Lent without interruption.
Fasting and Lenten sacrifice
There are traditionally 40 days in Lent; these are marked by fasting, both from foods and festivities, and by other acts of penance. Fasting is maintained for all forty days of Lent (regardless of how they are enumerated; see above). Historically, fasting has been maintained continuously for the whole Lenten season, including Sundays. The making of a Lenten sacrifice, in which Christians give up a personal pleasure for the duration of 40 days, is a traditional practice during Lent.
During Shrovetide and especially on Shrove Tuesday, the day before the start of the Lenten season, many Christians finalize their decision with respect to what Lenten sacrifices they will make for Lent. Examples include practicing vegetarianism and teetotalism during Lent as a Lenten sacrifice. While making a Lenten sacrifice, it is customary to pray for strength to keep it; many often wish others for doing so as well, e.g. "May God bless your Lenten sacrifice." In addition, some believers add a regular spiritual discipline, to bring them closer to God, such as reading a Lenten daily devotional.
For Lutherans, Moravians, Anglicans, Methodists, Roman Catholics, United Protestants, and Lent-observing Reformed Christians, the Lenten penitential season ends after the Easter Vigil Mass or Sunrise service. Orthodox Christians also break their fast after the Paschal Vigil, a service which starts around 11:00 pm on Holy Saturday, and which includes the Paschal celebration of the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom. At the end of the service, the priest blesses cheese, eggs, flesh meats, and other items that the faithful have been abstaining from for the duration of Great Lent.
Lenten traditions and liturgical practices are less common, less binding, and sometimes non-existent among some liberal and progressive Christians. A greater emphasis on anticipation of Easter Sunday is often encouraged more than the penitence of Lent or Holy Week.
Some Christians as well as secular groups also interpret the Lenten fast in a positive tone, not as renunciation but as contributing to causes such as environmental stewardship and improvement of health. Even some atheists find value in the Christian tradition and observe Lent.
Lenten Black Fast
Historically, using the early Christian form known as the Black Fast, the observant does not consume food for a whole day until the evening, and at sunset, Christians traditionally break the Lenten fast of that day with supper (no food is consumed in a day apart from the Lenten supper). In India and Pakistan, many Christians continue this practice of fasting until sunset on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday, with many fasting in this manner throughout the whole season of Lent.
Christians of various traditions, including Catholics and Methodists, have voluntarily undertaken the Daniel Fast during the season of Lent, in which one abstains from "meat, fish, egg, dairy products, chocolates, ice creams, sugar, sweets, wine or any alcoholic beverages" (cf. Daniel 10:3).
After attending a worship service (often on Wednesday and Friday evenings), it is common for Christians of various denominations to conclude that day's Lenten fast together through a communal Lenten supper, which may be held in the church's parish hall. Lenten suppers ordinarily take place in the home setting during the forty days of Lent during which a family (or individual) concludes that day's fast after a mealtime prayer.
Abstinence from meat and animal produce
Fasting has historically included abstinence from wine, meat, and lacticinia (edible produce derived from animals including dairy products and eggs) which has been enjoined continuously for the whole duration of the season including Sundays. Throughout Christendom, some adherents continue to mark the season with a traditional abstention from the consumption of meat, most notably among Lutherans, Roman Catholics, and Anglicans. The form of abstention may vary depending on what is customary; some abstain from meat for 40 days, some do so only on Fridays, or some only on Good Friday itself.
In Roman Catholicism, lacticinia may be consumed by penitents in Spain and its colonised territories, per a pontifical decree of Pope Alexander VI. Until 1741, meat and lacticinia were otherwise forbidden for the whole season of Lent, including Sundays. In that year, Pope Benedict XIV allowed for the consumption of meat and lacticinia during certain fasting days of Lent.
Dispensations for the allowance of certain foods have been given throughout history, depending on the climate in that part of the world. For example, Giraldus Cambrensis, in his Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin through Wales, reports that "in Germany and the arctic regions", "great and religious persons" eat the tail of beavers as "fish" because of its superficial resemblance to "both the taste and colour of fish." The animal was very abundant in Wales at the time. Saint Thomas Aquinas allowed for the consumption of candy during Lent, because "sugared spices", such as comfits, were, in his opinion, digestive aids on par with medicine rather than food.
Fasting practices are considerably relaxed in Western societies today, though in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, and Eastern Lutheran Churches abstinence from all animal products including eggs, fish, fowl, and milk is still commonly practiced, so that, where this is observed, only vegetarian (or vegan) meals are consumed for the whole of Lent, 48 days in the Byzantine Rite. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church's practices require a fasting period that is a great deal longer, and there is some dispute over whether fish consumption is permissible.
In the traditions of Lent-observing Western Christian churches, abstinence from eating some form of food (generally meat, but not dairy or fish products) is distinguished from fasting. In principle, abstinence is to be observed on Ash Wednesday and on every Friday of the year that is not a solemnity (a liturgical feast day of the highest rank); but in each country the episcopal conference can determine the form it is to take, perhaps replacing abstinence with other forms of penance.
Through the Middle Ages, Christians abstained from sexual relations during the whole of Lent. In view of this, nine months after Lent, birth records were drastically low due to believers abstaining from intimate relations during Lent. In Spain, according to researchers from the University of Valencia and the University of Alcalà, the custom of abstaining from sexual relations was widely practiced until the end of the Franco régime, though some Christians voluntarily continue this practice today, and denominations such as the Eastern Orthodox Church continue to require abstinence from sexual relations during Lent.
Specific fasting traditions by Christian denomination
Prior to 1966, the Roman Catholic Church allowed Catholics of fasting age to eat only one full meal a day throughout all forty days of Lent, except on the Lord's Day. Catholics were allowed to take a smaller meal, called a collation, which was introduced after the 14th century A.D., and a cup of some beverage, accompanied by a little bread, in the morning. The 1917 Code of Canon Law allowed the full meal on a fasting day to be taken at any hour and to be supplemented by two collations, with the quantity and the quality of the food to be determined by local custom. Abstinence from meat was to be observed on Ash Wednesday and on Fridays and Saturdays in Lent.
The Lenten fast ended on Holy Saturday at noon. Only those aged 21 to 59 were obliged to fast. As with all ecclesiastical laws, particular difficulties, such as strenuous work or illness, excused one from observance, and a dispensation from the law could be granted by a bishop or parish priest. A rule of thumb is that the two collations should not add up to the equivalent of another full meal. Rather portions were to be: "sufficient to sustain strength, but not sufficient to satisfy hunger."
In 1966, Pope Paul VI reduced the obligatory fasting days from all forty days of Lent to Ash Wednesday and Good Friday, abstinence days to Fridays and Ash Wednesday, and allowed episcopal conferences to replace abstinence and fasting with other forms of penitence such as charity and piety, as declared and established in his apostolic constitution Paenitemini; fasting on all forty days of Lent is still "strongly recommended", though not under pain of mortal sin. This was done so that those in countries where the standard of living is lower can replace fasting with prayer, but "…where economic well-being is greater, so much more will the witness of asceticism have to be given…"
This was made part of the 1983 Code of Canon Law, which made obligatory fasting for those aged between 18 and 59, and abstinence for those aged 14 and upward. The Irish Catholic Bishops' Conference decided to allow other forms of Friday penance to replace that of abstinence from meat, whether in Lent or outside Lent, suggesting alternatives such as abstaining from some other food, or from alcohol or smoking; making a special effort at participating in family prayer or in Mass; making the Stations of the Cross; or helping the poor, sick, old, or lonely.
The Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales made a similar ruling in 1985 but decided in 2011 to restore the traditional year-round Friday abstinence from meat. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops has maintained the rule of abstention from meat on Friday only during Lent and considers poultry to be a type of meat but not fish or shellfish.
The Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen (CMRI), a Sedevacantist Roman Catholic congregation, requires fasting for its members on all of the forty days of the Christian season of repentance, Lent (except on the Lord's Day). The CMRI mandates under the pain of grave sin, abstinence from meat on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, Holy Saturday and all Fridays of the year in general.
Even during Lent, the rule about solemnities holds, so that the obligation of Friday abstinence does not apply on 19 and 25 March when, as usually happens, the solemnities of Saint Joseph and the Annunciation are celebrated on those dates. The same applies to Saint Patrick's Day, which is a solemnity in the whole of Ireland as well as in dioceses that have Saint Patrick as their principal patron saint. In some other places, too, where there are strong Irish traditions within the Catholic community, a dispensation is granted for that day. In Hong Kong, where Ash Wednesday often coincides with Chinese New Year celebrations, a dispensation is then granted from the laws of fast and abstinence, and the faithful are exhorted to use some other form of penance.
Following the birth of Lutheranism in the Protestant Reformation, Lutheran church orders in the 16th century "retained the observation of the Lenten fast, and Lutherans have observed this season with a serene, earnest attitude." Many Lutheran churches advocate fasting during Lent, especially on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday. A Handbook for the Discipline of Lent published by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, a mainline Lutheran denomination, offers a number of guidelines for fasting, abstinence, and other forms of self-denial during Lent:
- Fast on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday with only one simple meal during the day, usually without meat.
- Refrain from eating meat (bloody foods) on all Fridays in Lent, substituting fish for example.
- Eliminate a food or food group for the entire season. Especially consider saving rich and fatty foods for Easter.
- Consider not eating before receiving Communion in Lent.
- Abstain from or limit a favorite activity (television, movies etc.) for the entire season, and spend more time in prayer, Bible study, and reading devotional material.
- Don't just give up something that you have to give up for your doctor or diet anyway. Make your fast a voluntary self-denial (i.e. discipline) that you offer to God in prayer.
The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, a confessional Lutheran denomination, likewise permits (but does not require) members to give things up for Lent, while emphasizing that the purpose of Lent is repentance from sin rather than minor acts of self-denial in themselves.
John Calvin, the principal figure in the development of Reformed theology, critiqued the practice of Lent in his Institutes of the Christian Religion as a "superstitious observance," and observed that "Christ did not fast repeatedly (which he must have done had he meant to lay down a law for an anniversary fast), but once only, when preparing for the promulgation of the gospel." Similarly, leading Reformed divines such as Samuel Rutherford rejected the obligation of Lent.
The Directory for Public Worship produced by the Westminster Assembly in 1644 and approved by the Scottish Parliament in 1645 takes the position that "[t]here is no day commanded in scripture to be kept holy under the gospel but the Lord’s day, which is the Christian Sabbath," and approves of fasting specifically "upon special emergent occasions" (cf. days of humiliation and thanksgiving). Accordingly, and in keeping with the Reformed regulative principle of worship, the Reformed churches have historically not observed Lent.
Some churches in the Reformed tradition observe Lent today. For example, the Reformed Church in America, a Mainline Protestant denomination, describes the first day of Lent, Ash Wednesday, as a day "focused on prayer, fasting, and repentance," encouraging members to "observe a Holy Lent, by self-examination and penitence, by prayer and fasting, by practicing works of love, and by reading and reflecting on God's Holy Word." Among Reformed Christians who do observe Lent, Good Friday, which is towards the end of the Lenten season, is an important day of communal fasting, as it is for many Episcopalians, Lutherans, and Methodists.
In the Anglo-Catholic wing of the Anglican Communion, the Saint Augustine's Prayer Book, a companion to the Book of Common Prayer, states that fasting is "usually meaning not more than a light breakfast, one full meal, and one half meal, on the forty days of Lent." It further states that "the major Fast Days of Ash Wednesday and Good Friday, as the American Prayer-Book indicates, are stricter in obligation, though not in observance, than the other Fast Days, and therefore should not be neglected except in cases of serious illness or other necessity of an absolute character."
There is a strong biblical base for fasting, particularly during the 40 days of Lent leading to the celebration of Easter. Jesus, as part of his spiritual preparation, went into the wilderness and fasted 40 days and 40 nights, according to the Gospels.
Good Friday, which is towards the end of the Lenten season, is traditionally an important day of communal fasting for Methodists. Rev. Jacqui King, the minister of Nu Faith Community United Methodist Church in Houston explained the philosophy of fasting during Lent as "I'm not skipping a meal because in place of that meal I'm actually dining with God."
The United Methodist Church teaches, in reference to one's Lenten sacrifice, that "On each Lord's Day in Lent, while Lenten fasts continue, the reverent spirit of Lent is tempered with joyful anticipation of the Resurrection."
The number 40 has many Biblical references:
- Moses spent 40 days on Mount Sinai with God
- Elijah spent 40 days and nights walking to Mount Horeb
- God sent 40 days and nights of rain in the great flood of Noah
- The Hebrew people wandered 40 years in the desert while traveling to the Promised Land
- Jonah's prophecy of judgment gave 40 days to the city of Nineveh in which to repent or be destroyed
- Jesus retreated into the wilderness, where He fasted for 40 days, and was tempted by the devil. He overcame all three of Satan's temptations by citing scripture to the devil, at which point the devil left him, angels ministered to Jesus, and He began His ministry. Jesus further said that His disciples should fast "when the bridegroom shall be taken from them", a reference to his Passion.
- It is the traditional belief that Jesus lay for 40 hours in the tomb, which led to the 40 hours of total fasting that preceded the Easter celebration in the early Church (the biblical reference to 'three days in the tomb' is understood by them as spanning three days, from Friday afternoon to early Sunday morning, rather than three 24-hour periods of time). Some Christian denominations, such as The Way International and Logos Apostolic Church of God, as well as Anglican scholar E. W. Bullinger in The Companion Bible, believe Christ was in the grave for a total of 72 hours, reflecting the type of Jonah in the belly of the whale.
One of the most important ceremonies at Easter is the baptism of the initiates on Easter Eve. The fast was initially undertaken by the catechumens to prepare them for the reception of this sacrament. Later, the period of fasting from Good Friday until Easter Day was extended to six days, to correspond with the six weeks of training necessary to give the final instruction to those converts who were to be baptized.
Converts to Christianity followed a strict catechumenate or period of instruction and discipline prior to receiving the sacrament of baptism, sometimes lasting up to three years. In Jerusalem near the close of the fourth century, classes were held throughout Lent for three hours each day. With the legalization of Christianity (by the Edict of Milan) and its later imposition as the state religion of the Roman Empire, its character was endangered by the great influx of new members. In response, the Lenten fast and practices of self-renunciation were required annually of all Christians, both to show solidarity with the catechumens, and for their own spiritual benefit.
Prayer and devotion
A common practice is the singing of the Stabat Mater hymn in designated groups. Among Filipino Roman Catholics, the recitation of the epic of Christ' passion, called Pasiong Mahal, is also observed. In many Christian countries, grand religious processions and cultural customs are observed, such as the Stations of the Cross. A custom of visiting seven churches during Holy Week to pray the Stations of the Cross and praying at each church, exists and has been done in an ecumenical context, involving Christians of the Catholic, Methodist, Episcopal and Salvationist traditions, among others.
Omission of Gloria and Alleluia
The Gloria in excelsis Deo, which is usually said or sung on Sundays at Mass (or Communion) of the Roman, Lutheran and Anglican rites, is omitted on the Sundays of Lent (as well as Sundays of Advent), but continues in use on solemnities and feasts and on special celebrations of a more solemn kind. Some Mass compositions were written especially for Lent, such as Michael Haydn's Missa tempore Quadragesimae, without Gloria, in D minor, and for modest forces, only choir and organ. The Gloria is used on Maundy Thursday, to the accompaniment of bells, which then fall silent until the Gloria in excelsis of the Easter Vigil.
The Lutheran Divine Service, the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Churches, and the Presbyterian service of worship associate the Alleluia with joy and omit it entirely throughout Lent, not only at Mass but also in the canonical hours and outside the liturgy. The word "Alleluia" at the beginning and end of the Acclamation Before the Gospel at Mass is replaced by another phrase.
Before 1970, the omission began with Septuagesima, and the whole Acclamation was omitted and was replaced by a Tract; and in the Liturgy of the Hours the word "Alleluia", normally added to the Gloria Patri at the beginning of each Hour – now simply omitted during Lent – was replaced by the phrase Laus tibi, Domine, rex aeternae gloriae (Praise to you, O Lord, king of eternal glory).
Until the Ambrosian Rite was revised by Saint Charles Borromeo the liturgy of the First Sunday of Lent was festive, celebrated with chanting of the Gloria and Alleluia, in line with the recommendation in Matthew 6:16, "When you fast, do not look gloomy."
In the Byzantine Rite, the Gloria (Great Doxology) continues to be used in its normal place in the Matins service, and the Alleluia appears all the more frequently, replacing "God is the Lord" at Matins.
Veiling of religious images
This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2021)
In certain majority-Christian states, in which liturgical forms of Christianity predominate, religious objects were traditionally veiled for the entire 40 days of Lent. Though perhaps uncommon in the United States of America, this practice is consistently observed in Goa, Malta, Peru, the Philippines (the latter only for the entire duration of Holy Week, with the exception of processional images), and in the Spanish cities: Barcelona, Málaga, and Seville. In Ireland, before Vatican II, when impoverished rural Catholic convents and parishes could not afford purple fabrics, they resorted to either removing the statues altogether or, if too heavy or bothersome, turned the statues to face the wall. As is popular custom, the 14 Stations of the Cross plaques on the walls are not veiled.
Crosses were often adorned with jewels and gemstones, the form referred to as Crux Gemmata. To keep the faithful from adoring elaborately-ornamented crucifixes, churches began veiling them in purple fabrics. The violet colour later came to symbolize penance and mourning.
Further liturgical changes in modernity reduced such observances to the last week of Passiontide. In parishes that could afford only small quantities of violet fabrics, only the heads of the statues were veiled. If no violet fabrics could be afforded at all, then the religious statues and images were turned around facing the wall. Flowers were removed as a sign of solemn mourning.
In the pre-1992 Methodist liturgy and pre-1970 forms of the Roman Rite, the last two weeks of Lent are known as Passiontide, a period beginning on the Fifth Sunday in Lent, which in the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal is called the First Sunday in Passiontide and in earlier editions Passion Sunday. All statues (and in England paintings as well) in the church were traditionally veiled in violet. This was seen as in keeping with John 8:46–59, the Gospel of that Sunday, in which Jesus "hid himself" from the people.
Within many churches in the United States of America, after the Second Vatican Council, the need to veil statues or crosses became increasingly irrelevant and was deemed unnecessary by some diocesan bishops. As a result, the veils were removed at the singing of the Gloria in Excelsis Deo during the Easter Vigil. In 1970, the name "Passiontide" was dropped, although the last two weeks are markedly different from the rest of the season, and continuance of the tradition of veiling images is left to the discretion of a country's conference of bishops or even to individual parishes as pastors may wish.
On Good Friday, the Anglican, Lutheran, and Methodist churches traditionally veiled "all pictures, statutes, and the cross are covered in mourning black", while "the chancel and altar coverings are replaced with black, and altar candles are extinguished." The fabrics are then "replaced with white on sunrise on Easter Sunday."
In the Lutheran, Methodist, Roman Catholic, and many Anglican churches, pastors and priests wear violet vestments during the season of Lent. Roman Catholic priests wear white vestments on solemnity days for St. Joseph (March 19) and the Annunciation (March 25), although these solemnities are transferred to another date if they fall on a Sunday during Lent or at any time during Holy Week. On the fourth Sunday of Lent, rose-coloured (pink) vestments may be worn in lieu of violet. Historically, black was also used: Pope Innocent III declared black to be the proper color for Lent, though Durandus of Saint-Pourçain asserted violet was preferable to black.
In some Anglican churches, a type of unbleached linen or muslin known as "Lenten array" is worn during the first three weeks of Lent, crimson is worn during Passiontide, and on holy days, the colour proper to the day is worn. In certain other Anglican churches, as an alternative to violet for all of Lent except Holy Week and red beginning on Palm Sunday through Holy Saturday, Lenten array, typically made of sackcloth such as burlap and trimmed with crimson cloth, often velvet, is worn, even during Holy Week—since the sackcloth represents penance and the crimson edges represent the Passion of Christ. Even the veils that cover the altar crosses or crucifixes and statuary (if any) are made of the same sackcloth with the crimson trim.
Holy days within the season of Lent
This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2013)
There are several holy days within the season of Lent:
- Clean Monday is the first of Lent in Eastern Christianity.
- Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent in Western Christianity, such as the Roman Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Churches, and Methodist Churches. However, in the Ambrosian Rite and the Mozarabic Rite, there is no Ash Wednesday: Lent begins on the first Sunday and the fast begins on the first Monday.
- Lenten Sundays
- The first Sunday in Lent marks one of the weeks during which Ember days are observed in Western Christian churches.
- The fourth Sunday in Lent, which marks the halfway point between Ash Wednesday and Easter Sunday, is referred to as Laetare Sunday by Anglicans, Roman Catholics, and many other Christians, because of the traditional Entrance Antiphon of the Mass. Due to the more "joyful" character of the day (since laetare in Latin means "rejoice"), the priest, deacon, and subdeacon have the option of wearing vestments of a rose colour (pink) instead of violet.
- Additionally, the fourth Lenten Sunday, Mothering Sunday, which has become known as Mother's Day in the United Kingdom and an occasion for honouring mothers of children, has its origin in a 16th-century celebration of the Mother Church.
- The fourth Sunday of Lent has also been called "Rose Sunday"; on this day the Pope blesses the Golden Rose, a jewel in the shape of a rose.
- Wednesday of Holy Week, Holy Wednesday (also sometimes known as Spy Wednesday) commemorates Judas Iscariot's bargain to betray Jesus.
- Thursday of Holy Week is known as Maundy Thursday or Holy Thursday, and is a day Christians commemorate the Last Supper shared by Christ with his disciples.
- The next day is Good Friday, which begins the Easter Triduum; on this day Christians remember Jesus' crucifixion, death, and burial.
In the Anglican, Lutheran, Old Catholic, Roman Catholic, and many other traditions, the Easter Triduum is a three-day event that begins Maundy Thursday evening, with the entrance hymn of the Mass of the Lord's Supper. After this celebration, the consecrated Hosts are taken solemnly from the altar to a place of reposition, where the faithful are invited to meditate in the presence of the consecrated Hosts.This is the Church's response to Jesus' question to the disciples sleeping in the Garden of Gethsemane, "Could you not watch with me one hour?" On the next day, the liturgical commemoration of the Passion of Jesus Christ is celebrated at 3 pm, unless a later time is chosen due to work schedules.
This service consists of readings from the Scriptures, especially John the Evangelist's account of the Passion of Jesus, followed by prayers, veneration of the cross of Jesus, and a communion service at which the hosts consecrated at the evening Mass of the day before are distributed. The Easter Vigil during the night between Holy Saturday afternoon and Easter Sunday morning starts with the blessing of a fire and a special candle, and with readings from Scripture associated with baptism. Then, the Gloria in Excelsis Deo is sung, water is blessed, baptism and confirmation of adults may take place, the people are invited to renew the promises of their own baptism, and finally, Mass is celebrated in the usual way from the Preparation of the Gifts onwards.
Holy Week and the season of Lent, depending on denomination and local custom, end with Easter Vigil at sundown on Holy Saturday or on the morning of Easter Sunday. It is custom for some churches to hold sunrise services which include open air celebrations in some places.
In the United Kingdom, BBC's Radio Four normally broadcasts during Lent a series of programmes called the Lent Talks. These 15-minute programmes are normally broadcast on a Wednesday and have featured various speakers, such as Christian apologist John Lennox.
- Easter cycle – Part of the Christian liturgical year
- Fast of Nineveh – Three-day fast in Assyrian Christianity
- Fasting § Christianity – Abstinence or reduced consumption of food and drink
- People's Sunday – First Sunday of Lent at Żabbar, Malta
- Quinquagesima – Last Sunday of Shrovetide before Ash Wednesday
- Saint Michael's Lent – Period of fasting observed in the Catholic Church
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lent". New Advent. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
- "What is Lent and why does it last forty days?". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 24 August 2007.
- "The Liturgical Year". The Anglican Catholic Church. Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2007.
- Comparative Religion For Dummies. For Dummies. 2011. ISBN 978-1118052273. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
This is the day Lent begins. Christians go to church to pray and have a cross drawn in yellow in ashes on their foreheads. The ashes drawn on ancient tradition represent repentance before God. The holiday is part of Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Methodist, and Episcopalian liturgies, among others.
- Gassmann, Günther (2001). Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism. Scarecrow Press, Inc. p. 180. ISBN 978-0810866201.
- Mennonite Stew – A Glossary: Lent. Third Way Café. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
Traditionally, Lent was not observed by the Mennonite church, and only recently have more modern Mennonite churches started to focus on the six-week season preceding Easter.
- Brumley, Jeff. "Lent not just for Catholics, but also for many denominations, Baptists and other evangelicals". The Florida Times Union. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Benedict, Philip (2014). Christ's Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism. Yale University Press. p. 506. ISBN 978-0300105070.
- "Question & Answer: Should we Observe Lent?". Orthodox Presbyterian Church. Retrieved 10 April 2022.
Those inheriting a Reformed theology (which would include the OPC) have adopted the stance that the church is only to practice in worship what the Bible actually establishes, often called the 'regulative principle of worship.' Many in the Reformed tradition would exclude the practice of Lent on this basis—it lacks scriptural warrant.
- Moore, Scott (2008). "The Predicament and the Promise for Young Baptist Scholars". In Ward, Roger; Gushee, David (eds.). The Scholarly Vocation and the Baptist Academy: Essays on the Future of Baptist Higher Education. Mercer University Press, Inc. p. 143.
In most Baptist churches, Lent is non-existent, and Advent is merely the 'pre-Christmas' wind-up.
- Kraybill, Donald; Nolt, Steven; Weaver—Zercher, David (2012). The Amish Way: Patient Faith in a Perilous World. Wiley. p. 69.
The Amish do not observe Advent, Lent or other historic seasons of the church year[.]
- Hynes, Mary Ellen (1993). Companion to the Calendar: A Guide to the Saints and Mysteries of the Christian Calendar. Liturgy Training Publications. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-56854-011-5.
- Johnson, Lawrence J. (14 July 2017). Worship in the Early Church: Volume 3: An Anthology of Historical Sources. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-6328-8.
- George Leo Haydock (2015). The New Testament. Aeterna Press.
To fast 40 days without being hungry, was certainly far above the strength of man, but to be hungry at any time is inconsistent with God; for which reason our blessed Saviour, that he might not manifestly declare his divinity, was afterwards hungry. S. Hil. -- On this example, as well as that of Moses and Elias, who also fasted 40 days, the fast of Lent was instituted by the apostles, and is of necessity to be observed according to the general consent of the ancient Fathers. S. Jerom (ep. liv. ad Marcel.) says, we fast 40 days, or make one Lent in a year, according to the tradition of the apostles.
- "When does Lent really end?". www.catholic.com. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- Langford, Andy (4 January 1993). Blueprints for worship: a user's guide for United Methodist congregations. Abingdon Press. p. 96. ISBN 9780687033126.
- Akin, Jimmy (1996). "All About Lent". EWTN. Archived from the original on 21 October 2004.
Lent is the forty day period before Easter, excluding Sundays, which begins on Ash Wednesday and ends on Holy Saturday (the day before Easter Sunday). [This traditional ennumeration does not precisely coincide with the calendar according to the liturgical reform. In order to give special prominence to the Sacred Triduum (Mass of the Lord's Supper, Good Friday, Easter Vigil) the current calendar counts Lent as only from Ash Wednesday to Holy Thursday, up to the Mass of the Lord's Supper. Even so, Lenten practices are properly maintained up to the Easter Vigil, excluding Sundays, as before.]
- Bohmat, Pavlo (2001). "Проповіді" (in Ukrainian). Ukrainian Lutheran Church. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
Як відомо, німецьке лютеранство згідно з церковною традицією залишило у вжитку чимало католицьких елементів, особливо в літургії. "Створена Лютером форма богослужіння, власне кажучи, є німецьким перекладом латинської меси" (Ф. Гейгер). В усьому світі лютерани, як і німці в Україні, відтворюють західний обряд. Натомість українці-лютерани від самого початку звернулись до православного обряду та юліанського календаря. Чому? Перше, що спадає на думку, -греко-католицьке походження засновників церкви. І це справді є однією з причин, що зумовила її оригінальне обличчя.
- Akin, James. "All About Lent". EWTN. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Breck, Fr John (May 2005). "Bright Sadness". www.oca.org.
- Jumper, Dana (31 January 2020). "Lent: A call to simplicity". Pontiac Daily Leader. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
- Burnett, Margaret (5 March 2017). "Students observe Lent on campus – The Brown and White". The Brown and White. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 427.
- Gassmann, Günther; Oldenburg, Mark W. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism. Scarecrow Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0810874824.
In many Lutheran churches, the Sundays during the Lenten season are called by the first word of their respective Latin Introitus (with the exception of Palm/Passion Sunday): Invocavit,[sic] Reminiscere, Oculi, Laetare, and Judica. Many Lutheran church orders of the 16th century retained the observation of the Lenten fast, and Lutherans have observed this season with a serene, earnest attitude. Special days of eucharistic communion were set aside on Maundy Thursday and Good Friday.
- Hines-Brigger, Susan. "Lent: More Than Just Giving Up Something". Franciscan Media. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
- Crumm, David. Our Lent, 2nd Edition. David Crumm Media LLC. ISBN 978-1934879504.
- Ambrose, Gill; Craig-Wild, Peter; Craven, Diane; Moger, Peter (2007). Together for a Season. Church House Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 978-0715140635.
- "General Norms for the Liturgical Year and the Calendar, 19". Catholicliturgy.com. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- Knowlton, MaryLee (2004). Macedonia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 125. ISBN 978-0761418542.
Traditionally, as in many Christian countries, the carnival marked the beginning of Lent, which ushered in a six-week period of fasting for Christians.
- "lente (voorjaar)". etymologiebank.nl. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
- Conte, Jeanne (2001). Lenten Reflections. Nova Publishers. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-1-56072-737-8.
- Kellner, Karl Adam Heinrich (1908). Heortology: A History of the Christian Festivals from Their Origin to the Present Day. K. Paul. p. 99.
- Nampon, Adrien (1869). Catholic Doctrine as Defined by the Council of Trent: Expounded in a Series of Conferences Delivered in Geneva Proposed as a Means of Reuniting All Christians. P. F. Cunningham. p. 688.
- Keenan, Stephen (1899). A Doctrinal Catechism: Wherein Divers Points of Catholic Faith and Practice Assailed by Modern Heretics, are Sustained by an Appeal to the Holy Scriptures, the Testimony of the Ancient Fathers, and the Dictates of Reason, on the Basis of Scheffmacher's Catechism. by the Rev. Stephen Kennan. P.J. Kenedy. pp. 178–179.
- Russo, Nicholas V. (2013). "The Early History of Lent" (PDF). The Center for Christian Ethics at Baylor University. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
- John Chapman (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.).
- Bradshaw, Paul F. (1993). Carr, E.; Parenti, S.; Thiermeyer, A.A.; Velkovska, E. (eds.). Diem baptismo sollemniorem: Initiation and Easter in Christian Antiquity. Analecta Liturgica, 17. Rome: Studia Anselmiana.
- Gassmann, Günther; Oldenburg, Mark W. (10 October 2011). Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism. Scarecrow Press. p. 229. ISBN 9780810874824.
The Council of Nicea (325) for the first time mentioned Lent as a period of 40 days of fasting in preparation for Easter.
- Philippart, David (27 June 2013). "If Lent is 40 days, why are there 46 days between Ash Wednesday and Easter?". U.S. Catholic. The Claretians. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
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- Herbert, Thurston (1910). Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company. See paragraph: Duration of the Fast . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.).
- The "Secret of the Mass" in the First Sunday of Lent – "Sacrificium Quadragesimalis Initii", Missale Romanum Ambrosianus
- Stuber, Stanley I. (1960). New Revised edition. Primer on Roman Catholicism for Protestants: an Appraisal of the Basic Differences between the Roman Catholic Church and Protestantism. New York: Association Press. p. 57.
- The Roman and the Lutheran Observance of Lent. Luther League of America. 1920. p. 5.
- What is Lent and why does it last forty days?. The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
Lent is a season of forty days, not counting Sundays, which begins on Ash Wednesday and ends on Holy Saturday. Sundays in Lent are not counted in the forty days because each Sunday represents a "mini-Easter" and the reverent spirit of Lent is tempered with joyful anticipation of the Resurrection.
- "Moravian Passion Week". New Hope Moravian Church. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
Lent begins with Ash Wednesday and ends with the conclusion of the Great Sabbath (Holy Saturday to Easter Eve) - a span of forty days on the church calendar, excluding Sundays.
- The Northwestern Lutheran, Volumes 60–61. Northwestern Publishing House. 1973. p. 66.
- Kitch, Anne E. (2003). The Anglican Family Prayer Book. Church Publishing, Inc. p. 130.
- Fenton, John. "The Holy Season of Lent in the Western Tradition". Western Rite of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "First Sunday in Lent". United Church of Canada. 21 February 2021. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- "The Meaning of Lent". Covenant Presbyterian Church of Chicago. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- "Lent and Easter". Pilgrim Congregational Church. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
- "Fasting and Great Lent – Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese". Antiochian.org. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- James Jeffrey (22 March 2017). "Ethiopia: fasting for 55 days". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Tsome Nenewe (The Fast of Nineveh)". Minneapolis: Debre Selam Medhanealem Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. 28 January 2015. Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
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- "Lenten Micro-Practices". Upper Dublin Lutheran Church. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
Traditionally, there are three pillars of Lent: praying, fasting, and almsgiving, which come to us from Matthew 6:1-18.[permanent dead link]
- Kelvey, Jon (13 February 2018). "Strawbridge United Methodist keeps Shrove Tuesday pancake tradition". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
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- Beadle, Richard (17 March 1994). The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 69. ISBN 9780521459167.
One of these was the pre-Lent Carnival extravaganza of Shrovetide, though this seems to have been celebrated to a much lesser extent in Britain than it was (and still is) on the continent: however, we know of English Shrovetide plays, and Mankind bears signs of being one of them (335).
- Thaler, Shmuel (26 February 2020). "Lunch marks beginning of Lent". Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
Shrove Tuesday is observed by many Christians, including Anglicans, Lutherans, Methodists and Roman Catholics who make a special point of self-examination, of considering what wrongs they need to repent, and what amendments of life or areas of spiritual growth they especially need to ask God's help in dealing with.
- Walker, Katie (7 March 2011). "Shrove Tuesday inspires unique church traditions". Daily American. Archived from the original on 14 February 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
Many local churches will celebrate Shrove Tuesday tomorrow, a day of feasting commonly known as "pancake day." Shrove Tuesday is typically observed by Episcopal, Lutheran, Methodist and Catholic denominations, but each church celebrates the day in its own, unique way. The Rev. Lenny Anderson of the St. Francis-in-the-Fields Episcopal Church in Somerset said the primary focus of Shrove Tuesday is to prepare for Lent, the period of the liturgical year leading up to Easter.
- "Shrove Tuesday". The Times-Reporter. 18 February 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- Melitta Weiss Adamson, Francine Segan (2008). Entertaining from Ancient Rome to the Super Bowl. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313086892.
In Anglican countries, Mardis Gras is known as Shrove Tuesday—from shrive meaning "confess"—or Pancake Day—after the breakfast food that symbolizes one final hearty meal of eggs, butter, milk and sugar before the fast. On Ash Wednesday, the morning after Mardi Gras, repentant Christians return to church to receive upon the forehead the sign of the cross in ashes.
- "Pancake Day: Why Shrove Tuesday is a thing". BBC News. 25 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
- MacMillan, Dianne M. (1997). Mardi Gras. Enslow Publishers.
- Mortimer, Caroline (10 February 2016). "The top 10 things most people will (try) to give up for Lent". The Independent. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
Ash Wednesday marks the beginning of Lent - the festival where people give up a guilty pleasure for 40 days until Easter Sunday. Lent marks the 40 days Jesus spent fasting in the desert.
- McDuff, Mallory (4 April 2013). "After Giving up Alcohol, I'm Addicted to Lent". Sojourners. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
- Bekhechi, Mimi (1 March 2017). "This is why you should go vegetarian or vegan for Lent and how to do it". The Independent. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
- "What is Shrove Tuesday? Meaning, Traditions, and 2021 Date". Christianity.com. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
While undergoing a Lenten sacrifice, it is helpful to pray for strength; and encouraging fellow Christians in their fast saying, for example: "May God bless your Lenten sacrifice."
- "Ash Wednesday: What Is Ash Wednesday? How Do We Observe It? Why Should We?". Patheos.com. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
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- Hebden, Keith (3 March 2014). "This Lent I will eat no food, to highlight the hunger all around us". The Guardian.
- DiLallo, Matt (2 March 2014). "Believe it or Not, Catholics Observing Lent Save Our Environment". Fool.com. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- Winston, Kimberly (18 March 2013). "After giving up religion, atheists try giving up something else for Lent". Religion News Service. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Cléir, Síle de (2017). Popular Catholicism in 20th-Century Ireland: Locality, Identity and Culture. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 101. ISBN 978-1350020603.
Catherine Bell outlines the details of fasting and abstinence in a historical context, stating that the Advent fast was usually less severe than that carried out in Lent, which originally involved just one meal a day, not to be eaten until after sunset.
- Guéranger, Prosper; Fromage, Lucien (1912). The Liturgical Year: Lent. Burns, Oates & Washbourne. p. 8. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
St. Benedict's rule prescribed a great many fasts, over and above the ecclesiastical fast of Lent; but it made this great distinction between the two: that whilst Lent obliged the monks, as well as the rest of the faithful, to abstain from food till sunset, these monastic fasts allowed the repast to be taken at the hour of None.
- Addis, Richard (26 February 2020). "Goodbye to tasty treats as Lent begins". The Day. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
- "Some Christians observe Lenten fast the Islamic way". Union of Catholic Asian News. 27 February 2002. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- "Lent: Daniel Fast Gains Popularity". HuffPost. Religion News Service. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
In some cases, entire churches do the Daniel Fast together during Lent. The idea strikes a chord in Methodist traditions, which trace their heritage to John Wesley, a proponent of fasting. Leaders in the African Methodist Episcopal Church have urged churchgoers to do the Daniel Fast together, and congregations from Washington to Pennsylvania and Maryland have joined in.
- "Daniel Fast – Lent 2021". St. Mary Magdalen Catholic Church. 2021. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
- Hinton, Carla (20 February 2016). "The Fast and the Faithful: Catholic parish in Oklahoma takes up Lenten discipline based on biblical Daniel's diet". The Oklahoman. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
Many parishioners at St. Philip Neri are participating in the Daniel fast, a religious diet program based on the fasting experiences of the Old Testament prophet Daniel. […] participating parishioners started the fast Ash Wednesday (Feb. 10) and will continue through Holy Saturday, the day before Easter Sunday.
- "The Lighthouse" (PDF). Christ the Savior Orthodox Church. 2018. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
- Questions Regarding the Lenten Fast. Browne and Nolan. 1881. p. 32.
- Weitzel, Thomas L. (1978). "A Handbook for the Discipline of Lent" (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- Gavitt, Loren Nichols (1991). Traditional Saint Augustine's Prayer Book: A Book of Devotion for Members of the Anglican Communion. Holy Cross Publications.
- Thurston, Herbert (1904). Lent and Holy Week. Longmans, Green. p. 57.
- Regulations for Lent. Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto. 1905. p. 4.
The Faithful are recommended during Lent to abstain from all intoxicating drinks in remembrance of the Sacred Thirst of Our Lord on the Cross.
- "Temperance: Total Abstinence During Lent". The Sacred Heart Review. 23 (10): 162. 1900.
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Special religious services are held on Ash Wednesday by the Church of England, and in the United States by Episcopal, Lutheran, and some other Protestant churches. The Episcopal Church prescribes no rules concerning fasting on Ash Wednesday, which is carried out according to members' personal wishes; however, it recommends a measure of fasting and abstinence as a suitable means of marking the day with proper devotion. Among Lutherans as well, there are no set rules for fasting, although some local congregations may advocate this form of penitence in varying degrees.
- Pfatteicher, Philip H. (1990). Commentary on the Lutheran Book of Worship: Lutheran Liturgy in Its Ecumenical Context. Augsburg Fortress Publishers. pp. 223–244, 260. ISBN 978-0800603922.
The Good Friday fast became the principal fast in the calendar, and even after the Reformation in Germany many Lutherans who observed no other fast scrupulously kept Good Friday with strict fasting.
- Jacobs, Henry Eyster; Haas, John Augustus William (1899). The Lutheran Cyclopedia. Scribner. p. 110.
By many Lutherans Good Friday is observed as a strict fast. The lessons on Ash Wednesday emphasize the proper idea of the fast. The Sundays in Lent receive their names from the first words of their Introits in the Latin service, Invocavit, Reminiscere, Oculi, Lcetare, Judica.
- "Frequently Asked Questions — Worship & Congregational Life". Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
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- Clark, R. Scott (14 March 2017). "With The Reformed Pubcast On Lent And Sola Scriptura". The Heidelblog.
According to the western church calendar this is the Lenten season (the 40 days from 'Shrove Tuesday' to Easter) and it is being more widely observed within NAPARC. This is worth noting since, historically, most Reformed churches have not observed Lent and have often confessed against it as an infringement of Christian liberty and contrary to the formal principle of the Reformation, sola scriptura.
- "Ash Wednesday". Reformed Church in America. 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Ripley, George; Dana, Charles Anderson (1883). The American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary for General Knowledge. D. Appleton and Company. p. 101.
The Protestant Episcopal, Lutheran, and Reformed churches, as well as many Methodists, observe the day by fasting and special services.
- "The Church's Discipline as to Fasting and Abstinence". Anglican Communion. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Abraham, William J.; Kirby, James E. (2009). The Oxford Handbook of Methodist Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 257–. ISBN 978-0-19-160743-1.
- "What does The United Methodist Church say about fasting?". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
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- "What is Lent and why does it last forty days?". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- Exodus 24:18
- 1 Kings 19:8
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- Numbers 14:33
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- Matthew 4:1–2, Mark 1:12–13, Luke 4:1–2)
- Matthew 9:15
- Lent & Beyond: Dr. Peter Toon – From Septuagesima to Quadragesima (web site gone, no alternate source found, originally cited 27 August 2010)
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Like its parent, Judaism, earliest Christianity had a catechism for its converts, as much recent study has proven. […] Hippolytus required up to three years' instruction before baptism, shortened by a candidate's progress in developing Christian character.
- "What Are the Main Worship Services during Lent and Holy Week?". Anglican Compass. 20 February 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
If you are new to Lent, you can go to any Anglican, Lutheran, or Roman Catholic Church on Ash Wednesday. […] Many services on Palm Sunday begin with "the Procession of the Palms," where worshipers hold palm branches as they process into the church.
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- General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 53
- Roman Missal, Thursday of the Lord's Supper, 7
- "Why don't we use alleluias during Lent?" (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
- Weaver, J. Dudley Jr. (2002). Presbyterian Worship: A Guide for Clergy. Geneva Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0664502188.
The alleluia is traditionally not sung during Lent, and, here at the first service of Easter, it is at last reintroduced to the church's liturgy.
- Bratcher, Dennis (2015). "The Days of Holy Week". CRI.
- Gally, Howard E. (1989). Ceremonies of the Eucharist. Cowley Publications. p. 45. ISBN 978-1461660521.
In recent decades there has been a revival of the ancient use of red (crimson or scarlet) for Holy Week among both Episcopalians and Lutherans. The Roman Rite has restored the use of red only on Palm Sunday and Good Friday.
- Escue, Doug (2000). "The Lutheran Church of the Good Shepherd". Good Shepherd Lutheran Church & School. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
- Krohner, Susan. "Lent". Memorial United Methodist Church.
The liturgical color is violet, except on Good Friday when it is black. You will see the violet on our minister (her stole), on the altar (the paraments), on the banner […]
- Kellner, K. A. H. (1908). Heortology: A History of the Christian Festivals from Their Origin to the Present Day Kegan Paul Trench Trubner & Co Limited. p. 430.
- The Church of England rubric states: "The colour for a particular service should reflect the predominant theme. If the Collect, Readings, etc. on a Lesser Festival are those of the saint, then either red (for a martyr) or white is used; otherwise, the colour of the season is retained." See p. 532 here.
- "spy, n.", OED Online, Oxford University Press, December 2013,
Spy Wednesday n. in Irish use, the Wednesday before Easter.
- Packer, George Nichols (1893). "Our Calendar: The Julian Calendar and Its Errors, how Corrected by the Gregorian". Corning, NY: [The author]. p. 112. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
Spy Wednesday, so called in allusion to the betrayal of Christ by Judas, or the day on which he made the bargain to deliver Him into the hands of His enemies for 30 pieces of silver.
- McNichol, Hugh (2014). "Spy Wednesday conversion to Holy Wednesday". Catholic Online. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
- "Programmes: Lent Talks". BBC.
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