Men's liberation movement
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The consciousness and philosophy of men's liberation is split into two factions. One, informed by feminism, is critical of the restraints which a patriarchal society imposes on men. The second is informed by masculism. Whilst the two approaches may debate the degree to which men benefit from institutional power, they both stress the costs of traditional masculinity.
The men's liberation movement developed in the early 1970s among heterosexual, middle-class men in Britain and North America as a response to the cultural changes of the 1960s and 1970s, including the growth of the feminist movement, counterculture, women's and gay liberation movements, and the sexual revolution. Jack Sawyer published an article titled "On Male Liberation" in Liberation journal in autumn of 1970, in which he discussed the negative effects of stereotypes of male sex roles. 1971 saw the birth of men's discussion groups across the United States, as well as the formation by Warren Farrell of the National Task Force on the Masculine Mystique within the National Organization for Women. Robert Lewis and Joseph Pleck sourced the birth of the movement to the publication of five books on the subject in late 1974 and early 1975, which was followed by a surge of publications targeted to both lay and more academic audiences. The movement led to the formation of conferences, consciousness raising groups, men's centers, and other resources across the United States. The movement dissolved by the late 1970s, when the conservative and moderate members of the movement formed an anti-feminist men's rights movement, and the progressive members joined the feminist movement.
Racial differences have historically stratified the men’s liberation movement and such divisions still remain problematic today. Some profeminist scholars argue that racism within American society has emasculated non-white men. For example, black men are perceived to lack control over their innate sexual aggression. Within this ideological framework black men are presented as hyper-sexual to an animalistic degree; they therefore represent beasts, not men. East Asian Americans have been emasculated in an opposite way: they have been portrayed as desexualized, unattractive, small, wimpy, intelligent, and devious. (See: Stereotypes of East Asians in the United States)
Second-wave pro-feminism paid increased attention to issues of sexuality, particularly the relationship between homosexual men and hegemonic masculinity. This shift led to more cooperation between the men's liberation and gay liberation movements. In part this cooperation arose because masculinity was then understood to be a social construction, and as a response to the universalization of ‘men’ seen in previous men’s movements. Men's rights activists worked to stop second-wave feminists from having influence in the gay rights movement, and promoted the idea of hyper-masculinity as an inherent part of gay sexuality.
- Men's support groups
- College Men's Centers
- Public advocacy and law reform.
- Baker, Maureen & Bakker, J. I. Hans (Autumn 1980). "The Double-Bind of the Middle Class Male: Men's Liberation and the Male Sex Role". Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 11 (4): 547–561.
- Messner, Michael A. (June 1998). "The Limits of "The Male Sex Role": An Analysis of the Men's Liberation and Men's Rights Movements' Discourse". Gender and Society. 12 (3): 255–276.
- Carrigan, Tim; Connell, Bob & Lee, John (September 1985). "Toward a New Sociology of Masculinity". Theory and Society. 14 (5): 551–604.
- Pendergast, Sara; Pendergast, Tom, eds. (2000). "Men's Movement". St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. 3. Detroit, Michigan: St. James Press. pp. 344–345.
- Lewis, Robert A. & Pleck, Joseph H. (October 1979). "Men's Roles in the Family". The Family Coordinator. 28 (4): 429–432. doi:10.2307/583501.
- Lewis, Robert A. (December 1981). "Men's Liberation and the Men's Movement: Implications for Counselors". The Personnel and Guidance Journal. 60 (4): 256–259. doi:10.1002/j.2164-4918.1981.tb00295.x.
- Hoch, Paul. "White Hero, Black Beast: Racism, Sexism, and the Mask of Masculinity," reprinted in Feminism & Masculinities, Peter F. Murphy, ed. (; Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 93-107.
- Messner, Michael. "Politics of Masculinities: Men in Movements". Oxford: AltaMira Press, 2000, pp. 4–5
- Carbado, Devon (1999). Black Men on Race, Gender, and Sexuality: a Critical Reader. Walking Proud: Black Men Living Beyond the Stereotypes: NYU Press. p. 309.
- Unpacking Queer Politics by Shiela Jeffreys