Manosphere

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The manosphere is an informal network of blogs, forums[1] and websites where commentators focus on issues relating to men and masculinity, as a male counterpart to feminism or in opposition to it. Many of these are men's spaces.

The content of manosphere articles varies widely. Common topics include the men's rights, fathers' rights, and Men Going Their Own Way (MGTOW) movements; incel;[2][3] self-improvement;[4] antifeminism; male victims of abuse;[5] and pick-up artistry.[1][5]

Prominent websites in the manosphere include SlutHate (formerly PUAHate),[1][6][7] Return of Kings,[8] and Chateau Heartiste.[9] Some of these forums have been described in the media and by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) of the United States as promoting a misogynistic worldview.[10][11] Some parts of the manosphere have been described as being associated with the alt-right.[12][13][14]

Lexicology[edit]

The term is a neologism, a portmanteau of man and sphere. Another term that has the same meaning is androsphere[15] (from Ancient Greek: ἀνήρ, anḗr, genitive ἀνδρός, andros, "man"). A person who frequents online communities associated with the manosphere is sometimes called a manospherian.[16] On the other hand, a red piller (or redpiller) is someone who has shifted from previously held mainstream or feminist persuasions, towards those that are widely held within the manosphere. They sometimes pejoratively refer to their detractors as blue pillers.[17]

Content[edit]

Caitlin Dewey of The Washington Post has described the manosphere as "a vast, diverse network of blogs and forums".[1] According to The Guardian columnist Eva Wiseman, the manosphere is "a mix of men – pick-up artists, male victims of abuse, father's rights proponents – who come together online".[5] Notable examples of manosphere sites include the Red Pill Room, A Voice for Men and Roosh V's website Return Of Kings, as well as his personal blog and forum.[1][5][18][19]

The manosphere has its own distinct jargon. Manosphere websites commonly use red pill and blue pill imagery as an analogy; accepting the manosphere's ideology is equated with "taking the red pill", and those who disagree with their philosophy are seen as "blue pilled" or as having "taken the blue pill". The terms "alpha male" and "beta male" are also commonly used.[1] Due to what some manospherians view as an apathy within society towards issues faced by men and boys, some prefer to use the term reverse sexism over the term misandry.[20] Some members of the manosphere attempt to highlight health issues that are emblematic to contemporary men, such as a successively decreasing sperm count.[21]

Reddit is a popular gathering place for manosphere supporters. Several forums on the site are geared toward its ideas. One of these, the Red Pill subreddit, has more than 200,000 subscribers.[5][22] Members of the incel community also frequent the manosphere.[23] Some analysts have described the manosphere as an online version of the man cave.[24] Social stratification is a common theme of discussion on manosphere websites.[25] Men at the bottom of sociosexual hierarchies are sometimes referred to as BAFC (below average frustrated chump) in PUA communities[26], truecel in incel communities[27] or omega male by manospherians in general.[28]

Ideology[edit]

A common perception of the shift in heterosexual relationships after the sexual revolution in the manosphere

According to Caitlin Dewey of The Washington Post, the manosphere's "core philosophy basically boils down to this: (1) feminism has overrun/corrupted modern culture, in violation of nature/biology/inherent gender differences, and (2) men can best seduce women (slash, save society in general) by embracing a super-dominant, uber-masculine gender role, forcing ladies to fall into step behind them."[1] Eva Wiseman of The Guardian said that "Advocates of the men's rights movement are united by their belief that feminism is the enemy."[5] They are strongly opposed to circumcision and believe that a double standard exists in society in how circumcision is viewed relative to female genital mutilation.[29][better source needed] GQ's Jeff Sharlet described A Voice For Men as "surprisingly pro-gay, or at least anti-anti-gay".[19] Many manospherians view the 1960s sexual revolution in a negative light.[30]

Sites[edit]

Return of Kings[edit]

Return of Kings (RoK) is a blog written by self-described pick-up artist Daryush Valizadeh, known online as Roosh V.[8] The site has hosted articles critical of same-sex marriage.[31][better source needed] The actual size of the site's following is difficult to measure, but has been estimated to comprise a scattered readership throughout North America and Western Europe.[8]

RoK is distinct from men's rights forums such as PUAHate in that it promotes seduction techniques, known as "game", that those sites criticize. RoK writers also criticize the profeminism men's movement and The Good Men Project, arguing that they lead to feminized, passive, weak men who are content to remain on the lowest rungs of the social hierarchy.[32] It has been described by the Southern Poverty Law Center as a male supremacy hate group.[33]

Chateau Heartiste[edit]

Chateau Heartiste, a blog written by James C. Weidmann, known as "Roissy in DC",[9][31] was an early manosphere/pickup artist website.[1] The blog advises readers to replicate the traits of narcissists and sociopaths in order to attract women.[34] Weidmann argues that women's economic freedom, combined with racial miscegenation, immigration, and declining birth rates among white women threatens Western civilization.[9]

Weidmann has written a popular online list of rules, "The 16 Commandments of Poon", described by pornographic film director Anna Arrowsmith as reading "like an adolescent list of desires and fears, as though representing two sides of the same coin, spoken by somebody with little or no dating experience".[35] A recurring theme in Chateau Heartiste is that "chicks dig jerks".[36]

PUAHate[edit]

PUAHate was a website for men who felt they had been tricked by members of the pick-up artist or seduction community who had promised to teach them for money how to get attractive women to have sex with them.[37] PUAHate criticized "the scams, deception, and misleading marketing techniques used by dating gurus and the seduction community to deceive men and profit from them". The site complained that the seduction gurus' techniques did not work.[38]

PUAHate user Tom remarked, "The moderation policy was very laissez-faire. There was racism; definitely a lot of misogyny."[39] Journalist Patrick Kearns noted that the site had threads such as "Are ugly women completely useless to society?"[40] Users would also ask each questions such as "what's your rape count"?[41]

Elliot Rodger, perpetrator of the 23 May 2014 Isla Vista killings, was active on PUAHate,[42] where he expressed confusion about how women could resist him.[43] He wrote, "One day incels will realize their true strength and numbers, and will overthrow this oppressive feminist system. Start envisioning a world where WOMEN FEAR YOU."[1] In his manifesto, Rodger remarked that PUAHate "confirmed many of the theories I had about how wicked and degenerate women really are". Some of PUAHate's users argued that the shootings were the fault of the women who declined to have sex with Rodger.[40][41]

PUAHate was listed by the Southern Poverty Law Center as a hate group.[44] On 24 May 2014, PUAHate was shut down.[citation needed] On 26 May, SlutHate was created and many of PUAHate's users migrated there.[6]

Media analysis[edit]

Rod Dreher of The American Conservative has said that the manosphere "dehumanizes both men and women".[45] Caitlin Dewey accuses it of excluding gay, lesbian, and transgender people.[1]

Mark Potok, a spokesman of the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), said that the forums are filled with "pure unvarnished women hatred" and compares the manosphere to white supremacist websites.[46] The SPLC later added a caveat, saying, "It should be mentioned that the SPLC did not label MRAs as members of a hate movement; nor did our article claim that the grievances they air on their websites – false rape accusations, ruinous divorce settlements and the like – are all without merit. But we did call out specific examples of misogyny and the threat, overt or implicit, of violence."[47]

Michael Brendan Dougherty of Business Insider criticized the SPLC for including manosphere sites on its list of "hate-groups" and for providing pejorative personal details on the sites' authors.[48] Mike Riggs of Libertarian magazine Reason also criticized the SPLC for defining manosphere sites as "hate-groups". Said Riggs, "Take note, America: Having consensual sex with someone you don't actually like and then never calling her/him again will land you in a reputation-ruining SPLC report."[49]

Eva Wiseman has written that commenters on manosphere blogs often make statements to the effect that "women are designed solely for sex and sandwich-making".[5] She has suggested that the tone of these websites creates a culture that contributes to violence against women.[5]

Following the 2014 Isla Vista killings in California, many mainstream news sources reported links between the killer Elliot Rodger and posts to a manosphere forum about the pick-up artist community.[50][51] Caitlin Dewey, writing for The Washington Post, said that while the manosphere was not to blame for Rodger's attack and it would be irresponsible to make that claim, "Rodger's misogynistic rhetoric seems undeniably influenced by the manosphere".[1] Many manosphere commenters also strongly rejected any attempts to blame the manosphere for the killings, with one commenter writing that "His [Rodger] is a perfect case of someone who needed the red pill ... Because it's somewhere he could come to vent, and be angry, and not have his pain be dismissed, ridiculed or ignored." [5] Professor Michael Kimmel similarly opined "it would be facile to argue the manosphere ... urged [Rodger] to do this. I think those places are kind of a solace ... They provide a kind of locker room, a place where guys can gripe about all the bad things that are being done to them by women".[52] In the days immediately following the shooting, other manosphere sites, such as A Voice For Men, saw a huge increase in traffic.[19]

Nicholas James Pell of paleoconservative site Taki's Magazine said that the manosphere "asks difficult questions and poses uncomfortable truths". Pell criticized a report by ABC News on the manosphere for not giving the topic "a fair shake" and concluded that "the men's-rights wing of the manosphere is distinguished by a class and refinement totally missing from the shrieking hysteria of modern feminist blogging".[53]

BBC television personality Reggie Yates made a documentary on Britons who take part in the manosphere.[54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Dewey, Caitlin (27 May 2014). "Inside the 'manosphere' that inspired Santa Barbara shooter Elliot Rodger". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  2. ^ Hern, Alex (25 April 2018). "Who are the 'incels' and how do they relate to Toronto van attack?". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  3. ^ Zimmer, Ben (8 May 2018). "How 'Incel' Got Hijacked". Politico. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  4. ^ "Balls to all that". The Economist. 16 June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wiseman, Eva (1 June 2014). "The everyday fear of violence every woman has to cope with". The Guardian.
  6. ^ a b https://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/bitstream/10393/35055/1/Lilly_Mary_2016_thesis.pdf
  7. ^ Dewey, Caitlin. "Incels, 4chan and the Beta Uprising: making sense of one of the Internet's most-reviled subcultures". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-11-27.
  8. ^ a b c Dewey, Caitlin (4 February 2016). "How a radical misogynist fooled millions of people and hundreds of journalists". The Washington Post.
  9. ^ a b c Nagle, Angela (2017). "Entering the manosphere". Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan And Tumblr To Trump And The Alt-Right. Alresford, UK: Zero Books. ISBN 978-1-78535-543-1.
  10. ^ Southern Poverty Law Center (Spring 2012). "Misogyny: The Sites". Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  11. ^ Pry, Alyssa; Alexa Valiente (16 October 2013). "Women Battle Online Anti-Women Hate From the 'Manosphere'". ABC News. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  12. ^ Landsbaum, Claire. "Men's-Rights Activists Are Finding a New Home With the Alt-Right". The Cut.
  13. ^ "How the alt-right's sexism lures men into white supremacy". Vox. Retrieved 2017-11-27.
  14. ^ "The alt-right is creating its own dialect. Here's the dictionary". Quartz. Retrieved 2017-11-27.
  15. ^ Wilson, Jason. "The 'man-o-sphere' is outraged about Mad Max? Hand me my popcorn!". The Guardian.
  16. ^ Lyons, Matthew N. "Ctrl-Alt-Delete: The Origins and Ideology of the Alternative Right." Somerville, MA: Political Research Associates, January 20 (2017).
  17. ^ Sculos, Bryant W. "Who’s Afraid of ‘Toxic Masculinity’?." Class, Race and Corporate Power 5.3 (2017): 6.
  18. ^ Greenwood, Arin (12 March 2012). "Southern Poverty Law Center Lists 'Roosh V' On Misogyny Report". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  19. ^ a b c Sharlet, Jeff (March 2015). "Are You Man Enough for the Men's Rights Movement?". GQ. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  20. ^ Nicholas, Lucy, and Christine Agius. "Real Victims, Real Men, Real Feminists, Real Sluts. The Persistent Masculinist Collapse of Gender-based Violence Discourses". The Persistence of Global Masculinism. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2018. 61–87.
  21. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/25/style/sperm-count.html
  22. ^ Love, Dylan (16 September 2013). "Inside Red Pill, The Cult For Men Who Don't Understand Women". Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  23. ^ http://www.lrb.co.uk/v40/n06/amia-srinivasan/does-anyone-have-the-right-to-sex
  24. ^ DeKeseredy, Walter S., Alexis Fabricius, and Amanda Hall-Sanchez. "Fueling aggrieved entitlement: The contribution of women against feminism postings". Crimsoc report 4 (2015): 1–34.
  25. ^ Lilly, Mary. The World is Not a Safe Place for Men': The Representational Politics of the Manosphere. Diss. Université d'Ottawa/University of Ottawa, 2016.
  26. ^ Clift, Elana. Picking up and acting out: politics of masculinity in the seduction community. Bachelor of Arts (Honors), University of Texas at Austin (2007)
  27. ^ http://canoe.com/news/local-news/as-toronto-mourns-accused-killer-praised-as-saint-by-involuntarily-celibate-men/wcm/87864d1c-4409-4022-8338-7e2b35e63b72
  28. ^ Ging, Debbie. "Alphas, Betas, and Incels: theorizing the masculinities of the Manosphere". Men and Masculinities (2017): 1097184X17706401.
  29. ^ Geddes, Adam (27 March 2012). ""Circumcised or Intact?!" Screw Her Preference!". Splitsburgh. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  30. ^ Nicholas, Lucy, and Christine Agius. "Real Victims, Real Men, Real Feminists, Real Sluts. The Persistent Masculinist Collapse of Gender-based Violence Discourses". The Persistence of Global Masculinism. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2018. 61–87
  31. ^ a b Lyons, Matthew N. (20 January 2017). "Ctrl-Alt-Delete: The origins and ideology of the Alternative Right". Political Research Associates.
  32. ^ Rachel M. Schmitz 1 and Emily Kazyak (12 May 2016). "Masculinities in Cyberspace: An Analysis of Portrayals of Manhood in Men's Rights Activist Websites". Social Sciences. 5 (2): 18–... doi:10.3390/socsci5020018.
  33. ^ "The Year in Hate: Trump buoyed white supremacists in 2017, sparking backlash among black nationalist groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2018-02-21.
  34. ^ Dombek, Kristin (2016). The Selfishness of Others: An Essay on the Fear of Narcissism. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-86-547823-7.
  35. ^ Arrowsmith, Anna (2016). Rethinking Misogyny: Men's Perceptions of Female Power in Dating Relationships. Routledge. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-1-47-246351-7.
  36. ^ Jarosek, Stephen (2015). Tyrants of Matriarchy: Debunking Feminism and the Myth of Patriarchal Oppression. Lulu Press. ISBN 978-1-30-442913-1.
  37. ^ "Welcome to the manosphere: A brief guide to the controversial men's rights movement".
  38. ^ Hess, Amanda (24 May 2014). "The Pick-Up Artist Community's Predictable, Horrible Response to a Mass Murder" – via Slate.
  39. ^ Woolf, Nicky (30 May 2014). "'PUAhate' and 'ForeverAlone': inside Elliot Rodger's online life" – via The Guardian.
  40. ^ a b "The extreme misogyny of 'pick-up artist' hate". 31 May 2014 – via www.bbc.com.
  41. ^ a b "The Sexist Pseudoscience of Pick-Up Artists: The Dangers of "Alpha Male" Thinking".
  42. ^ "PODCAST: Soraya Chemaly on Elliot Rodger, PUAHate, and #YesAllWomen". 30 May 2014.
  43. ^ http://genderstudies.nd.edu/assets/162635/website_construction_and_destruction_masculinity_and_violence_in_america.pdf
  44. ^ http://cupola.gettysburg.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=surge
  45. ^ Dreher, Rod (29 May 2014). "Women Who Love Men Who Hate Women". The American Conservative. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  46. ^ Paulson, Amanda (28 May 2014). "Santa Barbara killings: Did misogynist hate groups play a role?". Christian Science Monitor/Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  47. ^ Goldwag, Arthur (15 May 2012). "Intelligence Report Article Provokes Fury Among Men's Rights Activists". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  48. ^ Dougherty, Michael Brendan (9 March 2012). "A civil rights group is now criticizing random jerks for not calling women back after sex". Business Insider. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  49. ^ Riggs, Mike (9 March 2012). "The Southern Poverty Law Center Is Now Writing About Pickup Artists as Hate Groups". Reason. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  50. ^ Amanda Hess (2014-05-24), The Pick-Up Artist Community's Predictable, Horrible Response to a Mass Murder, Slate
  51. ^ James Nye (2014-05-27), Women-hating 'Pick-Up-Artist' groups laud the 'virgin killer' for his vile and murderous comments online, Daily Mail
  52. ^ Nelson, Libby (2014-05-29), 'It's a way to retrieve your manhood': a cultural explanation of the Santa Barbara shooting, Vox
  53. ^ Pell, Nicholas James (26 October 2013). "We Have Nothing to Fear but the Manosphere Itself". Taki's Magazine. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  54. ^ "Men at War". Reggie Yates' Extreme UK. Season 1. Episode 2. January 12, 2016. 22 minutes in. BBC. BBC Three.

Further reading[edit]