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11 June 1847
Aldeburgh, England, United Kingdom
|Died||5 August 1929
London, England, United Kingdom
|Occupation||Feminist, suffragist, union leader|
Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett, GBE (11 June 1847 – 5 August 1929) was an English feminist, intellectual, political and union leader, and writer. She is primarily known for her work as a campaigner for women to have the vote.
As a suffragist (as opposed to a suffragette), she took a moderate line, but was a tireless campaigner. She concentrated much of her energy on the struggle to improve women's opportunities for higher education and in 1871 co-founded Newnham College, Cambridge. She later became president of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (the NUWSS), a position she held from 1897 until 1919. In July 1901 she was appointed to lead the British government's commission to South Africa to investigate conditions in the concentration camps that had been created there in the wake of the Second Boer War. Her report corroborated what the campaigner Emily Hobhouse had said about conditions in the camps.
The Garrett ancestors had been ironworkers in East Suffolk since the early seventeenth century. Newson Garrett was the youngest of three sons and not academically inclined, although he possessed the family’s entrepreneurial spirit. When he finished school, the town of Leiston offered little to Newson, so he left for London to make his fortune. There, he fell in love with his brother's sister-in-law, Louisa Dunnell, the daughter of an innkeeper of Suffolk origin. After their wedding, the couple went to live in a pawnbroker's shop at 1 Commercial Road, Whitechapel. The Garretts had their first three children in quick succession: Louie, Elizabeth and their brother (Newson Dunnell) who died at the age of six months. In 1839 the family moved to 142 Long Acre, where they were to live for two years, whilst two more children were born and her father moved up in the world, becoming not only the manager of a larger pawnbroker's shop, but also a silversmith.
Garrett's grandfather, owner of the family engineering works, Richard Garrett & Sons, had died in 1837, leaving the business to his eldest son, Garrett's uncle. Despite his lack of capital, Newson was determined to be successful and in 1841, at the age of 29, he moved his family to Suffolk, where he bought a barley and coal merchants business in Snape, constructing Snape Maltings, a fine range of buildings for malting barley. The Garretts lived in a square Georgian house opposite the church in Aldeburgh until 1852. Newson's malting business expanded and five more children were born, Alice (1842), Millicent (1847), Sam (1850), Josephine (1853) and George (1854). By 1850, Newson was a prosperous businessman and was able to build Alde House, a mansion on a hill behind Aldeburgh.
In 1858 when she was twelve, Millicent was sent to London, with her sister Elizabeth (Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, the first female doctor in Britain) to study at a private boarding school in Blackheath. Her sister Louise took her to the sermons of Frederick Denison Maurice, who was a more socially aware and less traditional Church of England minister, and whose opinion influenced Millicent's view of religion. A key moment occurred when Millicent was 19 and went to hear a speech by the radical MP, John Stuart Mill. Mill was an early advocate of universal women’s suffrage. His speech on equal rights for women made a big impression on Millicent, and she became actively involved in his campaign. She was impressed by Mill's practical support for women’s rights on the basis of utilitarianism – rather than abstract principles. These visits were the start of Millicent Fawcett's interest in women's rights. Millicent became an active supporter of Mill's work. In 1866, at the age of 19, she became secretary of the London Society for Women's Suffrage.
Mill introduced her to many other women's rights activists, including Henry Fawcett, a Liberal Member of Parliament who had originally intended to marry Elizabeth before she decided to focus on her medical career. Millicent and the politician became close friends, and despite a fourteen-year age gap they married in 1867. Millicent took his last name, becoming Millicent Garrett Fawcett. The MP had been blinded in a shooting accident in 1858, and Millicent acted as his secretary. The marriage was described as one based on "perfect intellectual sympathy", and Millicent pursued a writing career of her own while caring for him. Their only child, Philippa Fawcett, was born in 1868. She was close to Phillipa as they shared skill in needlework, Phillipa also excelled in school, which fared well with her mother and with women's rights. Fawcett ran two households, one in Cambridge and one in London. "The Fawcetts were a radical couple, flirting even with republicanism, supporters of proportional representation and trade unionism, keen advocates of individualistic and free trade principles and the advancement of women". Henry and Millicent's close relationship was never doubted; they had a real, and loving, marriage.
In 1868, Millicent joined the London Suffrage Committee, and in 1869 she spoke at the first public pro-suffrage meeting to be held in London. In March 1870 she spoke in Brighton, her husband's constituency, and as a speaker was known for her clear speaking voice. In 1870 she published Political Economy for Beginners, which although short was "wildly successful", and ran through 10 editions in 41 years. In 1872 she and her husband published Essays and Lectures on Social and Political Subjects, which contained eight essays by Millicent. In 1875 she was a co-founder of Newnham Hall, and served on its Council.
After the death of her husband on 6 November 1884, she temporarily withdrew from public life. She sold both family homes and moved with Philippa into the house of Agnes Garrett, her sister. She resumed work in 1885. Millicent began to concentrate on politics. Originally an active Liberal, she joined the Liberal Unionist party in 1886 in opposition to Irish Home Rule.[why?] In 1904, she resigned from the party on the issue of Free Trade when Joseph Chamberlain gained control in his campaign for Tariff Reform.
After the death of Lydia Becker, she became the leader of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), the main suffragist organisation in Britain. She held this post until 1919, a year after the first women had been granted the vote. After that, she left the suffrage campaign for the most part, and devoted much of her time to writing books, including a biography of Josephine Butler.
She was granted an honorary LLD by the University of St Andrews in 1899, awarded a damehood (GBE) in 1925, and died four years later, in 1929. Her memory is preserved now in the name of the Fawcett Society, and in Millicent Fawcett Hall, constructed in 1929 in Westminster as a place that women could use to debate and discuss the issues that affected them. The hall is currently owned by Westminster School and is the location of its drama department, incorporating a 150-seat studio theatre.
Millicent Fawcett died in London in 1929 and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium.
Millicent began her career in the political platform at twenty-two years old at the first women's suffrage meeting. Millicent Fawcett (leader of NUWSS) was a moderate campaigner, distancing herself from the militant and violent activities of the Pankhursts and the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU). She believed that their actions were in fact harming women's chances of gaining the vote, as they were alienating the MPs who were debating whether or not to give women the vote, as well as souring much of the general public towards the campaign. Despite the publicity given to the WSPU, the NUWSS (one of whose slogans was "Law-Abiding suffragists" ) retained the majority of the support of the women's movement. By 1905, Fawcett's NUWSS had reached 305 constituent societies and nearly fifty thousand members. In 1913 they had 50,000 members compared to 2,000 of the WSPU. Fawcett mainly fought for women's right to vote, and found home rule to be "a blow to the greatness and prosperity of England as well as disaster and… misery and pain and shame".
Fawcett cut her liberal ties in 1884, her belief in women's suffrage was unchanged however her political views did change and began to resemble the views she had when she was younger. In 1883, Fawcett received the role of president of the Special Appeal Committee.
The South African War created an opportunity for Millicent to share female responsibilities in British culture. Millicent was nominated to be the leader of the commission of women who were sent to South Africa. In July 1901, she sailed to South Africa with other women "to investigate Emily Hobhouse's indictment of atrocious conditions in concentration camps where the families of the Boer soldiers were interned". In Britain a woman had never been trusted with such a responsibility during wartime. Millicent fought for the civil rights of the Uitlanders, "as the cause of revival of interest in women's suffrage".
Over many years, Millicent had backed countless campaigns; which were not all successful. A few campaigns Millicent supported were, "to curb child abuse by raising the age of consent, criminalizing incest, cruelty to children within the family, to end the practice of excluding women from courtrooms when sexual offences were under consideration, to stamp out the 'white slave trade', and to prevent child marriage and the introduction of regulated prostitution in India". Fawcett also campaigned for the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts, which reflected sexual double standards. The Acts required that prostitutes be examined for sexually transmitted diseases, and if they were found to have passed any on to their customers, they were imprisoned. Women could be arrested on suspicion of being a prostitute, and could also be imprisoned for refusing consent to the examination, which was invasive and could be painful. The prostitutes' infectious male customers were not subject to the Acts. The Acts were eventually repealed as a result of Fawcett's and others' campaigning. Millicent believed the double standard of morality would never become eradicated until women were represented in the public sphere of life.
Fawcett was also an author. She usually penned under her own name as Millicent Garrett Fawcett, however as a public figure she was styled Mrs. Henry Fawcett. Fawcett had three books, a co-authorized book with her husband Henry Fawcett, and many of her articles were published respectively. Fawcett published a textbook Political Economy for Beginners that had ten editions, sparked two novels and was produced in many languages. One of Fawcett's first articles on women's education was published in Macmillan's Magazine in 1875. In 1875, Fawcett's interest in women's education lead her to become one of the founders of the Newnham College for Women, located in Cambridge. Fawcett served on the school's council, she was also supportive when there was a controversial bid to all women to receive Cambridge degrees. Millicent was also a speaker and lecturer at girl's schools and women's colleges, she also spoke in adult education centres. For her services in education the University of St. Andrews awarded her an honorary LLD in 1899.
When the First World War broke out in 1914, while the WSPU ceased all of their activities to focus on the war effort, Fawcett's NUWSS did not. This was largely because as the organisation was significantly less militant than the WSPU, it contained many more pacifists, and general support for the war within the organisation was weaker. The WSPU, in comparison, was called jingoistic as a result of its leaders' strong support for the war. While Fawcett was not a pacifist, she risked dividing the organisation if she ordered a halt to the campaign, and the diverting of NUWSS funds from the government, as the WSPU had done. The NUWSS continued to campaign for the vote during the war, and used the situation to their advantage by pointing out the contribution women had made to the war effort in their campaigns.
Fawcett is considered instrumental in gaining the vote for six million British women over 30 years old in 1918.
“A memorial inscription added to the monument to Henry Fawcett in Westminster Abbey in 1932 asserts that she 'won citizenship for women'".
The archives of Millicent Garrett Fawcett are held at The Women's Library at the Library of the London School of Economics, ref 7MGF.
- 1870: Political Economy for Beginners. Full text online.
- 1872: Essays and Lectures on social and political subjects (written with Henry Fawcett). Full text online.
- 1872: Electoral Disabilities of Women : a lecture
- 1874: Tales in Political Economy. Full text online.
- 1875: Janet Doncaster, a novel.
- 1889: Some Eminent Women of our Times: short biographical sketches. Full text online.
- 1895: Life of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria. Full text online.
- 1901: Life of the Right Hon. Sir William Molesworth. Full text online.
- 1905: Five Famous French Women. Full text online.
- 1912: Women's Suffrage : a Short History of a Great Movement. ISBN 0-9542632-4-3. Full text online.
- 1920: The Women's Victory and After: Personal reminiscences, 1911–1918. Full text online.
- 1924: What I Remember (Pioneers of the Woman's Movement). ISBN 0-88355-261-2.
- 1927: Josephine Butler: her work and principles and their meaning for the twentieth century (written with Ethel M. Turner).
- dozens of articles for periodicals including The Englishwoman, Woman's Leader, Fraser's Magazine, National Review, Macmillan's Magazine, Common Cause, Fortnightly Review, Nineteenth Century and Contemporary Review.
- Fawcett wrote the introduction to the 1891 edition of Mary Wollstonecraft's book A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Lyndall Gordon states this was an "influential essay", in which Fawcett cleansed the reputation of the early feminist philosopher and claimed her as a foremother of the struggle for the vote.
- Mary Wollstonecraft, who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792
- Josephine Butler and Lydia Becker, early proponents of non-violent methods of protest.
- Emmeline Pankhurst, a proponent of militancy.
- Charlotte Despard and Sylvia Pankhurst, leaders of movements midway between the NUWSS and the WSPU in militancy.
- History of feminism
- List of suffragists and suffragettes
- List of women's rights activists
- Timeline of women's suffrage
- Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom
- Fawcett Society
- "Millicent Garrett Fawcett". Spartacus. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
- Manton, p. 20
- Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey (1986). Women in science : antiquity through the nineteenth century : a biographical dictionary with annotated bibliography (3. print. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-15031-X.
- Manton, p. 17
- Manton, p. 23
- Manton, p. 25
- "Fawcett, Millicent Garrett". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33096. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- "Millicent Garrett Fawcett". About.com. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
- Howarth, Janet. "Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "The Fawcetts". The History of Economic Thought. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
- See Fawcett, Millicent Garrett (1911). Political Economy for Beginners (10 ed.). London, UK: Macmillan and Co. Retrieved 22 June 2014. via Archive.org
- See Fawcett, Henry; Fawcett, Millicent Garrett (1872). Essays and Lectures on Social and Political Subjects. London, UK: Macmillan and Co. Retrieved 22 June 2014. via Archive.org
- Cicarelli (2003) p. 63
- Howarth, Janet (October 2007). "Oxford DNB article: Fawcett, Dame Millicent Garrett". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
She was also a frequent speaker and lecturer at girls' schools and women's colleges and in adult education: it was for her services to education that the University of St Andrews awarded her an honorary LLD in 1899.
- Van Wingerden, Sophia A. (1999). The women's suffrage movement in Britain, 1866–1928. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 100. ISBN 0-312-21853-2.
- Velllacott, Jo (1987). "Feminist Consciousness and the First World War". History Workshop. 23: 81. JSTOR 4288749.
- National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies. "NUWSS". National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies.
- Rubinstein, David. "Millicent Garrett Fawcett and the Meaning of Woman's Emancipation, 1886–99". Victorian Studies. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Copeland, Janet. "Millicent Garrett Fawcett". History Review. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Rubinstein, David. "Millicent Garrett Fawcett and the Meaning of Women's Emancipation, 1886–99". Victorian Studies. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Gordon, Lyndall. Vindication: A Life of Mary Wollstonecraft. Great Britain: Virago, 2005. ISBN 1-84408-141-9. Page 521.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Millicent Fawcett.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Fawcett, Millicent Garrett". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.
- Fawcett Society
- The Women's Library (formerly the Fawcett Library)
- Works by Millicent Fawcett at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Millicent Fawcett at Internet Archive
- Works by Millicent Fawcett at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Article on Communism written by Fawcett for the 9th (Scholars) Edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica
- "Archival material relating to Millicent Fawcett". UK National Archives.
- "Millicent Garrett Fawcett". BBC Radio 4 – Great Lives. BBC. 19 December 2006. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- Millicent Fawcett at Find a Grave for Millicent Garrett Fawcett
- Millicent Fawcett at Find a Grave for Henry Fawcett