Map showing the location of Ming-Turpan Conflict, Hami
|Ming Dynasty||Turpan Khanate||Oirats Mongols|
|Commanders and leaders|
Mansur Khan (Moghul Khan)
Ibrahim (Iburai taishi)
In 1443, 1445 and 1448 the Mongol Oirats under Esen taishi occupied Qara Del (Hami). Turpan, under Ali (known as Yunus Khan), then seized Hami from the Mongol Esen in 1473. Ali was driven by the Ming Dynasty into Turfan, but he reoccupied it after Ming left. Esen taishi's Mongols recaptured Hami twice in 1482 and 1483.
In 1491 the Ming dynasty installed a Yuan dynasty heir to the position of Prince of Qumul. They then appointed overseers of each ethnic group residing in Qumul, the position being called tu-tu (In Wade Giles).
The son of Ali, Ahmed (Ahmad Alaq), reconquered it in 1493 and captured the Hami leader Prince Champa and the resident of China in Hami (the Chagatayid Hami was a vassal state to Ming). In response, the Ming Dynasty imposed an economic blockade on Turpan and kicked out all the Uyghurs from Gansu. Conditions became so harsh for Turpan that Ahmed left. The Chinese army then marched on Qumul. Ahmad Alaq (Hahema) retreated, released Prince Champa, acknowledged his inferior position to the Chinese Emperor and agreed that Champa would take the throne of Qumul. One of the Ming overseers, Sayyid Husain, was the Muslim overseer in July 1494 and fled to China when Turpan invaded Qumul, but he plotted with Turpan to be appointed as prince under the rule of Turpan. He was arrested in 1516 and sent to Beijing, but bribed his way into the Zhengde Emperor's inner circle, eventually becoming his homosexual lover.
In the 16th century, the Ming Dynasty defeated a series of raids by the Turpan Kingdom under Ahmed's son Mansur and the Oirat Mongols, over disputes on tribute. Fighting broke out in 1517, 1524 and 1528 when the Ming Dynasty rejected tribute missions from Turpan. Mansur took over Qumul in 1517. Mansur invaded China in 1524 with 20,000 men through Suzhou District, but was repulsed by Ming Chinese forces, including Mongol troops. The Chinese refused to lift the economic blockade and restrictions that had led to the fighting and continued restricting Turpan's tribute and trade with China. Turfan also annexed Qumul.
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