|Literal meaning||Protectorate(-General) of the Northern Court|
The Beiting Protectorate (-General) was a Tang dynasty protectorate created in 702 to control the Beiting region north of Gaochang. Wu Zetian set up the Beiting Protectorate in Ting Prefecture (Jimsar County) and granted it governorship over Yi Prefecture (Hami) and Xi Prefecture (Gaochang). The Beiting Protectorate ended in 790 when Tingzhou was conquered by the Tibetan Empire. In 2014 the Beiting city ruins were designated a part of the Silk Road UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
In 715 the Tibetan Empire attacked the Beiting Protectorate.
In 735 the Turgesh attacked Ting Prefecture.
In 764 the Tibetan Empire invaded the Hexi Corridor and conquered Liang Prefecture, cutting off the Anxi and Beiting from the Tang dynasty. However the Anxi and Beiting protectorates were left relatively unmolested under the leadership of Guo Xin and Li Yuanzhong.
In 781 the Tibetan Empire conquered Yi Prefecture.
In 790 the Tibetan Empire conquered Ting Prefecture.
In 792 the Tibetan Empire conquered Xi Prefecture.
Zhang Yichao rebelled against Tibetan rule in Sha Prefecture (Dunhuang) in 848. In 850 he recaptured Yi Prefecture, in 851 Xi Prefecture, and in 866 Ting Prefecture. However he immediately lost Ting and Xi prefectures as well as Luntai (Ürümqi) to the Kingdom of Qocho. In 876 Yi Prefecture was also captured by the Kingdom of Qocho.
List of protector generals
- Zhang Song (張嵩) 722
- Ge Jiayun (蓋嘉運) 736
- Li Gong (李珙) 756
- Li Yuanzhong (李元忠) 780
- Yang Xigu (楊襲古) 789
Unearthed at the Astana Graves in 1972 from the tomb of Zhang Lichen (655-702).
- Protectorate General to Pacify the West
- Protectorate General to Pacify the North
- Protectorate General to Pacify the East
- Chinese military history
- Horses in East Asian warfare
- Mongolia during Tang rule
- Drompp 2005, p. 104.
- Xiong 2008, p. 58.
- Wang 2013, p. 157.
- Bregel 2003, p. 19.
- Wang 2013, p. 167.
- Beckwith 1987, p. 149.
- "舊唐書". 中國哲學書電子化計劃. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
上元元年，河西軍鎮多為吐蕃所陷。有舊將李元忠守北庭，郭昕守安西府，二鎮與沙陀、回鶻相依，吐蕃久攻之不下。In the first year of the Shangyuan era , the Hexi Army Defense Command fell to the Tibetans. Beiting and Anxi were guarded by Li Yuanzhong and the old general Guo Xin, who along with the Shatuo and Uyghurs, were able to prevent the Tibetans from taking the two garrisons.
- "舊唐書". 中國哲學書電子化計劃. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
建中元年，元忠、昕遣使間道奏事，德宗嘉之，以元忠為北庭都護，昕為安西都護。In the first year of the Jianzhong era , Yuanzhong and Xin dispatched envoys through a remote path to memorialize the emperor. Dezong commended them and Yuanzhong became protector-general of Beiting while Xin became protector-general of Anxi.
- Bregel 2003, p. 21.
- "佛說十力經". Sutta Central. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
- Beckwith 1987, p. 156.
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