Tatar confederation

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Tatar
Nine Tatars

Татарын ханлиг
8th century–1202
Tatar and their neighbours in the 13th century.
Tatar and their neighbours in the 13th century.
Statusnomadic confederation
Religion
Shamanism
GovernmentElective monarchy
chief 
LegislatureKurultai
Historical eraHigh Middle Ages
• Established
8th century
• Disestablished
1202
Today part of Mongolia
 China

Tatar (Old Turkic: Old Turkic letter R1.svgOld Turkic letter T1.svgOld Turkic letter T1.svg; Mongolian: Татар) was one of the five major (khanlig) in the Mongolian Plateau in the 12th century. The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Orkhon inscriptions: Kul Tigin (CE 732) and Bilge Khagan (CE 735) monuments as Old Turkic letter N1.svgOld Turkic letter D1.svgOld Turkic letter O.svgOld Turkic letter B1.svg:Old Turkic letter R1.svgOld Turkic letter T1.svgOld Turkic letter T1.svg:Old Turkic letter Z.svgOld Turkic letter T1.svgOld Turkic letter O.svg Otuz Tatar Bodun ('Thirty Tatar' clan)[1] and Old Turkic letter R1.svgOld Turkic letter T1.svgOld Turkic letter T1.svg:Old Turkic letter Z.svgOld Turkic letter OQ.svgOld Turkic letter T1.svg Tokuz Tatar ('Nine Tatar')[2][3][4][5] referring to the Tatar confederation. Subsequently the wider region was referred to by Europeans as "Tartary" or "Tartaria".

The Tatars inhabited the north-eastern Gobi in the 5th century and the Tatars became subjects of the Khitan Liao dynasty in the 10th century. After the fall of the Liao, the Tatars experienced pressure from the Jurchen Jin dynasty and were urged to fight against the other Mongol tribes. The Tatars lived on the fertile pastures around Hulun Nuur and Buir Nuur and occupied a trade route to China in the 12th century.

After the establishment of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars were subjugated by the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan. Under the leadership of his grandson Batu Khan, they moved westwards, driving with them many of the Turkic peoples toward the plains of Russia in the Turkic migrations.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kül Tiğin (Gültekin) Yazıtı Tam Metni (Full text of Kul Tigin monument with Turkish transcription)". Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  2. ^ "Bilge Kağan Yazıtı Tam Metni (Full text of Bilge Khagan monument with Turkish transcription)". Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  3. ^ "The Kultegin's Memorial Complex". Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  4. ^ Ross, E. Denison; Vilhelm Thomsen. "The Orkhon Inscriptions: Being a Translation of Professor Vilhelm Thomsen's Final Danish Rendering". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. 5 (4, 1930): 861–876. JSTOR 607024.
  5. ^ Thomsen, Vilhelm Ludvig Peter (1896). Inscriptions de l'Orkhon déchiffrées. Helsingfors, Impr. de la Société de littérature finnoise. p. 140.