Mircea Snegur

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Mircea Snegur
Mircea Snegur, March 2012-2.jpg
1st President of the Republic of Moldova
In office
3 September 1990 – 15 January 1997
Prime Minister Mircea Druc
Valeriu Muravschi
Andrei Sangheli
Ion Ciubuc
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Petru Lucinschi
1st Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR
In office
27 April 1990 – 3 September 1990
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Himself (as President)
7th Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR
In office
29 July 1989 – 27 April 1990
Preceded by Ivan Ceban
Succeeded by Himself
Personal details
Born (1940-01-17) 17 January 1940 (age 76)
Trifăneşti, Romania
(now Moldova)
Political party Independent
Children Natalia Gherman
Signature

Mircea Ion Snegur (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈmirt͡ʃe̯a iˈon ˈsneɡur]; born 17 January 1940) was the first President of Moldova from 1990–1997. Before that, he served as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 1989–1990 (head of state) and Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 27 April to 3 September 1990. In the Soviet era, he was often known in English as Mircha Ivanovich Snegur, a transliteration from the Russian Мирча Иванович Снегур.

Early life and education[edit]

Snegur was born in Trifanesti, in Soroca District. In 1956, he graduated from the high school in Frumușica, Florești District, and went on to study at the Agricultural State University of Moldova, from which he graduated in 1961. He completed a PhD in agricultural sciences at the university's Department of Animal Husbandry in 1972.[1][2]

Professional career[edit]

As a trained agronomist, Snegur worked as the director of kolkhoz in the village of Lunga, Florești District, from 1961 to 1968. From 1968 to 1973, he was the director of the Experimental Station of Field Cultures, and 1973 to 1978, he was the director of the Main Agricultural Science Directorate of the Ministry of Agriculture. From 1978 to 1981, he worked as the general director of the Selectia Research Institute of Field Crops.[1][3]

Political career[edit]

Snegur first became a member of the Communist Party of Moldova in 1964. In 1981, he became the Secretary of the Communist Party committee of Yedinetskiy district, serving until 1985. That year, he became Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Moldavia SSR, serving until 1989. On 29 Jul 1989, he was appointed as the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Moldavia, serving in this role until 27 April 1990. On 27 April, he became the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Moldavian SSR, which became the Moldovan SSR on 23 June. On 3 September, he became President of the Moldovan SSR, as a constituent republic of the Soviet Union.[1]

On 23 May 1991, Snegur became the President of the Republic of Moldova, still as a constituency republic of the USSR. In August 1991, Moldova declared its independence from the Soviet Union, and on 27 August 1991, Snegur was elected as the first President of Moldova as an independent state. Snegur was opposed to immediate reunification with Romania, which led to a split with the Popular Front of Moldova in October 1991. Snegur decided to run as an independent candidate in the December 1991 presidential election, running unopposed after the Popular Front's efforts to organize a voter boycott failed.[1]

On 3 September 1991, Snegur created the National Army of Moldova. In December 1991, Snegur signed the act that made Moldova a full member of the Confederacy of Independent States (CIS), and on 2 March 1992, Moldova became a member of the United Nations. On 29 June 1994, a new Constitution of Moldova was adopted, and on 26 June 1995, Moldova was admitted as a member of the Council of Europe.[2]

In 1995, Snegur founded the Party of Rebirth and Conciliation of Moldova with former members of the Agrarian Party of Moldova. Snegur ran as the Party of Rebirth and Conciliation's candidate in the 1996 presidential election, where he won a plurality, but not a majority, of votes in the first round. However, Parliamentary speaker Petru Lucinschi surprised the nation with an upset victory over Snegur in the second round. Snegur continued as President until 15 January 1997.[1]

Personal life[edit]

Snegur is married and has a daughter, Natalia Gherman, and a son.[1]

Honours and awards[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Biography of President of the Republic of Moldova Mircea Snegur, 1990-1996". Presidency of the Republic of Moldvoa. Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "Snegur Mircea". Moldovenii (in Moldovan). Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  3. ^ "Short History". Research Institute of Field Crops. Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
Political offices
Preceded by
formation of republic
President of the Republic of Moldova
1990–1997
Succeeded by
Petru Lucinschi