|Other name(s)||Winged Man|
|Region||Point Pleasant, West Virginia|
In West Virginia folklore, the Mothman is a creature reportedly seen in the Point Pleasant area from November 12, 1966, to December 15, 1967. The first newspaper report was published in the Point Pleasant Register dated November 16, 1966, titled "Couples See Man-Sized Bird ... Creature ... Something". The national press soon picked up the reports and helped spread the story across the United States.
The Mothman was introduced to a wider audience by Gray Barker in 1970 and later popularized by John Keel in his 1975 book The Mothman Prophecies, claiming that there were supernatural events related to the sightings, and a connection to the collapse of the Silver Bridge.
The Mothman appears in popular culture. The 2002 film The Mothman Prophecies, starring Richard Gere, was based on Keel's book. An annual festival in Point Pleasant is devoted to the Mothman legend.
On November 12, 1966, five men who were digging a grave at a cemetery near Clendenin, West Virginia, claimed to see a man-like figure fly low from the trees over their heads. This is often identified as the first known sighting of what became known as the Mothman.
Shortly thereafter, on November 15, 1966, two young couples from Point Pleasant, Roger and Linda Scarberry and Steve and Mary Mallette, told police they saw a large grey creature whose eyes "glowed red" when the car's headlights picked it up. They described it as a "large flying man with ten-foot wings", following their car while they were driving in an area outside of town known as "the TNT area", the site of a former World War II munitions plant.
During the next few days, other people reported similar sightings. Two volunteer firemen who saw it said it was a "large bird with red eyes". Mason County Sheriff George Johnson commented that he believed the sightings were due to an unusually large heron he termed a "shitepoke". Contractor Newell Partridge told Johnson that when he aimed a flashlight at a creature in a nearby field its eyes glowed "like bicycle reflectors", and blamed buzzing noises from his television set and the disappearance of his German Shepherd dog on the creature. Wildlife biologist Dr. Robert L. Smith at West Virginia University told reporters that descriptions and sightings all fit the sandhill crane, a large American crane almost as high as a man with a seven-foot wingspan featuring circles of reddish coloring around the eyes, and that the bird may have wandered out of its migration route. This particular crane was unrecognized at first because it was not native to this region.
In 2016, WCHS-TV published a photo purported to be of Mothman taken by an anonymous man while driving on Route 2. Science writer Sharon A. Hill proposed that the photo showed "a bird, perhaps an owl, carrying a frog or snake away" and wrote that "there is zero reason to suspect it is the Mothman as described in legend. There are too many far more reasonable explanations."
Folklorist Jan Harold Brunvand notes that Mothman has been widely covered in the popular press, some claiming sightings connected with UFOs, and others claiming that a military storage site was Mothman's "home". Brunvand notes that recountings of the 1966-67 Mothman reports usually state that at least 100 people saw Mothman with many more "afraid to report their sightings" but observed that written sources for such stories consisted of children's books or sensationalized or undocumented accounts that fail to quote identifiable persons. Brunvand found elements in common among many Mothman reports and much older folk tales, suggesting that something real may have triggered the scares and became woven with existing folklore. He also records anecdotal tales of Mothman supposedly attacking the roofs of parked cars inhabited by teenagers.
Conversely, Joe Nickell says that a number of hoaxes followed the publicity generated by the original reports, such as a group of construction workers who tied flashlights to helium balloons. Nickell attributes the Mothman reports to pranks, misidentified planes, and sightings of a barred owl, an albino owl, suggesting that the Mothman's "glowing eyes" were actually red-eye effect caused from the reflection of light from flashlights or other bright light sources. The area lies outside the snowy owl's usual range.
According to University of Chicago psychologist David A. Gallo, 55 sightings of Mothman in Chicago during 2017 published on the website of self-described Fortean researcher Lon Strickler are “a selective sample". Gallo explains that "he's not sampling random people and asking if they saw the Mothman — he's just counting the number of people that voluntarily came forward to report a sighting”. According to Gallo, "people more likely to visit a paranormal-centric website like Strickler’s might also be more inclined to believe in, and therefore witness the existence of, a “Mothman”".
Some pseudoscience adherents (such as ufologists, paranormal authors, and cryptozoologists) claim that Mothman was an alien, a supernatural manifestation, or a previously unknown species of animal. In his 1975 book The Mothman Prophecies, author John Keel claimed that the Point Pleasant residents experienced precognitions including premonitions of the collapse of the Silver Bridge, unidentified flying object sightings, visits from inhuman or threatening men in black, and other phenomena.
Festivals and statue
Point Pleasant held its first Annual Mothman Festival in 2002 and a 12-foot-tall metallic statue of the creature, created by artist and sculptor Bob Roach, was unveiled in 2003. The Mothman Museum and Research Center opened in 2005 and is run by Jeff Wamsley. The Festival is a weekend-long event held on the 3rd weekend of every September. There is a variety of events that go on during the festival such as guest speakers, vendor exhibits, a mothman pancake eating contest, and hayride tours focusing on the notable areas of Point Pleasant.
In popular culture
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- The Mothman Prophecies (2002), loosely based on the 1975 novel of the same name by John Keel.
- Mothman (2010), a Syfy original movie
- Mothman was the focus of a segment on Unsolved Mysteries, originally aired July 29, 2002.
- The Mothman is the subject of the Blitzkid song "Genus Unknown"
- In episode two of the short-lived TV series X-Testers, the researchers attempted to duplicate alleged photographs of Mothman.
- In the video game Castlevania: Dawn of Sorrow, Mothman is one of three cryptozoology-based monsters along with the Yeti and the "Flying Humanoid". It appears again as an enemy in Castlevania: Portrait of Ruin.
- Mothman is a recurring demon in the Shin Megami Tensei franchise.
- In the French novel "Les Yeux de L'Épouvante" ("The Eyes of the Terror"), written by Jimmy Guieu in 1977 and published at "editions Fleuve Noir", the Mothman appears in France, in Var, near the Malmont. The title of the novel is a reference to the Mothman's red eyes.
- In season one, episode five of Mountain Monsters, the crew of expert hunters and trappers attempt to capture the Mothman of Mason County, WV.
- The Mothman was also in a Weird or What? episode hosted by William Shatner that originally aired on September 26, 2011.
- In the Paranormal Witness episode titled "The Mothman Curse", a couple claims to have awakened the Mothman and that he followed them home.
- In season 4, episode 1 of the BuzzFeed Presents series BuzzFeed Unsolved, Buzzfeed employees Ryan Bergara and Shane Madej travel to Point Pleasant and try to encounter the Mothman.
- In season 4, episode 5 of MonsterQuest, in 2010.
- Mothman is featured in the video game Fallout 76, which takes place in West Virginia.
- In 2018, Mothman was included as a vinyl figure in Cryptozoic Entertainment's Cryptkins blind box toy line.
- A musical entitled Mothman: The Herald of Doom, written by Trezel Daigneault and composed by Hannah Sauter and Robin Gibson, premiered at The Evergreen State College on May 10, 2018 and ran until May 12th, 2018. The musical centered on a reporter for the New York Times arriving in Point Pleasant to investigate sightings of the Mothman, and a outcast teenage girl's own encounters with the Mothman.
- The popular real-play RPG podcast, The Adventure Zone, features Mothman as a side character in its Amnesty campaign, set in West Virginia.
- Barker, Gray The Silver Bridge (Saucerian Books, 1970). Reprinted in 2008 entitled The Silver Bridge: The Classic Mothman Tale (BookSurge Publishing). ISBN 1-4392-0427-6
- Coleman, L. Mothman and Other Curious Encounters. (2002). ISBN 978-1-931044-34-9 (or ISBN 1-931044-34-1)
- Colvin, Andrew The Mothman's Photographer: The Work of an Artist Touched by the Prophecies of the Infamous Mothman (2007). ISBN 978-1-4196-5265-3
- Colvin, Andrew The Mothman's Photographer II: Meetings With Remarkable Witnesses Touched by Paranormal Phenomena, UFOs, and the Prophecies of West Virginia's Infamous Mothman (2007). ISBN 978-1-4196-5266-0
- Myres, Rau & Macklin The Little Giant Book of True Ghost Stories (2001) ISBN 0-439-33995-2
- Sergent, Jr., Donnie Mothman: The Facts Behind the Legend (2001) ISBN 978-0-9667246-7-7
- Fear, Brad A Macabre Myth of a Moth-Man (2008) ISBN 978-1-4389-0263-0
- Keel, John A. The Mothman Prophecies (2007). ISBN 0-7653-4197-2 (Originally published in 1975 by Saturday Review Press)
- Keel, John A. The Eighth Tower (1977). ISBN 978-0-451-07460-7
- Myers, Bill. Angel of Wrath: A Novel (2009). ISBN 978-0-446-69800-9
- Ressel, Steve. Perverted Communion (2010). ISBN 978-0-9787483-5-7
- Bullard, Stephan, et al. The Silver Bridge Disaster of 1967 (2012). ISBN 978-07385-9278-7
- Wood, Jen A. Point Pleasant (2013) ISBN 978-1492121602
- Schmidt, W.L. Threads of Faithfulness (2013) ISBN 978-1-62510-894-4
- "Couples See Man-Sized Bird...Creature...Something". Point Pleasant Register Point Pleasant, WV Wednesday, November 16, 1966. WestVA.Net, Mark Turner. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
- Skeptical Inquirer, Volume 33 (Pennsylvania State University, Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal., 2009).
- Gray Barker, The Silver Bridge (Saucerian Books, 1970). Reprinted in 2008 entitled The Silver Bridge: The Classic Mothman Tale (BookSurge Publishing). ISBN 1-4392-0427-6
- Paul Meehan, Cinema of the Psychic Realm: A Critical Survey, page 130 (McFarland & Company, Inc., 2009). ISBN 978-0-7864-3966-9
- "Mothman Festival".
- "First sighting of the Mothman". Wvcommerce.org. 1966-11-12. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
- Joe Nickell (April 2004). The Mystery Chronicles: More Real-Life X-Files. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-0-8131-2318-9. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "UPDATE: Munitions Risk Closes Part of Wildlife Area Again". Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- Associated Press (Dec 1, 1966). "Monster Bird With Red Eyes May Be Crane". Gettysburg Times. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Palma, Bethania. "Mothman About Town". Snopes.com. Snopes. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- LeRose, Chris. "The Collapse of the Silver Bridge". West Virginia Historical Society Quarterly. West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- Associated Press (Jan 19, 2008). "Mothman' still a frighteningly big draw for tourists". Toronto Star. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- UPI (Nov 18, 1966). "Eight People Say They Saw 'Creature'". Williamson (WV) Daily News. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- (in Russian) Lobkov, Denis (23 May 2002). "Призраки катастроф". Zheltaya Gazeta via Svobodnaya Gruziya. (English translation of the article.)
- Pierson, Fallon. "Man photographs creature that resembles legendary Mothman" of Point Pleasant". WCHS-TV news. WCHS. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- Hill, Sharon. "Mothman "reappears" coincidentally close to the 50th anniversary date". Doubtful News. Lithosphere LLC. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- Elbein, Asher (26 October 2018). "Is the Mothman of West Virginia an Owl?". Audubon.org. Archived from the original on 27 October 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
- Brunvand, Jan Harold (1 October 1994). The Baby Train and Other Lusty Urban Legends. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-0-393-31208-9.
- Terry, Josh (2018-01-17). "People Keep Seeing the Mothman in Chicago". Vice.
- Clark, Jerome (2000). Extraordinary Encounters: An Encyclopedia of Extraterrestrials and Otherworldly Beings Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio, ISBN 1-57607-249-5, pp. 178-179.
- Mothman Statue
- Mark Moran, Mark Sceurman, Matt Lake, Weird U. S. The ODDyssey Continues - Your Travel Guide to America's Local Legends and Best Kept Secrets, page 260 (New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 2008). ISBN 978-1-4027-4544-7
- "Legend of the Mothman" plaque on base of statue
- Wamsley, Jeff. "Mothman Museum". Facebook. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "Episode List". X-Testers. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- TV.com (2013-06-22). "Mountain Monsters - Episode Guide". TV.com. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
- "Cryptkins Vinyl Figures". Cryptozoic.com. Cryptozoic Entertainment. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- John Squires (February 13, 2018). "New Vinyl Toy Line 'Cryptkins' Will Feature Blind Box Monsters of Myth". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- "Perennial Players presents Mothman". The Evergreen State College. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Mothman: Herald of Doom". Instagram. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Mothman: The Herald of Doom". Twitter. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "The Adventure Zone: Amnesty - Episode 14 | Maximum Fun". maximumfun.org. Retrieved 2018-08-25.
Media related to Mothman at Wikimedia Commons