This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)
|Part of the Politics series|
In political science, a multi-party system is a political system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national elections, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition. Apart from one-party-dominant and two-party systems, multi-party systems tend to be more common in parliamentary systems than presidential systems and far more common in countries that use proportional representation compared to countries that use first-past-the-post elections. Several parties compete for power and all of them have reasonable chance of forming government.
First-past-the-post requires concentrated areas of support for large representation in the legislature, whereas proportional representation better reflects the range of a population's views. Proportional systems may have multi-member districts with more than one representative elected from a given district to the same legislative body, and thus a greater number of viable parties. Duverger's law states that the number of viable political parties is one, plus the number of seats in a district.
Argentina, Armenia, Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, Sweden, Tunisia, and Ukraine are examples of nations that have used a multi-party system effectively in their democracies. In these countries, usually no single party has a parliamentary majority by itself. Instead, multiple political parties are compelled to form compromised coalitions for the purpose of developing power blocks and attaining legitimate mandate.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2021)
Comparisons with other party systems
A system where only two parties have the possibility of winning an election is called a two-party system. A system where only three parties have a realistic possibility of winning an election or forming a coalition is sometimes called a "Third-party system". But, in some cases the system is called a "Stalled Third-Party System," when there are three parties and all three parties win a large number of votes, but only two have a chance of winning an election. Usually, this is because the electoral system penalises the third party, e.g. as in Canadian or UK politics.
West Germany between 1961 and 1983 was largely a stalled three party system, or "triopoly". For 22 years, only three parties - Christian Democratic Union and its Bavarian sister party Christian Social Union, Social Democratic Party and Free Democratic Party were represented in the Bundestag, since to win seats in the Bundestag, a party must win at least 5% of the vote or win three constituency seats. The Free Democratic Party would not win a single constituency seat between 1957 and 1990, but always won party list seats. From 1961 to 1998, they were included in every government except for three years of Grand coalition in 1966-1969 and were largely considered to be the kingmaker party. From 1969 to 1982, West Germany was governed by a SPD-FDP coalition and although in 1976 and 1980 CDU/CSU won a plurality of votes, they were unable to force out the SPD-FDP government. However, in 1982, FDP annulled the coalition pact with SPD and formed a new one with CDU/CSU, which would last until CDU/CSU's defeat in 1998 elections. 1983 elections ended the triopoly, with The Greens entering the parliament, and in 1990, Party of Democratic Socialism entering the parliament.
In the 2010 UK elections, the Liberal Democrats gained 23% of the total vote but won less than 10% of the seats due to the first-past-the-post electoral system. Despite this, they still had enough seats (and enough public support) to form coalitions with one of the two major parties, or to make deals in order to gain their support. An example is the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition formed after the 2010 general election. Another is the Lib-Lab pact during Prime Minister James Callaghan's Minority Labour Government; when Labour lost its three-seat majority in 1977, the pact fell short of a full coalition.
In Canada, there are three major federal political parties: the Conservative Party of Canada, the Liberal Party of Canada, and the New Democratic Party. However, in recent Canadian history, the Liberals and Conservatives (and their predecessors) have been the only two parties to elect a Prime Minister in Canada, with the New Democratic Party, Bloc Quebecois and Green Party often winning seats in the House of Commons. The main exception was the 2011 Canadian election when the New Democrats were the Official Opposition and the Liberal Party was reduced to third party status.
Unlike a one-party system (or a two-party system), a multi-party system encourages the general constituency to form multiple distinct, officially recognized groups, generally called political parties. Each party competes for votes from the enfranchised constituents (those allowed to vote). A multi-party system prevents the leadership of a single party from controlling a single legislative chamber without challenge.
If the government includes an elected Congress or Parliament, the parties may share power according to proportional representation or the first-past-the-post system. In proportional representation, each party wins a number of seats proportional to the number of votes it receives. In first-past-the-post, the electorate is divided into a number of districts, each of which selects one person to fill one seat by a plurality of the vote. First-past-the-post is not conducive to a proliferation of parties, and naturally gravitates toward a two-party system, in which only two parties have a real chance of electing their candidates to office. This gravitation is known as Duverger's law. Proportional representation, on the other hand, does not have this tendency, and allows multiple major parties to arise. But, recent coalition governments, such as that in the U.K., represent two-party systems rather than multi-party systems. This is regardless of the number of parties in government.[dubious ]
A two-party system requires voters to align themselves in large blocks, sometimes so large that they cannot agree on any overarching principles. Some theories argue that this allows centrists to gain control, though this is disputed. On the other hand, if there are multiple major parties, each with less than a majority of the vote, the parties are strongly motivated to work together to form working governments. This also promotes centrism, as well as promoting coalition-building skills while discouraging polarization.
- Education 2020 definition of multiparty: "A system in which several major and many lesser parties exist, seriously compete for, and actually win public offices."
- Baluch, Alim. "German election explained: why is it always so hard to form a government?". The Conversation. Retrieved 2021-11-02.
- The social science literature has contributed enormously in recent years on the effects on forms of government and quality of life of the citizens. Lowell’s axiom is one of the most tested theory empirically tested (Lowell, A.L., 1896). Governments and Parties in Continental Europe. Bostin, MA: Houghton Mifflin)..
- Basu, K., Dey Biswas, S., Harish, P., Dhar, S., & Lahiri, M. (2016). Is multi-party coalition government better for the protection of socially backward classes in India? UN-WIDER Working Paper, 2016 (109).