The Novarian series is a sequence of fantasy stories by L. Sprague de Camp, published between 1968 and 1989. The series contains some of de Camp's most innovative works of fantasy, featuring explorations of various political systems, an inversion of the "rags to royalty" pattern characteristic of much heroic fantasy, a satiric look at the foibles of humanity through the eyes of a demon, and a consistently wry and ironic take on conventions of the genre that plays out by taking them to their logical (or illogical) conclusions. Another singular feature of the series is its frequent use of folk tales integrated into the plot to painlessly convey something of the background and history of the invented world. This device obviates the need for lengthy appendices, as in The Lord of the Rings.
Novaria is portrayed as a region of a parallel world to Earth, a plane of existence related to ours in that ours constitutes its afterlife. This unique conceit makes it a sort of reverse-Bangsian fantasy, or rather makes our world its Bangsian fantasy. Mankind shares this world with other intelligent beings, like the serpent people of Beraoti, the beast-men of Komilakh, and the silvans of the mountain forests. The fauna is largely that of Earth's Ice Age, while the vegetation is similar to that of present-day Earth.
In Novaria's world, the supernatural element is dominant. Magic works, though in a strictly logical fashion that often leaves its practitioners dissatisfied. Gods are real and strongly influence mortal affairs, communicating with their worshipers through dreams. Demons can, and often are, summoned from other planes of existence, which Novarians number in relation to their own (which to them is the Prime Plane).
The western continents
The two western continents where most of the series' events take place span the world's climatic zones from the arctic to the tropics. They are bounded by the Western Ocean to the west and the Eastern Ocean to the east.
The northernmost of these continents is largely desolate, consisting primarily of the steppe country of Shven, inhabited by nomads patterned after the Mongols, with the pirate isles of Algarth off its western coast and the land of Hroth to the north. It is joined to the southern continent at the southwest end by the broad isthmus of Novaria, but otherwise separated from it by the Mediterranean-like inland seas known as the Inner Sea and the Sea of Sikhon.
The more civilized southern continent contains, from west to east, the empire of Penembei, the desert of Fedirun, home to Beduin-like nomads, the tropical realm of Mulvan, and the jungles of Komilakh, inhabited by beast men; other lands, notably Beraoti, lie further south of these. The principal powers are Penembei and Mulvan. Penembei is modeled on Sumerian Mesopotamia, Ptolemaic Egypt, and the Byzantine Empire; authority there is shared between a King and a High Priestess, with considerable influence also exercised by two mutually antagonistic sporting/political factions in the capital of Iraz, similar to those that tore Byzantium apart in the Nika riots. Mulvan is a caste-bound empire combining features of India, China and Persia. In Novaria there are small bands of wandering Mulvanians, who act as entertainers and fortune-tellers and who are plainly modeled on Gypsies.
More distant lands
East of the western continents across the Eastern Ocean are the archipelagos known as the Peppercorns, Salimor, and Gwoling. The Salimor islands comprise a monarchy mingling elements of Japan and the Philippines. Beyond the islands is an eastern continent that contains the great empire of Kuromon, based on China and Japan, and another nomad-inhabited steppe belt. West of the western continents across the Western Ocean is the country of the cannibal Paaluan sea raiders, whose appearance resembles that of Australian Aborigines; as the Paaluans are also stated (in The Honorable Barbarian) to be a threat in the Eastern Ocean, there is evidently a navigable sea passage around either the main Novarian continent or the eastern continent, or both.
Novaria itself, as noted above, is a broad isthmus joining the two continental masses to the north and the south. (De Camp oddly yet consistently refers to it as a peninsula, though it is plainly an isthmus in both his maps and descriptions.) Novaria is separated from the northern continent by the high Ellorna Mountains and from the southern by the great Logram Mountains. On its other sides it drains into the Western Ocean and the Inner Sea, which communicates with the Eastern Ocean via the smaller Sea of Sikhon.
In ancient times Novaria was divided into three kingdoms. This era was ended by an invasion by nomads of Shven, precipitating a dark age from which the present twelve city-states gradually coalesced. Among the earliest to emerge were Kortoli, Othomae and Aussar. Finjanius, a reforming king of Kortoli, reigned just after the end of the dark age. The city-states were united only once in their history, by the conqueror Ardyman the Terrible of Govannion. Ardyman's chief legacy was Ir, the capital he built for his empire, a mostly subterranean city delved and carved out of the living rock. But after his death the realm fell apart and the cities regained their independence, with Ir becoming but one more among them. In Kortoli, after it threw off Ardyman's yoke, ruled the legendary line of kings that included Fusas, Fusor, Forbonian, Forimar the Esthete, Fusonio, Filoman the Well-Meaning, and Fusinian the Fox.
Culturally present-day Novaria bears resemblances to the eras of both Classical Greece and late Medieval Europe (Italy in particular), especially in conveying the vivid life of a cluster of city states sharing a common language and culture, though widely different in political regime and often at war with each other.
The twelve city-states into which Novaria is split are ruled under a wide variety of competing governmental systems, some of them unique. Several of these are visited and their contemporary situations shown during the progress of the stories; the general history of the region is recounted from a Kortolian perspective by Jorian, the series's main protagonist, in a number of folktales he relates in the course of his adventures. The Twelve Cities and their governments (as far as these were revealed) are as follows:
The series incidentally explores various pros and cons of different modes of governance as the action moves through Novaria and various other countries. Most of the stories have satirical themes – e.g., of academic conferences (the magicians' conclave, which ends The Goblin Tower); of Monotheistic religion (the toad-god Gorgolor, a minor deity in other places but the supreme god of the universe in theocratic Tarxia); of modern poetry (Jorian's tale of a king in his native Kortoli refusing to grant an award to a poem composed of randomly chosen words).
The core of the Novarian series is the "Reluctant King" trilogy, consisting of The Goblin Tower (1968), The Clocks of Iraz (1971) and The Unbeheaded King (1983), all collected as The Reluctant King (1985). The trilogy is the story of Jorian, a native of Kortoli chosen by a gruesome lottery to be king of Xylar (he caught the head of the previous king as it was thrown into a crowd). As the date for his own beheading approaches, he plots to escape Xylar and its fatal crown, following which his plan is to recover his true love and settle down in obscurity into his ideal life as a simple craftsman. En route to this goal he travels through much of the known world, rescues a consignment of maidens destined for the executioner's block, romances a serpent princess and steals a chest of ancient spells, matches wits with gods, escapes being sacrificed by beast men and being sold by nomads, abets a revolution in a priest-ruled city, becomes enmeshed in the sorcerous politics of a magicians' guild, repairs the clocks in a famous lighthouse tower, saves a besieged city from four enemy hosts at once, braves a perilous flight in a demon-powered bathtub, negotiates with an unreliable magician, spirits a woman from the city that has sworn to kill him, and exorcises the ghost of a cursed baron. Early on there is also a short excursion into our world, in which Jorian is frightened by a passing giant truck, has a mutually uncomprehending encounter with a police officer in a patrol car, and is very glad to get back to the familiar dangers of his own world.
Two other tales are set earlier in Novaria's history; "The Emperor's Fan," which illustrates the perils of a magical artifact, and The Fallible Fiend, a satire told the point of view of the demon Zdim, who is condemned to service in the perplexing world of humans. A final story, The Honorable Barbarian, is a sequel to the Jorian sequence, relating the adventures of his younger brother Kerin in the far east.
There are also a number of stories within stories that present the background of the imagined world, primarily folktales told by Jorian of former kings of his home city-state of Kortoli. The most prominent of these are the culture addict King Forimar the Esthete, the foolish King Filoman the Well-Meaning, and the crafty hero King Fusinian the Fox, each of whom is the subject of a number of tales; three other kings receive one story each. Other internal tales consist of capsule autobiographies related by a number of the characters, notably Jorian himself, the serpent princess Yargali, the sorceress Goania, and the ghost baron Lorc. A third class of internal tale relates, usually in response to questions by Jorian, the histories of various places and objects of interest, such as the lost city of Culbagarh in Komilakh, the Goblin Tower in Othomae, the Tower of Kumashar in Iraz, the bathtub of Emperor Ishbahar of Penembei, and the toad god Gorgolor of Tarxia. This last is of interest in that it is told both as a direct experience of Jorian in The Goblin Tower and as an inset tale with Jorian's involvement edited out related by Kerin in The Honorable Barbarian.
According to de Camp's friend and fellow writer Darrell Schweitzer, De Camp wrote one additional Novarian novel, which has "a quasi-Polynesian setting." It was reportedly de Camp's last novel, represented a noticeable falling-off in quality from his better work, and was considered unpublishable. Its working title was The Sedulous Sprite. It could well be a satirical tale with a non-human protagonist like The Fallible Fiend, as its title suggests it might focus on Belinka, a duty-obsessed fairy and major supporting character from The Honorable Barbarian.
In order of internal chronology:
- "The Emperor's Fan" (1973)
- The Fallible Fiend (1973)
- The Goblin Tower (1968), ISBN 0-345-32812-4
- The Clocks of Iraz (1971)
- The Unbeheaded King (1983), ISBN 0-345-30773-9
- The Honorable Barbarian (1989), ISBN 0-345-36091-5
- The Sedulous Sprite (unpublished)
On the kings of Kortoli
In order of internal chronology:
- "King Finjanius and the Priests of Zevatas" (in The Clocks of Iraz)
- "King Fusas and the Great Wrastle" (in The Goblin Tower)
- "King Forbonian and the Water Wife" (in The Unbeheaded King)
- "King Forimar the Esthete and Doubri the Faultless" (in The Goblin Tower)
- "King Forimar the Esthete and the Waxen Wife" (in The Goblin Tower (fragment) and The Clocks of Iraz (full version))
- "King Forimar the Esthete and the Sophi's Tower" (in The Unbeheaded King (full version) and The Honorable Barbarian (summary))
- "King Filoman the Well-Meaning and the Golem General" (in The Clocks of Iraz)
- "King Filoman the Well-Meaning and the Ghost Minister" (in The Goblin Tower)
- "King Filoman the Well-Meaning and the Mulvanian Saint" (in The Goblin Tower)
- "King Fusinian the Fox and the Teeth of Grimnor" (in The Goblin Tower)
- "King Fusinian the Fox and the Boar of Chinioc" (in The Unbeheaded King)
- "King Fusinian the Fox and the Tides" (in The Clocks of Iraz)
- "King Fusinian the Fox and the Marvelous Caverns" (in The Goblin Tower)
- "King Fusinian the Fox and the Enchanted Shovel" (in The Goblin Tower (fragment))
- "Prince Fusarius and the Lonesome Lion" (in The Goblin Tower (fragment))
Other historical tales
- "The History of Culbagarh" (told by Doctor Karadur) (in The Goblin Tower)
- "The Tale of the Goblin Tower" (told by Doctor Vorko) (in The Goblin Tower)
- "The Tale of the Tower of Kumashar" (told by Zerlik of Iraz) (in The Clocks of Iraz)
- "The Legend of Captain Oswic's Ghost (told by Turonus the Taverner) (in The Unbeheaded King)
- "The Tale of Emperor Ishbahar's Bathtub (told by Jorian) (in The Unbeheaded King)
- "Reminisces of Yargali" (told by the Serpent Princess Yargali) (in The Goblin Tower)
- "Baron Lorc and the Curse of Gwitardus" (told by Baron Lorc) (in The Unbeheaded King)
- "Goania and her Suitor" (told by the Wizardess Goania) (in The Unbeheaded King)
- "The Youth and Reign of King Jorian of Xylar" (told by Jorian) (in The Goblin Tower)
- "Jorian and the Slave Girls" (told by Jorian) (in The Unbeheaded King)
- The Reluctant King (1985) (includes The Goblin Tower, The Clocks of Iraz and The Unbeheaded King)
- "Ir" (עיר) is Hebrew for "city."
- Darrell Schweitzer, message on Yahoo Discussion Group d_for_de_Camp, April 28, 2007. https://groups.yahoo.com/group/d_for_de_Camp/message/43 Accessed 6/22/07.
- Darrell Schweitzer, message on Yahoo Discussion Group d_for_de_Camp, June 18, 2007. https://groups.yahoo.com/group/d_for_de_Camp/message/231 Accessed 6/22/07.