# Orders of magnitude (acceleration)

This page lists examples of the acceleration occurring in various situations. They are grouped by orders of magnitude.

Factor
[m/s2]
Multiple Reference frame Value [g] Item
10−∞ 0 m/s2 inertial 0 m/s2 0 g The gyro rotors in Gravity Probe B and the free-floating
inertial 0 m/s2 0 g Weightless parabola in a reduced-gravity aircraft
10−14 10 fm/s2 lab 5×10−14 m/s2 5×10−15 g Smallest acceleration in a scientific experiment[2]
10−3 1 mm/s2 Solar system 5.93×10−3 m/s2 6.04×10−4 g Acceleration of Earth toward the sun due to sun's gravitational attraction
10−1 1 dm/s2 lab 0.25 m/s2 0.026 g Train acceleration for SJ X2[citation needed]
100 1 m/s2 inertial 1.62 m/s2 0.1654 g Standing on the Moon at its equator[citation needed]
lab 4.3 m/s2 0.44 g Car acceleration 0–100 km/h in 6.4 s with a Saab 9-5 Hirsch[citation needed]
inertial 9.80665 m/s2 1 g Standard gravity, the gravity acceleration on Earth at sea level standard[3]
101 1 dam/s2 inertial 11.2 m/s2 1.14 g Saturn V Moon rocket just after launch[citation needed]
inertial 15.2 m/s2 1.55 g Bugatti Veyron from 0 to 100 km/h in 2.4 s (the net acceleration vector including gravitational acceleration is directed 40 degrees from horizontal[citation needed])
inertial 29 m/s2 3 g Space Shuttle, maximum during launch and reentry[citation needed]
inertial 29 m/s2 3 g Sustainable for > 25 seconds, for a human[3]
inertial 34 – 49 m/s2 3.5 – 5 g High-G roller coasters[4]: 340
lab? 41 m/s2 4.2 g Top Fuel drag racing world record of 4.4 s over 1/4 mile[citation needed]
inertial 49 m/s2 5 g Causes disorientation, dizziness and fainting in humans[3]
lab? 49+ m/s2 5+ g Formula One car, maximum under heavy braking[citation needed]
inertial? 51 m/s2 5.2 g Luge, maximum expected at the Whistler Sliding Centre[citation needed]
lab 49 – 59 m/s2 5 – 6 g Formula One car, peak lateral in turns[5]
inertial 59 m/s2 6 g Parachutist peak during normal opening of parachute[6]
inertial +69 / -49 m/s2 +7 / -5 g Standard, full aerobatics certified glider[citation needed]
inertial 70.6 m/s2 7.19 g Apollo 16 on reentry[7]
inertial 79 m/s2 8 g F-16 aircraft pulling out of dive[citation needed]
inertial 88 m/s2 9 g Maximum for a fit, trained person with G-suit to keep consciousness, avoiding G-LOC[citation needed]
inertial 88 – 118 m/s2 9 – 12 g Typical maximum turn acceleration in an aerobatic plane or fighter jet[8]
102 1 hm/s2 inertial 147 m/s2 15 g Explosive seat ejection from aircraft[citation needed]
177 m/s2 18 g Physical damage in humans like broken capillaries[3]
209 m/s2 21.3 g Peak acceleration experienced by cosmonauts during the Soyuz 18a abort[9]
333 m/s2 34 g Peak deceleration of the Stardust Sample Return Capsule on reentry to Earth[10]
454 m/s2 46.2 g Maximum acceleration a human has survived on a rocket sled[3]
> 491 m/s2 > 50 g Death or serious injury likely[citation needed]
982 m/s2 100 g Sprint missile[11]
982 m/s2 100 g Automobile crash (100 km/h into wall)[12]
> 982 m/s2 > 100 g Brief human exposure survived in crash[13]
982 m/s2 100 g Deadly limit for most humans[citation needed]
103 1 km/s2 inertial
≈ lab
1540 m/s2 157 g Peak acceleration of fastest rocket sled run[14]
1964 m/s2 200 g 3.5" hard disc non-operating shock tolerance for 2 ms, weight 0.6 kg[15]
2098 m/s2 214 g Highest recorded amount of g-force exposed and survived by a human (Peak deceleration experienced by Kenny Bräck in a crash at the 2003 Chevy 500)[16][17]
2256 m/s2 230 g Peak acceleration experience by the Galileo probe during descent into Jupiter's atmosphere[18]
2490 m/s2 254 g Peak deceleration experienced by Jules Bianchi in crash of Marussia MR03, 2014 Japanese Grand Prix[19]
2946 m/s2 300 g Soccer ball struck by foot[citation needed]
3200 m/s2 320 g A jumping human flea[20]
3800 m/s2 380 g A jumping click beetle[21]
4944 m/s2 504 g Clothes on washing machine, during dry spinning (46 cm drum / 1400 rpm)
104 10 km/s2 11 768 m/s2 1200 g Deceleration of the head of a woodpecker[22]
17 680 m/s2 1800 g Space gun with a barrel length of 1 km and a muzzle velocity of 6 km/s,
as proposed by Quicklaunch (assuming constant acceleration)
29460 m/s2 3000 g Baseball struck by bat[12]
~33 000 m/s2 3400 g Standard requirement for decelerative crashworthiness in certified flight recorders (such as a Boeing 737 'black box')
>49 100 m/s2 >5000 g Shock capability of mechanical wrist watches[23]
84 450 m/s2 8600 g Current Formula One engines, maximum piston acceleration (up to 10,000 g before rev limits)[24]
105 100 km/s2 102 000 m/s2 10 400 g A mantis shrimp punch[25]
152 210 m/s2 15 500 g Rating of electronics built into military artillery shells[26]
196 400 m/s2 20 000 g Spore acceleration of the Pilobolus fungi[27]
304 420 m/s2 31 000 g 9×19mm Parabellum handgun bullet (average along the length of the barrel)[citation needed][28]
106 1 Mm/s2 1 000 000 m/s2 100 000 g Closing jaws of a trap-jaw ant[29]
1 865 800 m/s2 190 000 g 9×19mm Parabellum handgun bullet, peak[citation needed][30]
3 800 000 m/s2 390 000 g Surface gravity of white dwarf Sirius B[31]
3 900 000 m/s2 slightly below 400 000 g Ultracentrifuge[32]
107 10 Mm/s2 53 000 000 m/s2 5 400 000 g Jellyfish stinger[33]
109 1 Gm/s2 1×109 m/s2 ~100 000 000 g The record peak acceleration of a projectile in a coilgun, a 2 gram projectile accelerated in 1 cm from rest to 5 km/sec.[34]
1012 1 Tm/s2 7×1012 m/s2 7×1011 g Max surface gravity of a neutron star[citation needed]
2.1×1013 m/s2 2.1×1012 g Protons in the Large Hadron Collider[35]
1021 1 Zm/s2 9.149×1021 m/s2 9.33×1020 g Classical (Bohr model) acceleration of an electron around a 1H nucleus.
176×1021 m/s2 1.79×1022 g Electrons in a 1 TV/m wakefield accelerator[36]
1051 1 QZm/s2 5.5608×1051 m/s2 5.5719×1050 g Coherent Planck unit of acceleration

## References

1. ^ Stanford University: Gravity Probe B, Payload & Spacecraft, and NASA: Investigation of Drag-Free Control Technology for Earth Science Constellation Missions. The TRIAD 1 satellite was a later, more advanced navigation satellite that was part of the U.S. Navy’s Transit, or NAVSAT system.
2. ^ Gundlach, J. H; Schlamminger, S; Spitzer, C. D; Choi, K. -Y; Woodahl, B. A; Coy, J. J; Fischbach, E (2007). "Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations". Physical Review Letters. 98 (15): 150801. Bibcode:2007PhRvL..98o0801G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.150801. PMID 17501332.
3. ^ George Bibel. Beyond the Black Box: the Forensics of Airplane Crashes. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. ISBN 0-8018-8631-7.
4. ^ 6 g has been recorded in the 130R turn at Suzuka circuit, Japan. [1] Many turns have 5 g peak values, like turn 8 at Istanbul or Eau Rouge at Spa
5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-28. Retrieved 2014-12-14.`{{cite web}}`: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
6. ^ NASA: SP-368 Biomedical Results of Apollo, Chapter 5: Environmental Factors, Table 2: Apollo Manned Space Flight Reentry G Levels
7. ^ "Maxed out: How many gs can you pull?". New Scientist. Retrieved 2017-11-19.
8. ^ Hall, Rex; David Shayler (2003). Soyuz, A Universal Spacecraft. Springer Praxis. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-85233-657-8.
9. ^ ReVelle, D. O.; Edwards, W. N. (2007). "Stardust—An artificial, low-velocity "meteor" fall and recovery: 15 January 2006". Meteoritics and Planetary Science. 42 (2): 271. Bibcode:2007M&PS...42..271R. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2007.tb00232.x.
10. ^ Sprint
11. ^ a b tomshardware.co.uk - Hard Drive Shock Tolerance - Hard-Disks - Storage Archived 2012-06-17 at the Wayback Machine, Physics, by O'hanian, 1989, 2007-01-03
12. ^ “Several Indy car drivers have withstood impacts in excess of 100 G without serious injuries.” Dennis F. Shanahan, M.D., M.P.H.: ”Human Tolerance and Crash Survivability , citing Society of Automotive Engineers. Indy racecar crash analysis. Automotive Engineering International, June 1999, 87–90. And National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Recording Automotive Crash Event Data Archived 2010-04-05 at the Wayback Machine
13. ^ "Holloman Air Force Base - Fact Sheet (Printable) : 846 TS HYPERSONIC UPGRADE PROGRAM". Archived from the original on 2012-05-17. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
14. ^ wdc.com - Legacy Product Specifications : WD600BB Archived 2011-02-27 at the Wayback Machine, read 2012-01-11
15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-23.`{{cite web}}`: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
16. ^ Feel the G's: The Science of Gravity and G-Forces - by Suzanne Slade (page 37)
17. ^ Woodfill, Jerry. "What Did Galileo Find at Jupipter?". er.jsc.nasa.gov. NASA. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
18. ^ "Formula 1 - Bianchi crash impact was 254g". uk.eurosport.yahoo.com. 23 July 2015. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015.
19. ^ Evans, M. E. G (2009). "The jump of the click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae)—a preliminary study". Journal of Zoology. 167 (3): 319–336. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1972.tb03115.x.
20. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2015-04-19.`{{cite web}}`: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
21. ^ S-H Yoon; S Park (17 January 2011). "A mechanical analysis of woodpecker drumming and its application to shock-absorbing systems" (PDF). Bioinspiration & Biomimetics. 6 (1): 12. Bibcode:2011BiBi....6a6003Y. doi:10.1088/1748-3182/6/1/016003. PMID 21245520. S2CID 2510221. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
22. ^ Omega [2], Ball Watch Technology
23. ^ Cosworth V8 engine
24. ^ S. N. Patek, W. L. Korff & R. L. Caldwell (2004). "Deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp" (PDF). Nature. 428 (6985): 819–820. Bibcode:2004Natur.428..819P. doi:10.1038/428819a. PMID 15103366. S2CID 4324997.
25. ^ "L-3 Communication's IEC Awarded Contract with Raytheon for Common Air Launched Navigation System". Archived from the original on 2016-12-24. Retrieved 2016-12-12.
26. ^ bu.edu - Rockets in Horse Poop, 2010-12-10
27. ^ Assuming an 8.04 gram bullet, a muzzle velocity of 350 metres per second (1,100 ft/s), and a 102 mm barrel.
28. ^ Patek SN, Baio JE, Fisher BL, Suarez AV (22 August 2006). "Multifunctionality and mechanical origins: Ballistic jaw propulsion in trap-jaw ants". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (34): 12787–12792. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10312787P. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604290103. PMC 1568925. PMID 16924120.
29. ^ Assuming an 8.04 gram bullet, a peak pressure of 240 MPa (35,000 psi) and 440 N of friction.
30. ^ Holberg, J. B.; Barstow, M. A.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Cruise, A. M.; Penny, A. J. (1998). "Sirius B: A New, More Accurate View". The Astrophysical Journal. 497 (2): 935–942. Bibcode:1998ApJ...497..935H. doi:10.1086/305489.
31. ^ Berkeley Physics Course, vol. 1, Mechanics, fig. 4.1 (authors Kittel-Knight-Ruderman, 1973 edition)
32. ^ Tibballs, J; Yanagihara, A. A; Turner, H. C; Winkel, K (2011). "Immunological and Toxinological Responses to Jellyfish Stings". Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets. 10 (5): 438–446. doi:10.2174/187152811797200650. PMC 3773479. PMID 21824077.
33. ^ K. McKinney and P. Mongeau, "Multiple stage pulsed induction acceleration," in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 239-242, March 1984, doi: 10.1109/TMAG.1984.1063089.
34. ^ Calculated from their speed and radius, approximating the LHC as a circle.
35. ^ Rosenzweig, J. B; Andonian, G; Bucksbaum, P; Ferrario, M; Full, S; Fukusawa, A; Hemsing, E; Hidding, B; Hogan, M; Krejcik, P; Muggli, P; Marcus, G; Marinelli, A; Musumeci, P; O'Shea, B; Pellegrini, C; Schiller, D; Travish, G (2011). "Teravolt-per-meter beam and plasma fields from low-charge femtosecond electron beams". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A. 653 (1): 98. arXiv:1002.1976. Bibcode:2011NIMPA.653...98R. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2011.01.073. S2CID 118384500.