Pars pro toto
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Pars pro toto, Latin for "a part (taken) for the whole", is a figure of speech where the name of a portion of an object, place or concept represents the entire object, place or concept. It is distinct from a merism, which is a reference to a whole by an enumeration of parts, metonymy, where an object, place or concept is called by something or some place associated with the object, place or concept, or synecdoche, which can refer both to this and its inverse of the whole representing a part.
In the context of language, pars pro toto means that something is named after a part of it, or after a limited characteristic, in itself not necessarily representative for the whole. For example, "glasses" is a pars pro toto name for something that consists of more than just two pieces of glass. Pars pro toto is a common device in iconography, where a particular icon can stand for a complete set of characteristics. James George Frazer used "pars pro toto" to explain his concept of contagious magic. Examples of common pars pro toto usage in political geography include "Russia" or "Russians", for the entire former Russian Empire or former Soviet Union or its people, Taiwan or Taipei ("Chinese Taipei") for Republic of China, Holland for the Netherlands, and, particularly in languages other than English, using the translation of "England" in that language for "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". Among English speakers "Great Britain" is a common pars pro toto shorthand for the entire United Kingdom. Switzerland's name (in German Schweiz) comes from its central Canton of Schwyz.
The inverse of a pars pro toto is a totum pro parte, in which the whole is used to describe a part, such as widespread use of "America" (which originally named the entire western hemisphere to place it geographically, with alliteration, alongside Asia, Africa, "Europa," and ultimately Arctica, Antarctica and Australia) in place of "United States of America", "United States" or "USA". The term synecdoche is used for both, as well as similar metaphors, though in Greek it literally means "simultaneous understanding".
Pars pro toto (and totum pro parte) can be imprecise, controversial or even offensive. In the UK, for instance, substituting "Great Britain" or using the terms "British" or "English" for countries or provinces (that choice of terms a point of contention all its own) which are neither British nor English can be a hot button issue and divide along sectarian lines, from a grand political perspective down to an individual level of personal preference of how one wishes to self-identify. In Northern Ireland especially, many Unionists may wish to be referred to as British or even English and may prefer to call the region Ulster, whereas Irish Republicans are not offended by the "Irish" identifier but may well take umbrage to being called English or referring to an incomplete Ulster or declare it part of Britain when referring to the province to emphasize its subjugation and divided nature. 
Certain place names are sometimes used to denote an area greater than that warranted by their strict meaning:
- "Antigua" for Antigua and Barbuda
- "Austria" for the former Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Habsburg-ruled lands
- "Salvador" for Bahia, and vice versa
- "The Balkans" for the entire Balkan Peninsula and historically-related parts of south eastern Europe, or for the countries that made up the former Yugoslavia
- "Bohemia" for the former Czech lands, now the Czech Republic
- "Bosnia" for Bosnia and Herzegovina
- "Denmark" for the erstwhile Kingdom of Denmark-Norway
- "England" for Great Britain, the British Isles and/or the United Kingdom (see British Isles (terminology)). Not normally used today by non-English Britons.
- "Great Britain" for the United Kingdom
- "Hindustan" for India, especially north India.
- "Holland" for the Netherlands (see Netherlands (terminology))
- "Ireland" for the Island of Ireland
- "Italian Peninsula" for the entire Italian Republic.
- "Kathmandu" for all three districts inside Kathmandu Valley: Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur District, Nepal.
- "Latin America" for Central America and South America taken together, where many people do not speak languages derived from Latin.
- "Lithuania" for the historic Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Russia and Samogitia
- "Madras"/"Tamil" when referring to someone from South India which consists of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
- "Mesopotamia" for the Middle East
- "Middle East" for the partially overlapping term Arab world & Israel.
- "Monte Carlo" for Monaco
- "Naples" for the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
- "Newfoundland" for what is now called Newfoundland and Labrador
- "Noumea" for New Caledonia especially among Australians and New Zealanders
- "Persia" for Iran
- "Piedmont" or "Piedmont-Sardinia" for the former Kingdom of Sardinia
- "Poland" for the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
- "Portugal" for the former United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
- "Prussia" for the former German Empire
- "Rhode Island" for the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
- "Rome" for the Roman Empire and for Roman Civilization in general
- in reference to Roman Catholic Church it is a different metonym, as the church is not a geographical entity of which Rome is a part
- "Russia" for the former Soviet Union
- "Saint Vincent" for Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- "Santo Domingo" for the Dominican Republic
- "São Tomé" for São Tomé and Príncipe
- "Scandinavia" for the Nordic countries
- "Serbia" for the former Yugoslavian states and the former union of Serbia and Montenegro (1992–2006, named Federal Republic of Yugoslavia before 2003)
- "South America" for partially overlapping term Latin America
- "Sublime Porte" or "Ottoman Porte" for the Ottoman Empire is a different metonym, not referring to the territory, but the government
- "Sweden" for the former Sweden-Norway.
- "Tahiti" for French Polynesia
- "Taiwan" for the (Free area of the) Republic of China, which consists of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu and formally only contains Taiwan area
- "Trinidad" for Trinidad and Tobago
- "Turkey" for the former Ottoman Empire
- "Vietnam" for the former French Indochina
- The use of capitals to denote capital regions or even entire countries such as "Canberra" for the Australian Capital Territory, "Ancient Rome" for the Roman Empire, "Chinese Taipei" for the (Free area of the) Republic of China or Taiwan
- "Wheels" for automobile
- "Keel" or "sail" for ship
- "Head" for individual farm animal, such as "twelve head of cattle" for "twelve cows, bulls, etc."
- "Big Ben" for Elizabeth Tower
- In the context of shooting, the term "gun" refers to the shooter as well as his firearm.
- "pars pro toto - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
- Blair Arts Ltd. "Online Dictionary of Language Terminology (ODLT) s.v. totum pro parte". ODLT. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
- Nicholas Mansergh, Diana Mansergh (1997). Nationalism and Independence. Cork University Press. ISBN 978-1-85918-105-8. Retrieved 2014-08-15.