|Elevation||233 m (764 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Pokhran (Hindi: पोखरण) is a city and a municipality located in the Jaisalmer district of the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is a remote location in the Thar Desert region and served as the test site for India's first underground nuclear weapon detonation.
Surrounded by rocks, sand and five salt ranges, its Hindi name Pokhran (पोखरण) means "place of five mirages". It is located en route between Jaisalmer and Jodhpur or Bikaner at and has an average elevation of 233 metres (764 feet).
Fort Pokhran, the 14th century citadel also known as "Balagarh", stands amidst the Thar Desert. This monument is the premier fort of the chief of the Champawats, the clan of Rathores of the state of Marwar-Jodhpur. Fort Pokhran is open for visitors and is being currently run as heritage hotel by the royal family of Pokhran.
Shakti Mata Memorial Chatriya
In the outskirts of the city, the Shakti Mata Memorial Chatriya, a royal cenotaph, is freely accessible.
The famous, touristic city and fort of Jaisalmer is a couple of hours away by road.
- Seat of Chief of the Champawats, a sub-clan of Rathores of the state of Marwar-Jodhpur.
- Bhawani Singh of Pokhran (b. 1911) was the last jagirdar of Pokhran before Indian independence. He was Sessions Judge and was elected to the 1st Lok Sabha, the Lower house of Indian parliament from Barmer-Jalore constituency, after getting elected as an Independent candidate in the Indian general election, 1952.
According to 2011 Indian census, Pokhran had a population of 28457. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Pokhran has an average literacy rate of 56%, lower than the national average of 74.0%: male literacy is 68%, and female literacy is 41%. In Pokhran, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Pokhran Nuclear Test Range
|Pokhran Test Range (PTR)|
|Near Jaisalmer in India|
|Type||Nuclear test site|
|Subcritical tests||not known|
The Pokhran Test Range, a key component of India's nuclear programme, is located in the municipality. The Indian Nuclear Test Site is located 40 km north-west of Pokhran town and 4 km north of Khetolai village. It was built sometime before May 1974, when, following authorization given to the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre by then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, it hosted the detonation of India's first nuclear device. Within the government, the device's development was known formally as the "Peaceful Nuclear Explosive" (PNE), but elsewhere, especially after its detonation, it was and continues to be known generally as Operation Smiling Buddha. The Ministry of External Affairs designated the test "Pokhran-I".
After the test, the Indian government declared that it did not intend to manufacture nuclear weapons – although it had the means to do so – but rather make India self-reliant in nuclear technology and harness nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.
On 11 and 13 May 1998, twenty-four years after Pokhran-I, the Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) conducted five further nuclear tests, dubbed "Pokhran-II", at the Pokhran range. Four AEC devices and, under the codename Shakti, a thermonuclear device were tested. India has since declared a moratorium on testing.
Scientists and engineers
The team was headed by Rajagopala Chidambaram and consisted of Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, Raja Ramanna, P. K. Iyengar, Rajagopala Chidambaram, Nagapattinam Sambasiva Venkatesan and Waman Dattatreya Patwardhan. The project employed no more than 75 scientists and engineers from 1967-1974. Keeping it small served to aid in the preservation of secrecy, according to the researcher Jeffrey Richelson.
The device used a high explosive implosion system, developed at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)'s Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL), Chandigarh, based on the American design from World War II. But the Indian design was simpler and less sophisticated than the American system. The detonation system to detonate implosion devices was developed at the High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) of DRDO at Pune. The 6 kg of plutonium came from the CIRUS reactor at BARC, Trombay, Mumbai (then Bombay). The neutron initiator was a polonium-beryllium type (again like those used in early U.S. bombs of the Fat Man type) code-named "Flower." The complete core was assembled in Trombay before transportation to the test site.
The fully assembled device had a hexagonal cross section, 1.25 m in diameter and weighed 1400 kg. The device was detonated at 8.05 a.m. in a shaft 107 m under the army Pokhran test range in the Thar Desert (or Great Indian Desert), Rajasthan. Coordinates of the crater are [show location on an interactive map] . Officially the yield was reported at 12 kt, though outside estimates of the yield vary from 2 kt to 20 kt.
- Soszynski, Henry. "Pokhran (thikana) Genealogy". Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Members Bioprofile: First Lok Sabha". Lok Sabha website. Archived from the original on 2014-06-24. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- Forty years after Pokhran nuclear tests, villagers complain of frequent cancer deaths, Scroll.in, 18 May 2014