Pollice verso or verso pollice is a Latin phrase, meaning "with a turned thumb", that is used in the context of gladiatorial combat. It refers to the hand gesture or thumbs signal used by Ancient Roman crowds to pass judgment on a defeated gladiator.
However, the precise type of gesture described by the phrase pollice verso and its meaning are the subject of much scholarly debate.
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The type of gesture described by the phrase pollice verso is unclear. From historical, archaeological and literary records it is uncertain whether the thumb was turned up, turned down, held horizontally, or concealed inside the hand to indicate positive or negative opinions.
Quondam hi cornicines et municipalis harenae
These men once were horn-blowers, who went the round of every provincial show,
The notion of the pollice verso thumb signal was brought to popular attention by an 1872 painting by French history painter Jean-Léon Gérôme titled Pollice Verso (usually translated into English as Thumbs Down). It is a large canvas that depicts the Vestal Virgins signifying to a Murmillo they decree death on a fallen gladiator in the arena.
The painting was a strong influence on the film Gladiator. The producers showed director Ridley Scott a reproduction of the painting before he read the script; "That image spoke to me of the Roman Empire in all its glory and wickedness. I knew right then and there I was hooked", commented Scott.
- James Grout: The Gladiator and the Thumb, part of the Encyclopædia Romana
- Desmond Morris, Peter Collett, Peter Marsh and Marie O'Shaughnessy, 1979 Webified by Bernd Wechner: Gestures: Their Origin and Meanings, The Thumb Up
- Juvenal, Satirae 3.34-37
- Juvenal Satires, translated by George Gilbert Ramsay (1839–1921)
- Phoenix Art Museum – Jean-Léon Gérôme: Pollice Verso
- National Gallery of Australia
- Anthony Philip Corbeill – "Thumbs in Ancient Rome: pollex as Index" in Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 42 (1997) pp. 61–81.
- Anthony Corbeill – Nature Embodied: Gesture in Ancient Rome (Princeton University Press, 2004) 978-0-691-07494-8
- Desmond Morris – Gestures: Their Origin and Distribution (1979)
- "Top 10 Myths About the Romans" at listverse.com (5 May 2008)
- "Pollice Verso", article by Edwin Post in American Journal of Philology, Vol. 13, No. 2 (1892), pp. 213–225, online at LacusCurtius
- "The Gladiator and the Thumb"
- "Pollice Verso" at Phoenix Art Museum