Ramón José Velásquez

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This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Velásquez and the second or maternal family name is Mujica.
Ramón José Velásquez
Ramón J. Velásquez, 2009.jpg
Ramón J. Velásquez during his 93rd birthday, 28 November 2009
President of Venezuela
In office
5 June 1993 – 2 February 1994
Preceded by Octavio Lepage
Succeeded by Rafael Caldera
Minister of Communications of Venezuela
In office
Secretary of the Presidency of Venezuela
In office
Succeeded by Manuel Mantilla
Personal details
Born 28 November 1916
San Juan de Colón, Táchira, Venezuela
Died 24 June 2014(2014-06-24) (aged 97)
Caracas, Venezuela
Spouse(s) Ligia Betancourt Mariño (d.2008)
Alma mater Central University of Venezuela
Religion Roman Catholic

Ramón José Velásquez Mujica (28 November 1916 – 24 June 2014) was a Venezuelan political figure. He served as President of Venezuela between 1993 and 1994. He was an important historian, journalist, lawyer and politician.

Background and personal life[edit]

Velásquez was born in Táchira state, on 28 November 1916. His parents were Ramon Velasquez Ordoñez, a journalist and proofreader for a newspaper and educator Regina Mujica. For his initial studies he was home schooled by his parents in his hometown. He completed his primary education in San Cristóbal Simón Bolívar. In 1935 he traveled to Caracas to finish high school at the Liceo Andres Bello. Velasquez undertook his higher education at the Central University of Venezuela, from which he received a Ph.D. in Social and Political Sciences in 1942 and a Law degree in 1943.


Velásquez became a reporter for Últimas Noticias in 1941.[1] Velásquez was the president of El Nacional on two occasions (1964-1968/1979-1981).

As a historian, he had previously subscribed to the usual negative opinions of the Venezuelan dictator Juan Vicente Gómez, but re-examined them in Confidencias imaginarias de Juan Vicente Gómez (1979). (When became President, he presided over a ceremony renaming Juan Vicente Gómez International Airport in Gómez' honour.)[2] He authored numerous books on Venezuela's political history, being generally considered in his lifetime as Venezuela's foremost Historian. He was President of the National Academy of History.


During the dictatorship of Marcos Pérez Jiménez, Velásquez was jailed for a year for his role at the compilation of the Libro negro de la dictadura (Black book of dictatorship). The files of this book helped expose the crimes of the dictatorial period.

In 1958, as Venezuela transitioned to democracy, Velásquez was elected to the Venezuelan Senate for the state of Tachira, and later to the Venezuelan Chamber of Deputies for the state of Miranda.[3]

He served as Secretary General (Chief of Staff) of the Presidency during the government of Rómulo Betancourt. After that, he was part of the National Congress. During Rafael Caldera's Presidential administration, Velásquez served as Minister of Communications from 1969 until 1971. From 1984 to 1987 he was President of the Comisión para la Reforma del Estado (COPRE), the Commission on the Reform of the State.[3] Between 1989 and 1993, he chaired the "Comisión Presidencial para Asuntos Fronterizos con Colombia", Presidential Commission for border issues with Colombia (COPAF). At the time of his death, he was a board member of the New York-based Human Rights Foundation.[4]


In 1993, as a result of the crisis produced by the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez, Congress appointed Velásquez President of the Republic, finishing the constitutional period in 1994. He served from 5 June 1993 to 2 February 1994. As a highly respected national figure there was general consensus around his name for such a task.[3]

Velásquez's cabinet (1993–1994)[edit]

Personal life and death[edit]

Ramón José Velásquez was married to Ligia Betancourt Mariño,[citation needed] who served as First Lady of Venezuela from 1993–1994.[citation needed] On 24 June 2014 Velásquez died at the age of 97 from natural causes. He died 4 weeks after former President Jaime Lusinchi did on 21 May 2014.



  • Coro. Raíz de Venezuela (1962)
  • San Cristóbal. Donde la Patria empieza (1972)
  • La caída del Liberalismo Amarillo. Tiempo y drama de Antonio Paredes (1972)
  • Aspectos de la evolución política de Venezuela en el siglo XX (1976)
  • Confidencias Imaginarias de Juan Vicente Gómez (1978)
  • Individuos de Número (1981)
  • Los héroes y la Historia (1981)
  • Los pasos de los héroes (1988)
  • Con segunda intención. Reportajes en tiempos de dictadura 1951-1955 (1990)
  • Memorias de Venezuela (1990)
  • Los alemanes en el Táchira (1993)
  • Joaquín Crespo (2005)
  • Memorias del Siglo XX (2005)
  • Caudillos, historiadores y pueblo (2013)


  1. ^ (Spanish) [1]
  2. ^ Ellner, Steve (1995), "Venezuelan Revisionist Political History, 1908-1958: New Motives and Criteria for Analyzing the Past", Latin American Research Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 91-121. p100
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i (Spanish) CIDOB, Ramón José Velásquez Mújica
  4. ^ "Board and International Council". The Human Rights Foundation. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  5. ^ Gaceta Oficial de Venezuela, period 1993-1994.
  6. ^ Columbia, Cabot Prize winners by name
  7. ^ (Spanish) Academia Venezolana de la Lengua, D. Ramón J. Velásquez

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Octavio Lepage
President of Venezuela
Succeeded by
Rafael Caldera