Raúl Leoni

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Raúl Leoni
Raúl Leoni 1965.jpg
55th President of Venezuela
In office
13 March 1964 – 11 March 1969
Preceded byRómulo Betancourt
Succeeded byRafael Caldera
Senator for life
In office
11 March 1969 – 5 July 1972
President of the Senate of Venezuela[1]
In office
Preceded byCarlos R. Travieso
Succeeded byLuis Beltrán Prieto Figueroa
Minister of Labor of Venezuela
In office
Personal details
Raúl Leoni Otero

(1905-04-26)26 April 1905
El Manteco, Bolívar State, Venezuela
Died5 July 1972(1972-07-05) (aged 67)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyAcción Democrática
Spouse(s)Carmen América Fernández Alcalá (Menca de Leoni)

Raúl Leoni Otero (26 April 1905 – 5 July 1972) was President of Venezuela from 1964 until 1969. He was a member of the Generation of 1928 and a charter member of the Acción Democrática party, and the first Labor minister of Venezuela (during El Trienio Adeco, 1945–48).


Leoni was born in El Manteco, Bolívar State, son of Clement Leoni Scribani, born in Corsica. He graduated at the Central University of Venezuela in Caracas as a lawyer. He was a member of the Generation of 1928, and the first Labor minister of Venezuela (during El Trienio Adeco, 1945–48).


Monument to Leoni and his wife Menca, Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela

Leoni took control of the presidency on 13 March 1964, succeeding Rómulo Betancourt; both were members of the Acción Democrática.

One of the pillars of a political consolidation in Venezuela, the Pacto de Punto Fijo, was underestimated by Leoni, since in his opinion it reduced the "coherence and organization of the regime". Strictly, the pact mandated that the composition of the executive cabinet be limited to representatives of three of the more important political parties: Acción Democrática (AD), COPEI and Unión Republicana Democrática (URD). Leoni initially formed a cabinet with a few members of his party and a good number of independents. Later, in November 1964, Leoni initiated conversations with leaders of the involved parties to rescue the spirit of the pact. A new cabinet was formed, but it lasted for only 16 months.

During his government, Leoni carried out important structural projects in Venezuela, specifically the development of heavy industry in Guayana (hydroelectric, iron and steel), inauguration of the Bank of the Workers, and construction of road infrastructure (highways, freeways, and bridges – the most important of which crossed the Orinoco). Important changes to labor and social programs also occurred; unions gained force and the Social Security law was modified. Leoni made an attempt at reforming tax structure, but was restrained by a coalition of left and right that openly served the interests of oil companies.

During Leoni's presidency the conflict with the leftist guerrilla movement Armed Forces for National Liberation (FALN) intensified. Leoni's government was unexceptional, but it was Leoni who had to liquidate the remnants of the communist insurrection for which he put the army in charge of the country with full powers to be as ruthless as needed.

However, it was the communist guerrilleros themselves who brought about their own liquidation. They had no rural support whatsoever. Unlike guerrillas all over the world, they did not control villages and lived from hand to mouth.[2] They knew that they were no match for the army and avoided confrontations. Castro had been hoping that Venezuela would be the second act of the Latin American revolution, and he tried to supply the Venezuelan guerrillas. That was in keeping with the theory of what could be called the "permanent agrarian revolution", which the French intellectual Régis Debray had expressed in the widely-circulated book Revolution Inside the Revolution and Ernesto "Che" Guevara had been trying to carry out first in Africa and later, fatally for him, in Bolivia. In 1966, Castro selected a trusted officer, Arnaldo Ochoa, to assess the Venezuelan guerrillas. Ochoa with the Venezuelan guerrilla commander Luben Petkoff, took a boat to the shores of Falcon, Venezuela, one of his most secretive expedition. Along with 15 other members of the Cuban military went to Coro Sierra mountains to strengthen Douglas Bravo guerrillas who were fighting the government troops that ended in a major strategic loss at large human cost.

In 1967, the Invasion of Machurucuto occurred with 12 Cubans and Venezuelans revolutionaries attempted to help Venezuelan guerrillas in the Venezuelan Andes. Soon afterward, Leoni suspended constitutional guarantees and, in a press conference, denouncing Cuban aggression against Venezuela and showed two captured Cubans: Manuel Gil Castellanos, and Pedro Cabrera Torres. Cuba was denounced by Venezuela to the Organization of American States. Cuba did not recognize his action even if the investigation of the AK 47 in possession of the guerrillas had serial numbers matching weapons sold by the Czech Republic to Cuba. The government of Venezuela broke off relations with Cuba them until 1974. That effectively ended Cuba's intervention in Venezuelan affairs.[3] By then, Venezuelan leftists had given up on violence and were seeking legalisation, but Leoni did not offer it. Ochoa was later tried and executed by Castro on an unlikely charge of drug-smuggling.

Meanwhile, Leoni signed the Cartagena Agreement. The precursor to the Andean Community, it was a trade bloc) in Bogotá between Venezuela, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador.

On 11 March 1969, Leoni transferred power to Rafael Caldera, a member of the Christian Democratic Party COPEI and a signatory of the Pacto de Punto Fijo. That transfer definitively instituted the alternation of power between the important parties until the late 20th century in Venezuela.


Ministries [4]
President Raúl Leoni 1964–1969
Home Affairs Gonzalo Barrios 1964–1966
  Reinaldo Leandro Mora 1966–1969
Outer Relations Ignacio Iribarren Borges 1964–1969
Finance Andrés Germán Otero 1964–1965
  Eddy Morales Crespo 1965–1967
  Benito Raúl Losada 1967–1968
  Francisco Mendoza 1968–1969
Defense Ramón Florencio Gómez 1964–1969
Development Manuel Egaña 1964
  Luis Hernández Solís 1964–1968
  Aura Celina Casanova 1968–1969
Public Works Leopoldo Sucre Figarella 1964–1969
Education José Manuel Siso Martínez 1964–1969
Labor Eloy Lares Martínez 1964
  Hens Silva Torres 1964–1967
  Simón Antoni Paván 1967–1968
  Raúl Valera 1968–1969
Communications Lorenzo Azpúrua Marturet 1964
  J. J. González Gorrondona 1964–1966
  Héctor Santaella 1966–1967
  Juan Manuel Domínguez Chacín 1967–1968
  Lorenzo Azpúrua Marturet 1968–1969
Agriculture Alejandro Osorio 1964
  Juan José Palacios 1964–1965
  Pedro Segnini La Cruz 1965–1966
  Alejandro Osorio 1966–1969
Health and Social Assistance Alfredo Arreaza Guzmán 1964
  Domingo Guzmán Lander 1964–1967
  Alfonso Araujo Belloso 1967–1968
  Armando Soto Rivera 1968–1969
Justice Miguel Ángel Burelli Rivas 1964
  Ramón Escovar Salom 1964–1966
  José S. Núñez Aristimuño 1966–1969
Mines and Hydrocarbons Manuel Pérez Guerrero 1964–1967
  José Antonio Mayobre 1967–1969
Secretary of Presidency Manuel Mantilla 1964–1969

Personal life and death[edit]

Raúl Leoni was married to Carmen América Fernández,[citation needed] who served as First Lady of Venezuela from 1964–1969.[citation needed] Leoni died on 5 July 1972 when he was 67 years old, at the Cornell Medical Center in New York City, where he was recovering from medical treatment after suffering a hemorrhage.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=EdYpAQAAMAAJ
  2. ^ Zago, Angela, Aqui no ha pasado nada, 1972
  3. ^ Szulc, Tad, Castro: a Critical Portrait, 1986
  4. ^ Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Venezuela (1965). Oficina de Información, Prensa y Publicaciones. "El Presidente y su Gabinete."
Political offices
Preceded by
Rómulo Betancourt
President of Venezuela
Succeeded by
Rafael Caldera
Party political offices
Preceded by
Rómulo Betancourt (1958)
AD presidential candidate
1963 (won)
Succeeded by
Gonzalo Barrios (1968)