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|President of Venezuela|
|Assumed office |
23 January 2019
Disputed with Nicolás Maduro
|10th President of the National Assembly of Venezuela|
|Assumed office |
5 January 2019
|Preceded by||Omar Barboza|
|Federal Deputy for Vargas|
|Assumed office |
5 January 2016
Juan Gerardo Guaidó Márquez
28 July 1983
La Guaira, Venezuela
|Political party||Voluntad Popular|
|Education||Andrés Bello Catholic University|
George Washington University
Juan Gerardo Guaidó Márquez (born 28 July 1983) is a Venezuelan engineer and politician serving as the President of the National Assembly of Venezuela since 5 January 2019. A member of the Popular Will party, he also serves as a federal deputy representing the state of Vargas. On 23 January 2019, Guaidó took a public oath swearing himself in as interim President of Venezuela in the context of the ongoing presidential crisis, which came into being following the inauguration of Nicolás Maduro as President of Venezuela in January 2019. His claim has been recognized by the OAS  and several governments, including nations such as Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Peru and the United States, but he is rejected by the Maduro-appointed Supreme Tribunal of Justice.
Early life and education
One of eight children, Guaidó was raised in a middle-class home by his parents who were an airline pilot and a teacher. One grandfather was a sergeant of the Venezuelan National Guard while another grandfather was a captain in the Venezuelan Navy.
After living through the Vargas tragedy of 1999 which left his family temporarily homeless, Guaidó earned his high school diploma in 2000. The tragedy, according to his colleagues, influenced his political views after the then-new government of Hugo Chávez provided ineffective response to the disaster.
Guaidó later earned his professional license as an industrial engineer after graduating from the Andrés Bello Catholic University in 2007. Guaidó also did postgraduate studies at George Washington University in the United States and at the Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administración.
Guaidó was part of a student-led political movement that protested against the Venezuelan government's decision not to renew the broadcasting license of independent television network RCTV. The group also protested broader attempted reforms of the government by Hugo Chavez, including the constitutional referendum of 2007, which Chavez won.
Venezuelan National Assembly
In the 2010 parliamentary elections, Guaidó was elected to a seat as an alternate federal deputy,  and was elected to a full seat in the National Assembly in the 2015 elections by earning 97,492 votes (26.01%) of the vote. Despite being severely impoverished, a majority of employers in Vargas are government companies, and, thus, until Guaidó's 2015 election, Chavista rule in the state was unchallenged.
In 2017, Guaidó was named head of Comptroller's Commission of the National Assembly and in 2018, he was named head of the legislature's opposition. He also contributed to the research of Jennifer Cyr at the University of Arizona in 2017.
During his time in the National Assembly, Guaidó investigated corruption cases surrounding the Maduro administration, as well as operating alongside independent organizations to return money Guaidó considered to be stolen from the Venezuelan public. He also participated in the 2017 Venezuelan protests and was left scarred on his neck after he was shot by the police with rubber bullets.
President of the National Assembly
Guaidó was elected President of the National Assembly of Venezuela in December 2018, and was sworn in on 5 January 2019. Relatives of imprisoned politicians were invited to the inauguration, gathering on the balcony behind the banner of Juan Requesens. Upon taking office, he vowed to oppose Nicolás Maduro, who has been accused[by whom?] of wanting to usurp executive power by remaining in office past the expiration of his presidential term, set to expire on 10 January 2019, officiating an eight-point action plan. On 15 January 2019, the National Assembly approved legislation that works with dozens of foreign countries to request that these nations freeze Maduro administration bank accounts.
Several Latin American leaders have called for Maduro to turn executive power over to the National Assembly at the end of his term in office, and for new elections to be held in what they saw as an attempt to restore democracy.
Disputed Interim President of Venezuela
Assumption of presidential powers and duties
After what he and others described as the "illegitimate" inauguration of Maduro on 10 January 2019, Guaidó announced he would challenge Maduro's claim and held a rally the following day, where the National Assembly announced he had assumed the powers and duties of president and they would continue to plan to remove Maduro, contributing to the presidential crisis. The Venezuelan foreign minister responded with saying "You see this man, who nobody knows in Venezuela—you ask in the streets, “Who is Juan Guaidó?” and nobody knows him—but he’s being pushed to say that he is the new president, by the U.S".
From early on in his career as Assembly president and then self-proclaimed Acting president in January 2019, it has been noted by reporters and commenters that Guaidó evokes former US President Barack Obama in his presence and movements, and also may have deliberately used the same "rallying cry" as Obama: "Sí, se puede!", Spanish for "Yes we can".
On 15 January 2019, Guaidó wrote an article for The Washington Post, which described and analysed the situation in Venezuela at the time, and stated he was trying to resolve the instability with technical explanations.
Detention and release
While on his way to La Guaira to attend the open cabildo called for 13 January 2019, Guaidó was intercepted by members of the SEBIN and subsequently detained. He was released by authorities 45 minutes later.
The Lima Group condemned the act, as did the secretary of the Organization of American States (OAS), Luis Almagro. On the same day, he declared himself as acting president. The government attributed the fact that it was carried out unilaterally by the SEBIN personnel involved, and an arrest warrant was issued to the Intelligence Service Commissioner, Idelmaro Múcura, designated as responsible. In this regard, Guaidó declared that after the events it was demonstrated that there was a break in the chain of command in the Armed Forces.
Twelve SEBIN officials were arrested and imprisoned following the event and were held to await trial. They were charged with "illegitimate detention" and "abuse of functions".
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- Guaidó, J. Maduro is a usurper. It’s time to restore democracy in Venezuela. The Washington Post, 15 January 2019 (in Spanish)
- Nugent, C. How a Little-Known Opposition Leader Could Turn Venezuela Back Toward Democracy, TIME, 15 January 2019
- Parkin Daniels, J. & Zúñiga, M. Who is Juan Guaidó, the opposition leader challenging Maduro's rule? The Guardian, 15 January 2019
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Sebastián Piñera, Chile’s president, agreed: 'Chile does not recognise the regime of Nicolás Maduro [we] give our full support to the National Assembly [...] and its new head Juan Guaidó.'
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- Venezuelan Top Court Calls for Probe into Illegal Actions of Suspended National Assembly
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- Cyr, Jennifer (9 June 2017). The fates of political parties : institutional crisis, continuity, and change in Latin America. New York, NY, USA: University of Cambridge Press. p. 259. ISBN 9781107189799. OCLC 986236528.
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- "Venezuela congress asks foreign countries to freeze Maduro-linked..." Reuters. 15 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- Buitrago, Deisy (5 January 2019). "New Venezuela congress chief says Maduro will be usurper president". Reuters. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
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- Now, Jorge Arreaza / Amy Goodman-Democracy (21 January 2019). "Jorge Arreaza: Is There a Coup in Progress?". Venezuelanalysis.com. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Phillips, Tom. "Bolsonaro pressures Venezuelan leader with vow to 're-establish democracy'". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- Guaidó, Juan. "Maduro is a usurper. It's time to restore democracy in Venezuela". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Venezuela opposition leader briefly detained". 13 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019 – via bbc.com.
- "Alejandro Baena, candidato liberal a la alcaldía de Cali". Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- "Detienen brevemente a Juan Guaidó, presidente de la Asamblea Nacional de Venezuela". Noticieros Televisa (in Spanish). 13 January 2019.
- "Los servicios de inteligencia de Nicolás Maduro detuvieron al presidente del Parlamento, Juan Guaidó, y lo liberaron minutos después". Infobae. 13 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- Redacción, Sala de. "Juan Guaidó desde Vargas: "Hay un presidente legítimo de la AN y de toda Venezuela"". albertonews.com (in Spanish).
- "Venezuela: 12 charged in detention of opposition leader". The Washington Post. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
| President of the National Assembly of Venezuela