North American T-2 Buckeye
|A T-2C Buckeye taking off from NAS Patuxent River|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||North American Aviation
North American Rockwell
|First flight||31 January 1958|
|Retired||United States Navy 2008|
|Status||Active service with Hellenic Air Force|
|Primary users||United States Navy (historical)
Hellenic Air Force
Venezuelan Air Force (historical)
The North American T-2 Buckeye was the United States Navy's intermediate training aircraft, intended to introduce U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps Student Naval Aviators and Student Naval Flight Officers to jets. It entered service in 1959, and was replaced by the McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk in 2008.
Design and development
The first version of the aircraft entered service in 1959 as the T2J-1. It was redesignated the T-2A in 1962 under the joint aircraft designation system. The two-seat trainer was powered by one Westinghouse J34-WE-46/48 turbojet. The aircraft was subsequently redesigned, and the single engine was replaced with two 3,000 lbf (13,000 N) Pratt & Whitney J60-P-6 turbojets in the T-2B. The T-2C was fitted with two 2,950 lbf (13,100 N) thrust General Electric J85-GE-4 turbojets. The T-2D and T-2E were export versions for the Venezuelan Air Force and Hellenic Air Force, respectively. The T-2 Buckeye (along with the TF-9J) replaced the T2V-1/T-1A SeaStar, though the T-1 would continue in some uses into the 1970s.
The Buckeye was designed as a low-cost multi-stage trainer. Its straight wing was similar to that used on the FJ-1 Fury and its cockpit controls were similar to the propeller-driven T-28C Trojan. The T-2's performance was between that of the U.S. Air Force's Cessna T-37 Tweet, and the U.S. Navy's TA-4J Skyhawk. While it had no built-in armament, the T-2 could accommodate two .50-inch gun pods, 100 lb (45 kg) practice bombs or 2.75-inch rockets beneath the wings.
All T-2 Buckeyes were manufactured by North American at Air Force Plant 85, located just south of Port Columbus Airport in Columbus, Ohio. A total of 609 aircraft were built during the production run. The name Buckeye refers to the state tree of Ohio, as well as the mascot of the Ohio State University.
Every jet-qualified Naval Aviator and virtually every Naval Flight Officer from the late 1950s until 2004 received training in the T-2 Buckeye, a length of service spanning four decades. The aircraft first exited the Naval Aviator strike pipeline (where it saw its final carrier landings) in 2004, and the Naval Flight Officer tactical jet pipeline in 2008. In the Naval Aviator strike pipeline syllabus and the Naval Flight Officer strike and strike fighter pipeline syllabi, the T-2 has been replaced by the near-sonic McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk (the U.S. Navy version of the BAE Systems Hawk), which is more comparable to other high performance subsonic trainers, or the supersonic U.S. Air Force Northrop T-38 Talon. More recently, the T-2 has been used as a director aircraft for aerial drones. Several T-2 Buckeyes, although still retaining their USN markings, are now registered as civilian-owned aircraft with FAA "N" numbers and regularly appear at airshows.
- Two-seat intermediate jet training aircraft, powered by a 3,400-lb (1542-kg) thrust Westinghouse J34-WE-46/48 turbojet. Original designation T2J-1 Buckeye. 217 built.
- Two T-2As were converted into T-2B prototype aircraft.
- Improved version, powered by two 3,000-lb (1360-kg) thrust Pratt & Whitney J60-P-6 turbojets. 97 built.
- One T-2B was converted into a T-2C prototype aircraft.
- Final production version for the U.S. Navy, powered by two 2,950-lbf thrust General Electric J85-GE-4 turbojets. 231 built.
- DT-2B and DT-2C
- Small numbers of T-2Bs and T-2Cs were converted into drone directors.
- Export version for Venezuela. 12 built.
- Export version for Greece. 40 built.
Specifications (T-2C Buckeye)
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976–77.
- Crew: 2 (student pilot, instructutor)
- Length: 38 ft 3 1⁄2 in (11.67 m)
- Wingspan: 38 ft 1 1⁄2 in (11.62 m)
- Height: 14 ft 9 1⁄2 in (4.51 m)
- Wing area: 255 ft2 (23.69 m2)
- Empty weight: 8,115 lb (3,680 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 13,179 lb (5,977 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × General Electric J85-GE-4 turbojets, 2,950 lbf (13.12 kN) each
- Maximum speed: 453 knots (522 mph, 840 km/h) at 25,000 feet (7,600 m)
- Range: 909 nmi (1,047 mi, 1,685 km)
- Service ceiling: 40,400 ft (12,315 m)
- Rate of climb: 6,200 ft/min (31.5 m/s)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- "T-2 Buckeye". Boeing. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20080814074227/http://www.defensetech.org/archives/004362.html. Archived from the original on August 14, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2008. Missing or empty
- FAA Record for N27WS
- Taylor 1976, pp. 368–369.
- over tip tanks
- Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976–77. London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1976. ISBN 0-354-00538-3.
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