|An Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force JetStar in service with Government of Iran|
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||4 September 1957|
|Retired||United States Air Force 1990s|
|Primary users||Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
Mexican Air Force
The Lockheed JetStar (company designations L-329 and L-1329; designated C-140 in US military service) is a business jet produced from the early 1960s to the 1970s. The JetStar was the first dedicated business jet to enter service. It was also one of the largest aircraft in the class for many years, seating ten plus two crew. It is distinguishable from other small jets by its four engines, mounted on the rear of the fuselage, and the "slipper"-style fuel tanks fixed to the wings.
Design and development
The JetStar originated as a private project within Lockheed, with an eye to winning a United States Air Force (USAF) requirement that was later dropped due to budget cuts. Lockheed decided to continue the project on its own for the business market.
The first two prototypes were equipped with two Bristol Siddeley Orpheus engines, the first of these flying on 4 September 1957. The second of these was also equipped with the wing-mounted "slipper tanks", which was originally to be an option. Lockheed attempted to arrange a contract to produce the Orpheus in the US, but when these negotiations failed it re-engined the second prototype with four Pratt & Whitney JT12s in 1959. The slipper tanks were removed and placed on the first prototype. The JT12 fit proved successful and was selected for the production versions, the first of which flew in mid 1960. These versions entered commercial service in 1961.
The JetStar has a fairly typical business jet design layout, with a swept wing and a cruciform tail. The wing has a 30° sweepback and features large fuel tanks at about half-span, extending some distance in front and behind the wing. The wings hold 10,000 pounds of fuel, and each slipper tank holds 4,000 pounds of fuel for a total fuel load of 18,000 pounds. The wing also includes leading edge flaps (not slats) along the front of the wing outboard of the tanks (these leading edge flaps reduce the stalling speed by an additional three knots), while double-slotted trailing edge flaps span the entire rear surface inboard of the ailerons. The wing incorporates inflatable rubber deicing boots for the removal of accumulated inflight ice. The horizontal stabilizer is mounted nearly halfway up the fin to keep it clear of the engines' jet blast. One feature is that the horizontal stabilizer is trimmable by pivoting the entire tail fin and stabilizer assembly, which has a distinctive unpainted area at the base of the fin that is noticeable in most pictures. The JetStar does not have any tail deicing capability, nor was it required for certification. A speed brake is located on the underside of the fuselage to aid deceleration for landing. The original prototypes used a tricycle landing gear with one wheel per leg, but after an accident in 1962 the nose gear was modified with two tires.
The JetStar is a relatively heavy aircraft for its class, at 44,500 lb (19,278 kg). Maximum cruising speed is Mach 0.8, or 567 mph (912 km/h) at 21,000 ft (6,401 m). Range is typically quoted as 2,500 mi (4,023 km) with a 3,500 lb (1,588 kg) payload. Typically, interiors feature seating for eight with a full-sized lavatory, or a slightly denser arrangement for ten. The JetStar is one of the few aircraft of its class which allow a person to walk upright in the cabin, although to do this the aisle is sunk slightly so that the seats are raised on either side. The windows are relatively large.
Noise regulations in the United States and high fuel consumption led to the development of the 731 JetStar, a modification program which added new Garrett TFE731 turbofan engines with a number of detail changes. It has redesigned larger external fuel tanks that sit with their upper surfaces flush with the wing, rather than being centered on it. The cockpit area has a somewhat more "modern" looking nose and window arrangement. The 731 JetStar modification program was so successful that Lockheed produced 40 new JetStars, designated the JetStar II, from 1976 through 1979. The JetStar IIs were factory-new aircraft with the turbofan engines and revised external fuel tanks. Both 731 JetStars and JetStar IIs have greatly increased range, reduced noise, and better runway performance compared to the original JetStars.
JetStar production totaled 204 aircraft by final delivery in 1978. Most original JetStars have been retired, but many 731 JetStars and JetStar IIs are still flying in various roles, mainly as corporate and private jets.
The first prototype served as the personal transport of Lockheed's Vice President of Advanced Development Projects Kelly Johnson for some time. Elvis Presley owned two JetStars at different times; the second was named Hound Dog II and is on display at Graceland.
Sixteen JetStars were produced for the USAF; Five C-140As were flight inspection aircraft for the Air Force Communications Service and were used to perform airborne testing of airport navigational aids (navaids) from 1962 onwards. They began service during the Vietnam War and remained in service until the early 1990s. The "Flight Check" C-140As were combat-coded aircraft that could be distinguished from the VIP transport version by their distinctive paint scheme. The C-140As were deployed to southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, where, in addition to their more usual navaid testing, they would loiter off the coast and act as communications relays between the Pentagon and the battlefield. The last C-140A to be retired was placed on static display at Scott AFB, Illinois.
An additional eleven airframes were designated C-140B, although the first of these predated the C-140As when it was delivered in 1961. The C-140Bs were used to transport personnel by the Military Airlift Command. Six of the aircraft were operated as VIP transports by the 89th Military Airlift Wing at Andrews Air Force Base. These VIP aircraft were designated as VC-140Bs. Members of the VIP transport fleet occasionally served as Air Force One during the 1970s and 1980s. Several other countries, such as Germany and Canada, have used military JetStars as transports for their heads of state, heads of government, and other VIPs.
- JetStar I
- Business, executive transport aircraft, with accommodation for a crew of two and ten passengers, powered by four 3,300 lbf (14.7 kN) thrust Pratt & Whitney JT12A-8 turbojet engines.
- JetStar II
- New production version, powered by four 3,700 lbf (16.5 kN) thrust Garrett TFE731-3 turbofan engines, and fitted with revised external fuel tanks, 40 built.
- JetStar 731
- Modified version, fitted with four Garrett TFE731-1 turbofan engines, and equipped with redesigned external fuel tanks.
- Flight inspection aircraft for the US Air Force, similar to the JetStar I, five built.
- Passenger, cargo transport aircraft for the US Air Force, similar to the C-140A, five built.
- VIP transport aircraft for the US Air Force, similar to the C-140B, six built.
- Two JetStar 6s were ordered by the United States Navy, originally designated UV-1, but not delivered.
- US military designation for a proposed trainer version of the C-140 for evaluation, not built.
- AAI FanStar
- Conversion by American Aviation Industries with two General Electric CF34 engines in place of the four JT12 turbojets or TFE731 turbofans which first flew on 5 September 1986. Only one aircraft was converted.
- United States
- Eastern Airlines
- Federal Aviation Administration
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Military and government operators
- West Germany
- Iraqi Government
- Kuwait Government
- Saudi Arabia
- United States
Accidents and incidents
- On January 5, 1995 an Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) JetStar crashed during an emergency landing, killing all 12 on board including General Mansour Sattari, commander of the IRIAF.
Aircraft on display
- 1001 – The prototype JetStar is undergoing restoration at the Museum of Flight's Restoration Center in Everett, Washington. This aircraft is one of only two JetStars with only two engines.
- 1002 – On pylon display near Base Operations and the AMC Air Terminal at Andrews AFB, Maryland.
- 5004 – A JetStar owned by Elvis Presley in his later years, named Hound Dog II, is on display at Graceland.
- 5010 – The Jimmy Doolittle Air & Space Museum, Travis Air Force Base, Fairfield, California, has a C-140A (59-5958) on display.
- 5017 – The Museum of Aviation next to Robins Air Force Base has a VC-140B (61-2488) in its collection.
- 5018 – The Canada Aviation and Space Museum in Ottawa, has an L-1329 Jetstar 6 that the Department of Transport used to carry government officials and foreign dignitaries.
- 5022 – In the collection of the (61-2489) Pima Air and Space Museum, adjacent to Davis-Monthan AFB in Tucson, Arizona.
- 5024 – President Lyndon Johnson's JetStar (61-2490) is on display at the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park.
- 5026 – In the Scott Field Heritage Air Park at Scott AFB, Illinois (59-5959).
- 5031 – In the Presidential Aircraft collection of the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.
- 5045 – The Hill Aerospace Museum, Hill Air Force Base, Ogden, Utah has a VC-140B (62-4201) on display with a fully restored interior and a fully painted exterior. This was confirmed by former members of the 89th SAM from Andrews Air Force Base to have carried President Johnson and his wife.
- 5046 – In the Garuda Indonesia Training Center in Jakarta, a former Indonesian Air Force Lockheed Jetstar numbered A-9446 named "Sapta Marga" is displayed on their premises.
- 5049 – used by A&P students for learning purposes at South Seattle College.
- 5059 – The Dirgantara Mandala Museum in Yogyakarta, near Adisucipto International Airport, has an ex-Indonesian Air Force VVIP Squadron C-140 JetStar in the Display Hangar, name "Pancasila"
- 5088 – The Atlantic Canada Aviation Museum has a Jetstar that was used by the Canadian Prime Minister and other government officials.
- 5145 – The Greater Saint Louis Air & Space Museum at Saint Louis Downtown Airport in Cahokia, Illinois has a JetStar on display outside the museum that was once owned by Howard Hughes (N511TD).
- 5157 – On display at the entrance to Dodson International Parts in Rantoul, Kansas.
- 5215 – The Miami Auto Museum in North Miami, Florida has a complete JetStar on display inside the museum.
- The Athens Scuba Park in Athens, Texas has a sunken C-140 for exploration by scuba divers.
- The cockpit of a JetStar II is on exhibit at the Tellus Science Museum.
- In the Pediatrics Wing of the Spanish Hospital in Mexico City, Mexico.
Specifications (JetStar II)
Data from Lockheed Aircraft since 1913
- Crew: two pilots & typically one flight attendant
- Capacity: 8–10 passengers
- Length: 60 ft 5 in (18.41 m)
- Wingspan: 54 ft 5 in (16.59 m)
- Height: 20 ft 5 in (6.22 m)
- Wing area: 542.5 ft² (50.4 m²)
- Empty weight: 24,750 lb (11,226 kg)
- Loaded weight: 41,535 lb (18,840 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 44,500 lb (20,185 kg)
- Powerplant: 4 × Garrett TFE731-3 turbofan, 3,700 lbf (16.5 kN) each
- Maximum speed: 547 mph (476 knots, 883 km/h) at 30,000 ft (9,145 m)
- Cruise speed: 504 mph (438 knots, 811 km/h)
- Range: 2,995 mi (2,604 nmi, 4,820 km)
- Service ceiling: 43,000 ft (13,105 m)
- Rate of climb: 4,150 ft/min (21.1 m/s)
Notable appearances in media
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lockheed L-1329.|
- JetStar 6
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- "Greater St. Louis Air & Space Museum Displays Jetstar Once Owned by Howard Hughes". The Aero Experience. Blogger. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- "Airframe Dossier – Lockheed Jetstar 6, c/n 5157, c/r XB-DUH". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- Perry, Kev. "USA April 2013 ‘The Airshows That Never Were’ Tour Part 1". DTVMovements. DTVMovements. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
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- "Park Info". Athens Scuba Park. Athens Scuba Park. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
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- Francillon, René J. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. London:Putnam, 1982. ISBN 0-370-30329-6.
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- Taylor, John W.R. (ed) Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1989–90. London:Jane's Yearbooks, 1989. ISBN 0-7106-0896-9