North American P-51 Mustang
|P-51D of 375th Fighter Squadron, with underwing drop tanks|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||North American Aviation|
|First flight||26 October 1940|
|Introduction||January 1942 (RAF)|
|Status||Retired from military service 1984 (Dominican Air Force)|
|Primary users||United States Army Air Forces|
Royal Air Force
Royal New Zealand Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
|Number built||More than 15,000|
|Variants||North American A-36|
Rolls-Royce Mustang Mk.X
|Developed into||North American F-82 Twin Mustang|
Piper PA-48 Enforcer
The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts. The Mustang was designed in April 1940 by a team headed by James Kindelberger of North American Aviation (NAA) in response to a requirement of the British Purchasing Commission. The Purchasing Commission approached North American Aviation to build Curtiss P-40 fighters under license for the Royal Air Force (RAF). Rather than build an old design from another company, North American Aviation proposed the design and production of a more modern fighter. The prototype NA-73X airframe was rolled out on 9 September 1940, 102 days after the contract was signed, and first flew on 26 October.
The Mustang was designed to use the Allison V-1710 engine, which had limited high-altitude performance in its earlier variants. The aircraft was first flown operationally by the RAF as a tactical-reconnaissance aircraft and fighter-bomber (Mustang Mk I). Replacing the Allison with a Rolls-Royce Merlin resulted in the P-51B/C (Mustang Mk III) model, and transformed the aircraft's performance at altitudes above 15,000 ft (4,600 m) (without sacrificing range), allowing it to compete with the Luftwaffe's fighters. The definitive version, the P-51D, was powered by the Packard V-1650-7, a license-built version of the two-speed, two-stage-supercharged Merlin 66, and was armed with six .50 caliber (12.7 mm) AN/M2 Browning machine guns.
From late 1943, P-51Bs and P-51Cs (supplemented by P-51Ds from mid-1944) were used by the USAAF's Eighth Air Force to escort bombers in raids over Germany, while the RAF's Second Tactical Air Force and the USAAF's Ninth Air Force used the Merlin-powered Mustangs as fighter-bombers, roles in which the Mustang helped ensure Allied air superiority in 1944. The P-51 was also used by Allied air forces in the North African, Mediterranean, Italian, and Pacific theaters. During World War II, Mustang pilots claimed to have destroyed 4,950 enemy aircraft.[nb 1]
At the start of the Korean War, the Mustang, by then redesignated F-51, was the main fighter of the United States until jet fighters, including North American's F-86, took over this role; the Mustang then became a specialized fighter-bomber. Despite the advent of jet fighters, the Mustang remained in service with some air forces until the early 1980s. After the Korean War, Mustangs became popular civilian warbirds and air racing aircraft.
Design and development
In 1938, the British government established a purchasing commission in the United States, headed by Sir Henry Self. Self was given overall responsibility for RAF production, research, and development, and also served with Sir Wilfrid Freeman, the Air Member for Development and Production. Self also sat on the British Air Council Sub-committee on Supply (or "Supply Committee") and one of his tasks was to organize the manufacturing and supply of American fighter aircraft for the RAF. At the time, the choice was very limited, as no U.S. aircraft then in production or flying met European standards, with only the Curtiss P-40 Tomahawk coming close. The Curtiss-Wright plant was running at capacity, so P-40s were in short supply.
North American Aviation (NAA) was already supplying its T-6 Texan (known in British service as the "Harvard") trainer to the RAF, but was otherwise underused. NAA President "Dutch" Kindelberger approached Self to sell a new medium bomber, the North American B-25 Mitchell. Instead, Self asked if NAA could manufacture P-40s under license from Curtiss. Kindelberger said NAA could have a better aircraft with the same Allison V-1710 engine in the air sooner than establishing a production line for the P-40.
John Attwood of North American spent much time from January to April 1940 at the British Purchasing Commission's offices in New York discussing the British specifications of the proposed aircraft with British engineers. The discussions consisted of free-hand conceptual drawings of an aircraft with the British officials. Sir Henry Self was concerned that North American had not ever designed a fighter, insisting they obtain the drawings and study the Curtiss XP-46 experimental aircraft and the wind tunnel test results for the P-40, before presenting them with detailed design drawings based on the agreed concept. North American purchased the drawings and data from Curtiss for £56,000,[verification needed] confirming the purchase with the Purchasing Commission. The Purchasing Commission approved the resulting detailed design drawings, signing the commencement of the Mustang project on 4 May 1940, firmly ordering 320 on 29 May 1940. Prior to this, North American only had a draft letter for an order of 320 aircraft. Curtiss engineers accused North American of plagiarism.
The British Purchasing Commission stipulated armament of four .303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns (as used on the Tomahawk), a unit cost of no more than $40,000, and delivery of the first production aircraft by January 1941. In March 1940, 320 aircraft were ordered by Freeman, who had become the executive head of the Ministry of Aircraft Production (MAP) and the contract was promulgated on 24 April.
The NA-73X, which was designed by a team led by lead engineer Edgar Schmued, followed the best conventional practice of the era, designed for ease of mass manufacturing. The design included several new features.[nb 2] One was a wing designed using laminar flow airfoils, which were developed co-operatively by North American Aviation and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). These airfoils generated low drag at high speeds. During the development of the NA-73X, a wind tunnel test of two wings, one using NACA five-digit airfoils and the other using the new NAA/NACA 45–100 airfoils, was performed in the University of Washington Kirsten Wind Tunnel. The results of this test showed the superiority of the wing designed with the NAA/NACA 45–100 airfoils.[nb 3]
The other feature was a new cooling arrangement positioned aft (single ducted water and oil radiators assembly) that reduced the fuselage drag and effects on the wing. Later, after much development, they discovered that the cooling assembly could take advantage of the Meredith effect: in which heated air exited the radiator with a slight amount of jet thrust. Because NAA lacked a suitable wind tunnel to test this feature, it used the GALCIT 3.0 m (10 ft) wind tunnel at the California Institute of Technology. This led to some controversy over whether the Mustang's cooling system aerodynamics were developed by NAA's engineer Edgar Schmued or by Curtiss, as NAA had purchased the complete set of P-40 and XP-46 wind tunnel data and flight test reports. The NA-73X was also one of the first aircraft to have a fuselage lofted mathematically using conic sections; this resulted in smooth, low-drag surfaces. To aid production, the airframe was divided into five main sections—forward, center, rear fuselage, and two wing halves—all of which were fitted with wiring and piping before being joined.
The prototype NA-73X was rolled out in September 1940, just 102 days after the order had been placed; it first flew on 26 October 1940, 149 days into the contract, an uncommonly short development period, even during the war. With test pilot Vance Breese at the controls, the prototype handled well and accommodated an impressive fuel load. The aircraft's three-section, semi-monocoque fuselage was constructed entirely of aluminum to save weight. It was armed with four .30 caliber (7.62 mm) AN/M2 Browning machine guns in the wings and two .50 caliber (12.7 mm) AN/M2 Browning machine guns mounted under the engine and firing through the propeller arc using gun-synchronizing gear.[nb 4]
While the USAAC could block any sales it considered detrimental to the interests of the US, the NA-73 was considered to be a special case because it had been designed at the behest of the British. In September 1940, a further 300 NA-73s were ordered by the MAP. To ensure uninterrupted delivery, Colonel Oliver P. Echols arranged with the Anglo-French Purchasing Commission to deliver the aircraft and NAA gave two examples (41-038 and 41-039) to the USAAC for evaluation.[nb 5]
The Allison engine in the Mustang I had a single-stage supercharger that caused power to drop off rapidly above 15,000 feet (4,600 m). This made it unsuitable for use at the altitudes where combat was taking place in Europe. Allison’s attempts at developing a high-altitude engine were underfunded, but produced the V-1710-45, which featured a variable-speed auxiliary supercharger, and developed 1,150 horsepower (860 kW) at 22,400 feet (6,800 m). In November 1941, NAA studied the possibility of using it, but fitting its excessive length in the Mustang would require extensive airframe modifications and cause long production delays. In May 1942, following positive reports from the RAF on the Mustang I's performance below 15,000 ft, Ronald Harker, a test pilot for Rolls-Royce, suggested fitting a Merlin 61, as fitted to the Spitfire Mk IX. The Merlin 61 had a two-speed, two-stage, intercooled supercharger, designed by Stanley Hooker of Rolls-Royce. Both the Merlin 61 and V-1710-39 were capable of about 1,570 horsepower (1,170 kW) war emergency power at relatively low altitude, but the Merlin developed 1,390 horsepower (1,040 kW) at 23,500 feet (7,200 m) versus the Allison's 1,150 horsepower (860 kW) at 11,800 feet (3,600 m), delivering an increase in top speed from 390 mph (340 kn; 630 km/h) at ~15,000 feet (4,600 m) to an estimated 440 mph (380 kn; 710 km/h) at 28,100 feet (8,600 m). Initial flights of what was known to Rolls-Royce as the Mustang Mk X were completed at Rolls-Royce's airfield at Hucknall in October 1942.
At the same time, the possibility of combining the P-51 airframe with the US license-built Packard version of the Merlin engine was being explored on the other side of the Atlantic. In July 1942, a contract was let for two prototypes, briefly designated XP-78, but soon to become the XP-51B. Based on the Packard V-1650-3 duplicating the Merlin 61's performance, NAA estimated for the XP-78 a top speed of 445 mph (387 kn; 716 km/h) at 28,000 feet (8,500 m), and a service ceiling of 42,000 feet (13,000 m). The first flight of the XP-51B took place in November 1942, but the USAAF was so interested in the possibility that an initial contract for 400 aircraft was placed three months beforehand in August. The conversion led to production of the P-51B beginning at North American's Inglewood, California, plant in June 1943, and P-51s started to become available to the 8th and 9th Air Forces in the winter of 1943–1944. Conversion to the two-stage supercharged Merlin 61, over 350 lb (160 kg) heavier than the single-stage Allison, driving a four-bladed Hamilton Standard propeller, required moving the wing slightly forward to correct the aircraft's center of gravity. After the USAAF, in July 1943, directed fighter aircraft manufacturers to maximize internal fuel capacity, NAA calculated the P-51B's center of gravity to be forward enough to include an additional 85 US gal (320 l; 71 imp gal) fuel tank in the fuselage behind the pilot, greatly increasing the aircraft's range over that of the earlier P-51A. NAA incorporated the tank in the production of the P-51B-10, and supplied kits to retrofit it to all existing P-51Bs.
United Kingdom operational service
The Mustang was initially developed for the RAF, which was its first user. As the first Mustangs were built to British requirements, these aircraft used factory numbers and were not P-51s; the order comprised 320 NA-73s, followed by 300 NA-83s, all of which were designated North American Mustang Mark I by the RAF. The first RAF Mustangs supplied under Lend-Lease were 93 P-51s, designated Mk Ia, followed by 50 P-51As used as Mustang Mk IIs. Aircraft supplied to Britain under Lend-Lease were required for accounting purposes to be on the USAAC's books before they could be supplied to Britain. However, the British Aircraft Purchasing Commission signed its first contract for the North American NA-73 on 24 April 1940, before Lend-Lease was in effect. Thus, the initial order for the P-51 Mustang (as it was later known) was placed by the British under the "Cash and Carry" program, as required by the US Neutrality Acts of the 1930s.
After the arrival of the initial aircraft in the UK in October 1941, the first Mustang Mk Is entered service in January 1942, the first unit being 26 Squadron RAF. Due to poor high-altitude performance, the Mustangs were used by Army Co-operation Command, rather than Fighter Command, and were used for tactical reconnaissance and ground-attack duties. On 10 May 1942, Mustangs first flew over France, near Berck-sur-Mer. On 27 July 1942, 16 RAF Mustangs undertook their first long-range reconnaissance mission over Germany. During the amphibious Dieppe Raid on the French coast (19 August 1942), four British and Canadian Mustang squadrons, including 26 Squadron, saw action covering the assault on the ground. By 1943–1944, British Mustangs were used extensively to seek out V-1 flying bomb sites. The last RAF Mustang Mk I and Mustang Mk II aircraft were struck off charge in 1945.
Army Co-operation Command used the Mustang’s superior speed and long range to conduct low-altitude “Rhubarb” raids over continental Europe, sometimes penetrating German airspace. The V-1710 engine ran smoothly at 1,100 rpm, versus 1,600 for the Merlin, enabling long flights over water at 50 ft (15 m) altitude before approaching the enemy coastline. Over land, these flights followed a zig-zag course, turning every six minutes to foil enemy attempts at plotting an interception. During the first 18 months of Rhubarb raids, RAF Mustang Mk.Is and Mk.Ias destroyed or heavily damaged 200 locomotives, over 200 canal barges, and an unknown number of enemy aircraft parked on the ground, for a loss of eight Mustangs. At sea level, the Mustangs were able to outrun all enemy aircraft encountered. The RAF gained a significant performance enhancement at low altitude by removing or resetting the engine’s manifold pressure regulator to allow over-boosting, raising output as high as 1,780 horsepower at 70" Hg. In December 1942, Allison approved only 1,570 horsepower at 60" Hg manifold pressure for the V-1710-39.
The RAF also operated 308 P-51Bs and 636 P-51Cs, which were known in RAF service as Mustang Mk IIIs; the first units converted to the type in late 1943 and early 1944. Mustang Mk III units were operational until the end of World War II, though many units had already converted to the Mustang Mk IV (P-51D) and Mk IVa (P-51K) (828 in total, comprising 282 Mk IV and 600 Mk IVa). As all except the earliest aircraft were obtained under Lend-Lease, all Mustang aircraft still on RAF charge at the end of the war were either returned to the USAAF "on paper" or retained by the RAF for scrapping. The last RAF Mustangs were retired from service in 1947.
U.S. operational service
Prewar doctrine was based on the idea "the bomber will always get through". Despite RAF and Luftwaffe experience with daylight bombing, the USAAF still incorrectly believed in 1942 that tightly packed formations of bombers would have so much firepower that they could fend off fighters on their own. Fighter escort was a low priority, but when the concept was discussed in 1941, the Lockheed P-38 Lightning was considered to be most appropriate as it had the speed and range. Another school of thought favored a heavily up-armed "gunship" conversion of a strategic bomber. A single-engined, high-speed fighter with the range of a bomber was thought to be an engineering impossibility.
Eighth Air Force bomber operations 1942–1943
The 8th Air Force started operations from Britain in August 1942. At first, because of the limited scale of operations, no conclusive evidence showed American doctrine was failing. In the 26 operations flown to the end of 1942, the loss rate had been under 2%.
In January 1943, at the Casablanca Conference, the Allies formulated the Combined Bomber Offensive (CBO) plan for "round-the-clock" bombing – USAAF daytime operations complementing the RAF nighttime raids on industrial centers. In June 1943, the Combined Chiefs of Staff issued the Pointblank Directive to destroy the Luftwaffe's capacity before the planned invasion of Europe, putting the CBO into full implementation. German daytime fighter efforts were, at that time, focused on the Eastern Front and several other distant locations. Initial efforts by the 8th met limited and unorganized resistance, but with every mission, the Luftwaffe moved more aircraft to the west and quickly improved their battle direction. In fall 1943, the 8th Air Force's heavy bombers conducted a series of deep-penetration raids into Germany, beyond the range of escort fighters. The Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission in August lost 60 B-17s of a force of 376, the 14 October attack lost 77 of a force of 291—26% of the attacking force.
For the US, the very concept of self-defending bombers was called into question, but instead of abandoning daylight raids and turning to night bombing, as the RAF suggested, they chose other paths; at first, bombers converted to gunships (the Boeing YB-40) was believed to be able to escort the bomber formations, but when the concept proved to be unsuccessful, thoughts then turned to the Lockheed P-38 Lightning. In early 1943, the USAAF also decided that the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and P-51B be considered for the role of a smaller escort fighter, and in July, a report stated that the P-51B was "the most promising plane" with an endurance of 4 hours 45 minutes with the standard internal fuel of 184 gallons plus 150 gallons carried externally. In August, a P-51B was fitted with an extra internal 85-gallon tank but problems with longitudinal stability occurred so some compromises in performance with the tank full were made. Since the fuel from the fuselage tank would be used during the initial stages of a mission, the fuel tank would be fitted in all Mustangs destined for VIII Fighter Command.
The P-51 Mustang was a solution to the need for an effective bomber escort. It used a common, reliable engine and had internal space for a larger-than-average fuel load. With external fuel tanks, it could accompany the bombers from England to Germany and back.
By the time the Pointblank offensive resumed in early 1944, matters had changed. Bomber escort defenses were initially layered, using the shorter-range P-38s and P-47s to escort the bombers during the initial stages of the raid before handing over to the P-51s when they were forced to turn for home. This provided continuous coverage during the raid. The Mustang was so clearly superior to earlier US designs that the 8th Air Force began to steadily switch its fighter groups to the Mustang, first swapping arriving P-47 groups to the 9th Air Force in exchange for those that were using P-51s, then gradually converting its Thunderbolt and Lightning groups. By the end of 1944, 14 of its 15 groups flew the Mustang.
The Luftwaffe's twin-engined Messerschmitt Bf 110 heavy fighters brought up to deal with the bombers proved to be easy prey for the Mustangs, and had to be quickly withdrawn from combat. The Focke-Wulf Fw 190A, already suffering from poor high-altitude performance, was outperformed by the Mustang at the B-17's altitude, and when laden with heavy bomber-hunting weapons as a replacement for the more vulnerable twin-engined Zerstörer heavy fighters, it suffered heavy losses. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 had comparable performance at high altitudes, but its lightweight airframe was even more greatly affected by increases in armament. The Mustang's much lighter armament, tuned for antifighter combat, allowed it to overcome these single-engined opponents.
Fighting the Luftwaffe
At the start of 1944, Major General James Doolittle, the new commander of the 8th Air Force, released most fighters from the requirement of flying in close formation with the bombers, allowing them free rein to attack the Luftwaffe wherever it could be found. The aim was to achieve air supremacy. Mustang groups were sent far ahead of the bombers in a "fighter sweep" to intercept German fighters. Bomber crews complained but by June supremacy was achieved.
The Luftwaffe answered with the Gefechtsverband ("battle formation"). This consisted of a Sturmgruppe of heavily armed and armored Fw 190 As escorted by two Begleitgruppen of Messerschmitt Bf 109s, whose task was to keep the Mustangs away from the Fw 190 as they attacked the bombers. This strategy proved to be problematic, as the large German formation took a long time to assemble and was difficult to maneuver. It was often intercepted by the P-51 "fighter sweeps" before it could attack the bombers. However, German attacks against bombers could be effective when they did occur; the bomber-destroyer Fw 190As swept in from astern and often pressed their attacks to within 90 m (100 yd).
While not always able to avoid contact with the escorts, the threat of mass attacks and later the "company front" (eight abreast) assaults by armored Sturmgruppe Fw 190As brought an urgency to attacking the Luftwaffe wherever it could be found, either in the air or on the ground. Beginning in late February 1944, 8th Air Force fighter units began systematic strafing attacks on German airfields with increasing frequency and intensity throughout the spring, with the objective of gaining air supremacy over the Normandy battlefield. In general, these were conducted by units returning from escort missions but, beginning in March, many groups also were assigned airfield attacks instead of bomber support. The P-51, particularly with the advent of the K-14 Gyro gunsight and the development of "Clobber Colleges" for the training of fighter pilots in fall 1944, was a decisive element in Allied countermeasures against the Jagdverbände.
The numerical superiority of the USAAF fighters, superb flying characteristics of the P-51, and pilot proficiency helped cripple the Luftwaffe's fighter force. As a result, the fighter threat to the US, and later British, bombers was greatly diminished by July 1944. The RAF, long proponents of night bombing for protection, were able to reopen daylight bombing in 1944 as a result of the crippling of the Luftwaffe fighter arm. Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, commander of the German Luftwaffe during the war, was quoted as saying, "When I saw Mustangs over Berlin, I knew the jig was up."
On 15 April 1944, VIII Fighter Command began "Operation Jackpot", attacks on Luftwaffe fighter airfields. As the efficacy of these missions increased, the number of fighters at the German airbases fell to the point where they were no longer considered worthwhile targets. On 21 May, targets were expanded to include railways, locomotives, and other rolling stock used by the Germans to transport materiel and troops, in missions dubbed "Chattanooga". The P-51 excelled at this mission, although losses were much higher on strafing missions than in air-to-air combat, partially because the Mustang's liquid-cooled engine (particularly its liquid coolant system) was vulnerable to small-arms fire, unlike the air-cooled R-2800 radials of its Republic P-47 Thunderbolt stablemates based in England, regularly tasked with ground-strafing missions.
Given the overwhelming Allied air superiority, the Luftwaffe put its effort into the development of aircraft of such high performance that they could operate with impunity, but which also made bomber attack much more difficult, merely from the flight velocities they achieved. Foremost among these were the Messerschmitt Me 163B point-defense rocket interceptors, which started their operations with JG 400 near the end of July 1944, and the longer-endurance Messerschmitt Me 262A jet fighter, first flying with the Gruppe-strength Kommando Nowotny unit by the end of September 1944. In action, the Me 163 proved to be more dangerous to the Luftwaffe than to the Allies and was never a serious threat. The Me 262A was a serious threat, but attacks on their airfields neutralized them. The pioneering Junkers Jumo 004 axial-flow jet engines of the Me 262As needed careful nursing by their pilots, and these aircraft were particularly vulnerable during takeoff and landing. Lt. Chuck Yeager of the 357th Fighter Group was one of the first American pilots to shoot down an Me 262, which he caught during its landing approach. On 7 October 1944, Lt. Urban L. Drew of the 361st Fighter Group shot down two Me 262s that were taking off, while on the same day Lt. Col. Hubert Zemke, who had transferred to the Mustang-equipped 479th Fighter Group, shot down what he thought was a Bf 109, only to have his gun camera film reveal that it may have been an Me 262. On 25 February 1945, Mustangs of the 55th Fighter Group surprised an entire Staffel of Me 262As at takeoff and destroyed six jets.
The Mustang also proved useful against the V-1s launched toward London. P-51B/Cs using 150-octane fuel were fast enough to catch the V-1 and operated in concert with shorter-range aircraft such as advanced marks of the Supermarine Spitfire and Hawker Tempest.
By 8 May 1945, the 8th, 9th, and 15th Air Force's P-51 groups [nb 6] claimed some 4,950 aircraft shot down (about half of all USAAF claims in the European theater, the most claimed by any Allied fighter in air-to-air combat) and 4,131 destroyed on the ground. Losses were about 2,520 aircraft. The 8th Air Force's 4th Fighter Group was the top-scoring fighter group in Europe, with 1,016 enemy aircraft claimed destroyed. This included 550 claimed in aerial combat and 466 on the ground.
In air combat, the top-scoring P-51 units (both of which exclusively flew Mustangs) were the 357th Fighter Group of the 8th Air Force with 565 air-to-air combat victories and the 9th Air Force's 354th Fighter Group with 664, which made it one of the top-scoring fighter groups. The top Mustang ace was the USAAF's George Preddy, whose final tally stood at 26.83 victories (a number that includes shared one half- and one third victory credits), 23 of which were scored with the P-51. Preddy was shot down and killed by friendly fire on Christmas Day 1944 during the Battle of the Bulge.
In China and the Pacific Theater
In early 1945, P-51C, D, and K variants also joined the Chinese Nationalist Air Force. These Mustangs were provided to the 3rd, 4th, and 5th Fighter Groups and used to attack Japanese targets in occupied areas of China. The P-51 became the most capable fighter in China, while the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force used the Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate against it.
The P-51 was a relative latecomer to the Pacific Theater, due largely to the need for the aircraft in Europe, although the P-38's twin-engined design was considered a safety advantage for long, over-water flights. The first P-51s were deployed in the Far East later in 1944, operating in close-support and escort missions, as well as tactical photo-reconnaissance. As the war in Europe wound down, the P-51 became more common. With the capture of Iwo Jima, USAAF P-51 Mustang fighters of the VII Fighter Command were stationed on that island starting in March 1945, being initially tasked with escorting Boeing B-29 Superfortress missions against the Japanese homeland.
The command's last major raid of May was a daylight incendiary attack on Yokohama on 29 May conducted by 517 B-29s escorted by 101 P-51s. This force was intercepted by 150 A6M Zero fighters, sparking an intense air battle in which five B-29s were shot down and another 175 damaged. In return, the P-51 pilots claimed 26 "kills" and 23 "probables" for the loss of three fighters. The 454 B-29s that reached Yokohama struck the city's main business district and destroyed 6.9 square miles (18 km2) of buildings; over 1000 Japanese were killed. Overall, the attacks in May destroyed 94 square miles (240 km2) of buildings, which was equivalent to one-seventh of Japan's total urban area. The Minister of Home Affairs, Iwao Yamazaki, concluded after these raids that Japan's civil defense arrangements were "considered to be futile". On the first day of June, 521 B-29s escorted by 148 P-51s were dispatched in a daylight raid against Osaka. While en route to the city, the Mustangs flew through thick clouds, and 27 of the fighters were destroyed in collisions. Nevertheless, 458 heavy bombers and 27 P-51s reached the city, and the bombardment killed 3,960 Japanese and destroyed 3.15 square miles (8.2 km2) of buildings. On 5 June, 473 B-29s struck Kobe by day and destroyed 4.35 square miles (11.3 km2) of buildings for the loss of 11 bombers. A force of 409 B-29s attacked Osaka again on 7 June; during this attack, 2.21 square miles (5.7 km2) of buildings were burnt out and the Americans did not suffer any losses. Osaka was bombed for the fourth time that month, on 15 June, when 444 B-29s destroyed 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2) of the city and another 0.59 square miles (1.5 km2) of nearby Amagasaki; 300,000 houses were destroyed in Osaka. This attack marked the end of the first phase of XXI Bomber Command's attack on Japan's cities. During May and June, the bombers had destroyed much of the country's six largest cities, killing between 112,000 and 126,762 people and rendering millions homeless. The widespread destruction and high number of casualties from these raids caused many Japanese to realize that their country's military was no longer able to defend the home islands. American losses were low compared to Japanese casualties; 136 B-29s were downed during the campaign. In Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Yokohama, Kobe, and Kawasaki, "over 126,762 people were killed ... and a million and a half dwellings and over 105 square miles (270 km2) of urban space were destroyed." In Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya, "the areas leveled (almost 100 square miles (260 km2)) exceeded the areas destroyed in all German cities by both the American and British air forces (about 79 square miles (200 km2))."
P-51s also conducted a series of independent ground-attack missions against targets in the home islands. The first of these operations took place on 16 April, when 57 P-51s strafed Kanoya Air Field in Kyushu. In operations conducted between 26 April and 22 June, the American fighter pilots claimed the destruction of 64 Japanese aircraft and damage to another 180 on the ground, as well as a further 10 shot down in flight; these claims were lower than the American planners had expected, however, and the raids were considered unsuccessful. USAAF losses were 11 P-51s to enemy action and seven to other causes.
Due to the lack of Japanese air opposition to the American bomber raids, VII Fighter Command was solely tasked with ground-attack missions from July. These raids were frequently made against airfields to destroy aircraft being held in reserve to attack the expected Allied invasion fleet. While the P-51 pilots only occasionally encountered Japanese fighters in the air, the airfields were protected by antiaircraft batteries and barrage balloons. By the end of the war, VII Fighter Command had conducted 51 ground-attack raids, of which 41 were considered successful. The fighter pilots claimed to have destroyed or damaged 1,062 aircraft and 254 ships, along with large numbers of buildings and railway rolling stock. American losses were 91 pilots killed and 157 Mustangs destroyed.
The Mustang was a good fighter and the best escort due to its incredible range, make no mistake about it. It was also the best American dogfighter. But the laminar-flow wing fitted to the Mustang could be a little tricky. It could not by any means out-turn a Spitfire. No way. It had a good rate-of-roll, better than the Spitfire, so I would say the plusses to the Spitfire and the Mustang just about equate. If I were in a dogfight, I'd prefer to be flying the Spitfire. The problem was I wouldn't like to be in a dogfight near Berlin, because I could never get home to Britain in a Spitfire!
The U.S. Air Forces, Flight Test Engineering, assessed the Mustang B on 24 April 1944 thus:
The rate of climb is good and the high speed in level flight is exceptionally good at all altitudes, from sea level to 40,000 feet. The airplane is very maneuverable with good controllability at indicated speeds up to 400 MPH [sic]. The stability about all axes is good and the rate of roll is excellent; however, the radius of turn is fairly large for a fighter. The cockpit layout is excellent, but visibility is poor on the ground and only fair in level flight.
Kurt Bühligen, the third-highest scoring German fighter pilot of World War II's Western Front (with 112 confirmed victories, three against Mustangs), later stated:
We would out-turn the P-51 and the other American fighters, with the Bf 109 or the Fw 190. Their turn rate was about the same. The P-51 was faster than us, but our munitions and cannon were better."
German fighter ace Heinz Bär said that the P-51:
was perhaps the most difficult of all Allied aircraft to meet in combat. It was fast, maneuverable, hard to see, and difficult to identify because it resembled the Me 109.
After World War II
This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2021)
In the aftermath of World War II, the USAAF consolidated much of its wartime combat force and selected the P-51 as a "standard" piston-engined fighter, while other types, such as the P-38 and P-47, were withdrawn or given substantially reduced roles. As the more advanced (P-80 and P-84) jet fighters were introduced, the P-51 was also relegated to secondary duties.
In 1947, the newly formed USAF Strategic Air Command employed Mustangs alongside F-6 Mustangs and F-82 Twin Mustangs, due to their range capabilities. In 1948, the designation P-51 (P for pursuit) was changed to F-51 (F for fighter) and the existing F designator for photographic reconnaissance aircraft was dropped because of a new designation scheme throughout the USAF. Aircraft still in service in the USAF or Air National Guard (ANG) when the system was changed included: F-51B, F-51D, F-51K, RF-51D (formerly F-6D), RF-51K (formerly F-6K) and TRF-51D (two-seat trainer conversions of F-6Ds). They remained in service from 1946 through 1951. By 1950, although Mustangs continued in service with the USAF after the war, the majority of the USAF's Mustangs had become surplus to requirements and placed in storage, while some were transferred to the Air Force Reserve and the ANG.
From the start of the Korean War, the Mustang once again proved useful. A "substantial number" of stored or in-service F-51Ds were shipped, via aircraft carriers, to the combat zone, and were used by the USAF, the South African Air Force, and the Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF). The F-51 was used for ground attack, fitted with rockets and bombs, and photo reconnaissance, rather than being as interceptors or "pure" fighters. After the first North Korean invasion, USAF units were forced to fly from bases in Japan and the F-51Ds, with their long range and endurance, could attack targets in Korea that short-ranged F-80 jets could not. Because of the vulnerable liquid cooling system, however, the F-51s sustained heavy losses to ground fire. Due to its lighter structure and a shortage of spare parts, the newer, faster F-51H was not used in Korea.
Mustangs continued flying with USAF and ROKAF fighter-bomber units on close support and interdiction missions in Korea until 1953 when they were largely replaced as fighter-bombers by USAF F-84s and by United States Navy (USN) Grumman F9F Panthers. Other air forces and units using the Mustang included the Royal Australian Air Force's 77 Squadron, which flew Australian-built Mustangs as part of British Commonwealth Forces Korea. The Mustangs were replaced by Gloster Meteor F8s in 1951. The South African Air Force's 2 Squadron used U.S.-built Mustangs as part of the U.S. 18th Fighter Bomber Wing and had suffered heavy losses by 1953, after which 2 Squadron converted to the F-86 Sabre.
F-51s flew in the Air Force Reserve and ANG throughout the 1950s. The last American USAF Mustang was F-51D-30-NA AF serial no. 44-74936, which was finally withdrawn from service with the West Virginia Air National Guard's 167th Fighter Interceptor Squadron in January 1957 and retired to what was then called the Air Force Central Museum, although it was briefly reactivated to fly at the 50th anniversary of the Air Force Aerial Firepower Demonstration at the Air Proving Ground, Eglin AFB, Florida, on 6 May 1957. This aircraft, painted as P-51D-15-NA serial no. 44-15174, is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, in Dayton, Ohio.[page needed]
The final withdrawal of the Mustang from USAF dumped hundreds of P-51s onto the civilian market. The rights to the Mustang design were purchased from North American by the Cavalier Aircraft Corporation, which attempted to market the surplus Mustang aircraft in the U.S. and overseas. In 1967 and again in 1972, the USAF procured batches of remanufactured Mustangs from Cavalier, most of them destined for air forces in South America and Asia that were participating in the Military Assistance Program (MAP). These aircraft were remanufactured from existing original F-51D airframes fitted with new V-1650-7 engines, a new radio, tall F-51H-type vertical tails, and a stronger wing that could carry six 13 mm (0.50 in) machine guns and a total of eight underwing hardpoints. Two 1,000-pound (450 kg) bombs and six 130 mm (5 in) rockets could be carried. They all had an original F-51D-type canopy but carried a second seat for an observer behind the pilot. One additional Mustang was a two-seat, dual-control TF-51D (67-14866) with an enlarged canopy and only four wing guns. Although these remanufactured Mustangs were intended for sale to South American and Asian nations through the MAP, they were delivered to the USAF with full USAF markings. They were, however, allocated new serial numbers (67-14862/14866, 67-22579/22582 and 72-1526/1541).[page needed]
The last U.S. military use of the F-51 was in 1968 when the U. S. Army employed a vintage F-51D (44-72990) as a chase aircraft for the Lockheed YAH-56 Cheyenne armed helicopter project. This aircraft was so successful that the Army ordered two F-51Ds from Cavalier in 1968 for use at Fort Rucker as chase planes. They were assigned the serials 68-15795 and 68-15796. These F-51s had wingtip fuel tanks and were unarmed. Following the end of the Cheyenne program, these two chase aircraft were used for other projects. One of them (68-15795) was fitted with a 106 mm recoilless rifle for evaluation of the weapon's value in attacking fortified ground targets. Cavalier Mustang 68-15796 survives at the Air Force Armament Museum, Eglin AFB, Florida, displayed indoors in World War II markings.
The F-51 was adopted by many foreign air forces and continued to be an effective fighter into the mid-1980s with smaller air arms. The last Mustang ever downed in battle occurred during Operation Power Pack in the Dominican Republic in 1965, with the last aircraft finally being retired by the Dominican Air Force in 1984.
Service with other air forces
After World War II, the P-51 Mustang served in the air arms of more than 25 nations. During the war, a Mustang cost about $51,000, while many hundreds were sold postwar for the nominal price of one dollar to signatories of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, ratified in Rio de Janeiro in 1947.
These countries used the P-51 Mustang:
- In November 1944, 3 Squadron RAAF became the first Royal Australian Air Force unit to use Mustangs. At the time of its conversion from the P-40 to the Mustang, the squadron was based in Italy with the RAF's First Tactical Air Force.
- 3 Squadron was renumbered 4 Squadron after returning to Australia from Italy, and converted to P-51Ds. Several other Australian or Pacific-based squadrons converted to either CAC-built Mustangs or to imported P-51Ks from July 1945, having been equipped with P-40s or Boomerangs for wartime service; these units were: 76, 77, 82, 83, 84 and 86 Squadrons. Only 17 Mustangs reached the RAAF's First Tactical Air Force front-line squadrons by the time World War II ended in August 1945.
- 76, 77 and 82 Squadrons were formed into 81 Fighter Wing of the British Commonwealth Air Force, which was part of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force stationed in Japan from February 1946. 77 Squadron used its P-51s extensively during the first months of the Korean War, before converting to Gloster Meteor jets.
- Five reserve units from the Citizen Air Force also operated Mustangs. 21 "City of Melbourne" Squadron, based in the state of Victoria; 22 "City of Sydney" Squadron, based in New South Wales; 23 "City of Brisbane" Squadron, based in Queensland; 24 "City of Adelaide" Squadron, based in South Australia; and 25 "City of Perth" Squadron, based in Western Australia; all of these units were equipped with CAC Mustangs, rather than P-51D or Ks. The last Mustangs were retired from these units in 1960 when CAF units adopted a nonflying role.
- Nine Cavalier F-51D (including the two TF-51s) were given to Bolivia, under a program called Peace Condor.
- Canada had five squadrons equipped with Mustangs during World War II. RCAF 400, 414, and 430 squadrons flew Mustang Mk Is (1942–1944) and 441 and 442 Squadrons flew Mustang Mk IIIs and IVAs in 1945. Postwar, a total of 150 Mustang P-51Ds was purchased and served in two regular (416 "Lynx" and 417 "City of Windsor") and six auxiliary fighter squadrons (402 "City of Winnipeg", 403 "City of Calgary", 420 "City of London", 424 "City of Hamilton", 442 "City of Vancouver" and 443 "City of New Westminster"). The Mustangs were declared obsolete in 1956, but a number of special-duty versions served on into the early 1960s.
- Republic of China
- The Chinese Nationalist Air Force obtained the P-51 during the late Sino-Japanese War to fight against the Japanese. After the war, Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist government used the planes against insurgent Communist forces. The Nationalists retreated to Taiwan in 1949. Pilots supporting Chiang brought most of the Mustangs with them, where the aircraft became part of the island's defense arsenal.
- People's Republic of China
- The Communist Chinese captured 39 P-51s from the Nationalists while they were retreating to Taiwan.
- In November 1958, three US-registered civilian P-51D Mustangs were illegally flown separately from Miami to Cuba, on delivery to the rebel forces of the 26th of July Movement, then headed by Fidel Castro during the Cuban Revolution. One of the Mustangs was damaged during delivery and none of them were used operationally. After the success of the revolution in January 1959, with other rebel aircraft plus those of the existing Cuban government forces, they were adopted into the Fuerza Aérea Revolucionaria. Due to increasing U.S. restrictions and lack of spares and maintenance experience, they never achieved operational status. At the time of the Bay of Pigs invasion, the two intact Mustangs were already effectively grounded at Campo Columbia and at Santiago. After the failed invasion, they were placed on display with other symbols of "revolutionary struggle" and one remains on display at the Museo del Aire.[page needed]
- Dominican Republic
- The Dominican Republic was the largest Latin American air force to employ the P-51D, with six aircraft acquired in 1948, 44 ex-Swedish F-51Ds purchased in 1948, and a further Mustang obtained from an unknown source. It was the last nation to have any Mustangs in service, with some remaining in use as late as 1984. Nine of the final 10 aircraft were sold back to American collectors in 1988.
- El Salvador
- The Salvadoran Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Salvadoreña or FAS) purchased five Cavalier Mustang IIs (and one dual-control Cavalier TF-51) that featured wingtip fuel tanks to increase combat range and up-rated Merlin engines. Seven P-51D Mustangs were also in service. They were used during the 1969 Football War against Honduras, the last time the P-51 was used in combat. One of them, FAS-404, was shot down by a Vought F4U-5 Corsair flown by Cap. Fernando Soto in the last aerial combat between piston-engined fighters in the world.
- In late 1944, the first French unit began its transition to reconnaissance Mustangs. In January 1945, the Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron 2/33 of the French Air Force took their F-6Cs and F-6Ds over Germany on photographic mapping missions. The Mustangs remained in service until the early 1950s, when they were replaced by jet fighters.
- Several P-51s were captured by the Luftwaffe as Beuteflugzeug ("captured aircraft") following crash landings. These aircraft were subsequently repaired and test-flown by the Zirkus Rosarius, or Rosarius Staffel, the official Erprobungskommando of the Luftwaffe High Command, for combat evaluation at Göttingen. The aircraft were repainted with German markings and bright yellow noses, tails, and bellies for identification. A number of P-51B/P-51Cs – including examples marked with Luftwaffe Geschwaderkennung codes T9+CK, T9+FK, T9+HK, and T9+PK (with the "T9" prefix not known to be officially assigned to any existing Luftwaffe formation from their own records, outside of the photos of Zirkus Rosarius–flown aircraft)—with a total of three captured P-51Ds were also flown by the unit. Some of these P-51s were found by Allied forces at the end of the war; others crashed during testing. The Mustang is also listed in the appendix to the novel KG 200 as having been flown by the German secret operations unit KG 200, which tested, evaluated, and sometimes clandestinely operated captured enemy aircraft during World War II.
- Haiti had four P-51D Mustangs when President Paul Eugène Magloire was in power from 1950–1956, with the last retired in 1973–1974 and sold for spares to the Dominican Republic.
- Indonesia acquired some P-51Ds from the departing Netherlands East Indies Air Force in 1949 and 1950. The Mustangs were used against Commonwealth (RAF, RAAF, and RNZAF) forces during the Indonesian confrontation in the early 1960s, and was used to fight the CIA-backed PERMESTA rebels. The last time Mustangs were deployed for military purposes was a shipment of six Cavalier II Mustangs (without tip tanks) delivered to Indonesia in 1972–1973, which were replaced in 1976.
- A few P-51 Mustangs were illegally bought by Israel in 1948, crated, and smuggled into the country as agricultural equipment for use in the 1947–1949 Palestine war, serving alongside upwards of 23 Avia S-199 fighters (Czech-built Messerschmitt Bf 109Gs) in Israeli service, with the Mustangs quickly establishing themselves as the best fighter in the Israeli inventory. Further aircraft were bought from Sweden and were replaced by jets at the end of the 1950s, but not before the type was used in the Suez Crisis, at the opening of Operation Kadesh. In conjunction with a surprise parachute drop at the Mitla Pass, four P-51s were specially detailed to cut telephone and telegraph wires using their wings in extreme low level runs, which resulted in major interruptions to Egyptian communications.
- Italy was a postwar operator of P-51Ds; deliveries were slowed by the Korean War, but between September 1947 and January 1951, by MDAP count, 173 examples were delivered. They were used in all the AMI fighter units: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 51 Stormo (Wing), plus some employed in schools and experimental units. Considered a "glamorous" fighter, P-51s were even used as personal aircraft by several Italian commanders. Some restrictions were placed on its use due to unfavorable flying characteristics. Handling had to be done with much care when fuel tanks were fully used, and several aerobatic maneuvers were forbidden. Overall, the P-51D was highly rated even compared to the other primary postwar fighter in Italian service, the Supermarine Spitfire, partly because these P-51Ds were in very good condition in contrast to all other Allied fighters supplied to Italy. Phasing out of the Mustang began in summer 1958.[page needed]
- The P-51C-11-NT Evalina, marked as "278" (former USAAF serial: 44-10816) and flown by 26th FS, 51st FG, was hit by gunfire on 16 January 1945 and belly-landed on Suchon Airfield in China, which was held by the Japanese. The Japanese repaired the aircraft, roughly applied Hinomaru roundels and flew the aircraft to the Fussa evaluation center (now Yokota Air Base) in Japan.
- The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force received 40 P-51Ds and flew them during the Indonesian National Revolution, particularly the two 'politionele acties': Operatie Product in 1947 and Operatie Kraai in 1949. When the conflict was over, Indonesia received some of the ML-KNIL Mustangs.
- New Zealand
- New Zealand ordered 370 P-51 Mustangs to supplement its F4U Corsairs in the Pacific Ocean Areas theater. Scheduled deliveries were for an initial batch of 30 P-51Ds, followed by 137 more P-51Ds and 203 P-51Ms. The original 30 were being shipped as the war ended in August 1945; these were stored in their packing cases, and the order for the additional Mustangs was canceled. In 1951, the stored Mustangs entered service in 1 (Auckland), 2 (Wellington), 3 (Canterbury), and 4 (Otago) squadrons of the Territorial Air Force (TAF). The Mustangs remained in service until they were prematurely retired in August 1955 following a series of problems with undercarriage and coolant-system corrosion problems. Four Mustangs served on as target tugs until the TAF was disbanded in 1957. RNZAF pilots in the Royal Air Force also flew the P-51 and at least one New Zealand pilot scored victories over Europe while on loan to a USAAF P-51 squadron.
- The Nicaraguan National Guard purchased 26 P-51D Mustangs from Sweden in 1954 and later received 30 P-51D Mustangs from the U.S. together with two TF-51 models from MAP after 1954. All aircraft of this type were retired from service by 1964.
- The Philippines acquired 103 P-51D Mustangs after World War II, operated by the 6th "Cobras" and 7th "Bulldogs" Tactical Fighter Squadrons of the 5th Fighter Wing. These became the backbone of the postwar Philippine Army Air Corps and Philippine Air Force, and were used extensively during the Huk campaign, fighting against Communist insurgents, as well as the suppression of Moro rebels led by Hadji Kamlon in southern Philippines until 1955. The Mustangs were also the first aircraft of the Philippine air demonstration team, which was formed in 1953 and given the name "The Blue Diamonds" the following year. The Mustangs were replaced by 56 F-86 Sabres in the late 1950s, but some were still in service for COIN roles up to the early 1980s.
- During World War II, five Polish Air Force in Great Britain squadrons used Mustangs. The first Polish unit equipped (7 June 1942) with Mustang Mk Is was "B" Flight of 309 "Ziemi Czerwieńskiej" Squadron[nb 7] (an Army Co-Operation Command unit), followed by "A" Flight in March 1943. Subsequently, 309 Squadron was redesignated a fighter/reconnaissance unit and became part of Fighter Command. On 13 March 1944, 316 "Warszawski" Squadron received their first Mustang Mk IIIs; rearming of the unit was completed by the end of April. By 26 March 1944, 306 "Toruński" Sqn and 315 "Dębliński" Sqn received Mustangs Mk IIIs (the whole operation took 12 days). On 20 October 1944, Mustang Mk Is in 309 Squadron were replaced by Mk IIIs. On 11 December 1944, the unit was again renamed, becoming 309 Dywizjon Myśliwski "Ziemi Czerwieńskiej" or 309 "Land of Czerwien" Polish Fighter Squadron. In 1945, 303 "Kościuszko" Sqn received 20 Mustangs Mk IV/Mk IVA replacements. Postwar, between 6 December 1946 and 6 January 1947, all five Polish squadrons equipped with Mustangs were disbanded. Poland returned about 80 Mustang Mk IIIs and 20 Mustangs Mk IV/IVAs to the RAF, which transferred them to the U.S. government.[page needed]
- South Africa
- No.5 Squadron South African Air Force operated a number of Mustang Mk IIIs (P-51B/C) and Mk IVs (P-51D/K) in Italy during World War II, beginning in September 1944, when the squadron converted to the Mustang Mk III from Kittyhawks. The Mk IV and Mk IVA came into SA service in March 1945. These aircraft were generally camouflaged in the British style, having been drawn from RAF stocks; all carried RAF serial numbers and were struck off charge and scrapped in October 1945. In 1950, 2 Squadron SAAF was supplied with F-51D Mustangs by the United States for Korean War service. The type performed well in South African hands before being replaced by the F-86 Sabre in 1952 and 1953.
- South Korea
- Within a month of the outbreak of the Korean War, 10 F-51D Mustangs were provided to the badly depleted Republic of Korea Air Force as a part of the Bout One Project. They were flown by both South Korean airmen, several of whom were veterans of the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy air services during World War II, as well as by U.S. advisers led by Major Dean Hess. Later, more were provided both from U.S. and from South African stocks, as the latter were converting to F-86 Sabres. They formed the backbone of the South Korean Air Force until they were replaced by Sabres.
- It also served with the ROKAF Black Eagles aerobatic team, until retired in 1954.
- Sweden's Flygvapnet first recuperated four of the P-51s (two P-51Bs and two early P-51Ds) that had been diverted to Sweden during missions over Europe. In February 1945, Sweden purchased 50 P-51Ds designated J 26, which were delivered by American pilots in April and assigned to the Uppland Air Force Wing (F 16) at Uppsala as interceptors. In early 1946, the Jämtland Air Force Wing (F 4) at Östersund was equipped with a second batch of 90 P-51Ds. A final batch of 21 Mustangs was purchased in 1948. In all, 161 J 26s served in the Swedish Air Force during the late 1940s. About 12 were modified for photo reconnaissance and redesignated S 26. Some of these aircraft participated in the secret Swedish mapping of new Soviet military installations at the Baltic coast in 1946–47 (Operation Falun), an endeavor that entailed many intentional violations of Soviet airspace. However, the Mustang could outdive any Soviet fighter of that era, so no S 26s were lost in these missions. The J 26s were replaced by De Havilland Vampires around 1950. The S 26s were replaced by S 29Cs in the early 1950s.
- The Swiss Air Force operated a few USAAF P-51s that had been impounded by Swiss authorities during World War II after the pilots were forced to land in neutral Switzerland. After the war, Switzerland also bought 130 P-51s for $4,000 each. They served until 1958.
- Soviet Union
- The Soviet Union received at least 10 early-model ex-RAF Mustang Mk Is and tested them, but found them to "under-perform" compared to contemporary USSR fighters, relegating them to training units. Later Lend-Lease deliveries of the P-51B/C and D series, along with other Mustangs abandoned in Russia after the famous "shuttle missions", were repaired and used by the Soviet Air Force, but not in front-line service.
- The Uruguayan Air Force used 25 P-51D Mustangs from 1950 to 1960; some were subsequently sold to Bolivia.
P-51s and civil aviation
Many P-51s were sold as surplus after the war, often for as little as $1,500. Some were sold to former wartime fliers or other aficionados for personal use, while others were modified for air racing.
One of the most significant Mustangs involved in air racing was serial number 44-10947, a surplus P-51C-10-NT purchased by film stunt pilot Paul Mantz. He modified the wings, sealing them to create a giant fuel tank in each one; these "wet wings" reduced the need for fuel stops or drag-inducing drop tanks. Named Blaze of Noon after the film Blaze of Noon, the aircraft won the 1946 and 1947 Bendix Air Races, took second in the 1948 Bendix, and placed third in the 1949 Bendix. Mantz also set a U.S. coast-to-coast record in 1947. He sold the Mustang to Charles F. Blair Jr (future husband of Maureen O'Hara), who renamed it Excalibur III and used it to set a New York-to-London (about 3,460 miles or 5,570 kilometres) record in 1951: 7 hr 48 min from takeoff at Idlewild to overhead London Airport. Later that year, Blair flew from Norway to Fairbanks, Alaska, via the North Pole (about 3,130 miles or 5,040 kilometres), proving that navigation via sun sights was possible over the magnetic North Pole region. For this feat, he was awarded the Harmon Trophy and the Air Force was forced to change its thoughts on a possible Soviet air strike from the north. This Mustang now sits in the National Air and Space Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center.
In 1958, the RCAF retired its 78 remaining Mustangs. RCAF pilot Lynn Garrison ferried them from their various storage locations to Canastota, New York, where the American buyers were based. Garrison flew each of the surviving aircraft at least once. These aircraft make up a large percentage of the aircraft presently flying worldwide.
The most prominent firm to convert Mustangs to civilian use was Trans-Florida Aviation, later renamed Cavalier Aircraft Corporation, which produced the Cavalier Mustang. Modifications included a taller tailfin and wingtip tanks. A number of conversions included a Cavalier Mustang specialty: a "tight" second seat added in the space formerly occupied by the military radio and fuselage fuel tank.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, when the United States Department of Defense wished to supply aircraft to South American countries and later Indonesia for close air support and counterinsurgency, it paid Cavalier to return some of their civilian conversions back to updated military specifications.
In the 21st century, a P-51 can command a price of more than $1 million, even for only partially restored aircraft. There were 204 privately owned P-51s in the U.S. on the FAA registry in 2011, most of which are still flying, often associated with organizations such as the Commemorative Air Force (formerly the Confederate Air Force).
In May 2013, Doug Matthews set an altitude record of 12,975 m (42,568 ft) in a P-51 named The Rebel for piston-powered aircraft weighing 3,000 to 6,000 kg (6,600 to 13,200 lb). Flying from a grass runway at Florida's Indiantown airport and over Lake Okeechobee, Matthews set world records for time to reach altitudes of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), 18 minutes and 12,000 m (39,000 ft), 31 minutes. He set a level-flight altitude record of 12,200 m (40,100 ft) in level flight and an absolute altitude record of 13,000 m (42,500 ft), breaking the previous record of 11,248 m (36,902 ft) set in 1954.
- On 9 June 1973, William Penn Patrick (43) a certified pilot and his passenger, Christian Hagert, died when Patrick's P-51 Mustang crashed in Lakeport, California.
- On 1 July 1990 at the National Capital Air Show (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada), Harry E. Tope was killed when his P-51 Mustang crashed.
- On 16 September 2011 The Galloping Ghost, a modified P-51 piloted by Jimmy Leeward of Ocala, Florida, crashed during an air race in Reno, Nevada. Leeward and at least nine people on the ground were killed when the racer suddenly crashed near the edge of the grandstand.
Over 20 variants of the P-51 Mustang were produced from 1940 to after the war.
|Mustang I||620||Built for RAF at Inglewood, California|
|A-36 Apache||500||Dive-bomber variant of P-51; also known as "Invader" or "Mustang"|
|P-51||150||Built at Inglewood, California. 93 were Lend-Leased to the UK, operated by RAF as the "Mustang Ia". 57 were retained by the USAAF and fitted with Allison V-1710-39 engines.|
|P-51A-NA||310||Built at Inglewood, California. 50 Lend-Leased to the RAF as the "Mustang II".|
|XP-51B||2||Prototypes of P-51B|
|P-51B-NA||1,987||Built at Inglewood, California. First production version to be equipped with the Merlin engine. 308 supplied under Lend-Lease and operated by the RAF as "Mustang III".|
|P-51C-NT||1,750||First P-51 variant to be built at North American's Dallas plant. Identical to P-51B. Mustangs built by North American in Dallas were suffixed "-NT". 636 were supplied under Lend-Lease to the RAF as the "Mustang III".|
|XP-51D||3||Prototypes of P-51D|
|P-51D-NA/-NT||8,200||6,600 built at Inglewood and 1,600 built at Dallas. 100 P-51D-1-NA were sent unassembled to Australia. 282 under Lend-Lease served in the RAF as the "Mustang IV".|
|XP-51G||2||Lightweight version; five-bladed propeller|
|P-51H-NA||555||Built at Inglewood, California|
|XP-51J||2||Allison-engined lightweight development.|
|P-51K-NT||1,500||Built at Dallas, Texas. Identical to the P-51D except fitted with a four-bladed Aeroproducts propeller. 600 Lend-Leased to the RAF as the "Mustang IVa".|
|P-51M-NT||1||Same as P-51D-25-NT and P-51D-30-NT, but with the non-water injected V-1650-9A engine for low-altitude operations and sharing the cuffless Hamilton Standard propeller. It was intended to enter full production at Dallas, but the contract was later cancelled.|
|Total number built||15,588||Includes 100 sent unassembled to Australia|
|Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation CA-17 Mustang Mk 20||80||100 unassembled P-51D-1-NA were delivered as kits to Australia, but only 80 were built.|
|CAC CA-18 Mustang Mk 21, Mk 22 and Mk 23||120||License production in Australia of 120 (170 were originally ordered) P-51D. The Mk 21 and Mk 22 used the American-built Packard V-1650-3 or V-1650-7 engine and the Mk 23 (which followed the Mk 21) was powered by a Rolls-Royce Merlin 66 or Merlin 70 engine.|
|Total number built||200|
|TP-51C||At least 5||Field modification to create dual-control variant; at least five known built during World War II for training and VIP transport.|
|ETF-51D||1||One P-51D modified for use on an aircraft carrier.|
|Rolls-Royce Mustang Mk X||5||Five prototype conversions only – two Mustang Mk I airframes were initially trial fitted with Rolls-Royce Merlin 65 engines in mid-late 1942, in order to test the performance of the aircraft with a powerplant better adapted to medium/high altitudes. The successful conversion of the Packard V-1650 Merlin-powered P-51B/C equivalent rendered this experiment as superfluous. Although the conversions were highly successful, the planned production of 500 examples was cancelled.|
|NA-133||P-51H for the U.S. Navy, with folding wings, an arrestor hook and tip tanks.|
|CAC CA-21 Mustang Mk 24||License production of 250 two-seater Mustangs.|
Accidents and incidents
Specifications (P-51D Mustang)
- Crew: 1
- Length: 32 ft 3 in (9.83 m)
- Wingspan: 37 ft (11 m)
- Height: 13 ft 4.5 in (4.077 m) tail wheel on ground, vertical propeller blade
- Wing area: 235 sq ft (21.8 m2)
- Aspect ratio: 5.83
- Airfoil: NAA/NACA 45–100 / NAA/NACA 45–100
- Empty weight: 7,635 lb (3,463 kg)
- Gross weight: 9,200 lb (4,173 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 12,100 lb (5,488 kg) 5,490
- Fuel capacity: 269 US gal (224 imp gal; 1,020 l)
- Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0163
- Drag area: 3.80 sqft (0.35 m²)
- Powerplant: 1 × Packard (Rolls Royce) V-1650-7 Merlin 12-cylinder liquid cooled engine, 1,490 hp (1,110 kW) at 3,000 rpm; 1,720 hp (1,280 kW) at WEP
- Propellers: 4-bladed Hamilton Standard constant-speed, variable-pitch, 11 ft 2 in (3.40 m) diameter
- Maximum speed: 440 mph (710 km/h, 383 kn)
- Cruise speed: 362 mph (583 km/h, 315 kn)
- Stall speed: 100 mph (160 km/h, 87 kn)
- Range: 1,650 mi (2,660 km, 1,434 nmi) with external tanks
- Service ceiling: 41,900 ft (12,800 m)
- Rate of climb: 3,200 ft/min (16 m/s)
- Lift-to-drag: 14.6
- Wing loading: 39 lb/sq ft (190 kg/m2)
- Power/mass: 0.18 hp/lb (300 W/kg)
- Recommended Mach limit 0.8
- Guns: 6 × 0.50 caliber (12.7mm) AN/M2 Browning machine guns with 1,840 total rounds (380 rounds for each on the inboard pair and 270 rounds for each of the outer two pair)
- Rockets: 6 or 10 × 5.0 in (127 mm) T64 HVAR rockets (P-51D-25, P-51K-10 on)[nb 8]
- Bombs: 1 × 100 lb (45 kg) or 250 lb (110 kg) bomb or 500 lb (230 kg) bomb on hardpoint under each wing
Notable appearances in media
- Red Tail Reborn (2007) is the story behind the restoration of a flying memorial aircraft.
As indicative of the iconic nature of the P-51, manufacturers within the hobby industry have created scale plastic model kits of the P-51 Mustang, with varying degrees of detail and skill levels. The aircraft have also been the subject of numerous scale flying replicas. Aside from the popular radio-controlled aircraft, several kitplane manufacturers offer ½, ⅔, and ¾-scale replicas capable of comfortably seating one (or even two) and offering high performance combined with more forgiving flight characteristics. Such aircraft include the Titan T-51 Mustang, W.A.R. P-51 Mustang, Linn Mini Mustang, Jurca Gnatsum, Thunder Mustang, Stewart S-51D Mustang, Loehle 5151 Mustang and ScaleWings SW51 Mustang.
- CAC Mustang
- Cavalier Mustang
- North American A-36
- North American F-82 Twin Mustang
- North American FJ-1 Fury
- Piper PA-48 Enforcer
- Rolls-Royce Mustang Mk.X
- ScaleWings SW51 Mustang production scale replica
- Stewart S-51D Mustang Homebuilt scale replica
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era
- CAC CA-15
- Focke-Wulf Fw 190
- Focke-Wulf Ta 152
- Hawker Tempest
- Kawanishi N1K
- Kawasaki Ki-100
- Lavochkin La-9
- Messerschmitt Bf 109
- Nakajima Ki-84
- Supermarine Spitfire
- Yakovlev Yak-9
- Allied technological cooperation during World War II
- List of aircraft of the United Kingdom in World War II
- List of aircraft of World War II
- List of fighter aircraft
- List of military aircraft of the United States
- Among Allied aircraft, the P-51's claimed victory total in World War II was second to the carrier-borne Grumman F6F Hellcat.
- Because the new fighter was designed to a British, rather than an American or USAAC specification, it was allocated a private-venture civil designation instead of the more usual XP- (eXperimental Pursuit) group.
- For more specific information on the P-51's airfoil, known as the NAA/NACA 45–100 series, see
- This was one of the last US applications of gun synchronization – later American single piston-engined fighters, including later models of the Mustang, all had their gun armament concentrated in the wings.
- One of the NA-73s given to the army, s/n 41-038 is still in existence and last flew in 1982.
- All but three of these FGs flew P-38s, P-40s or P-47s before converting to the Mustang.
- "Ziemi Czerwieńskiej" = "Land of Czerwien", RAF Polish units retained the name and the logo of a squadron from the Polish Air Force which fought the Germans in 1939.
- The P-51D and K Maintenance manual notes that carrying 1,000 lb bombs was not recommended, because the racks were not designed for them. Six rockets could be carried on removable "Zero Rail" launchers with the wing racks installed, 10 without wing racks.
- P-51 Mustang Fighter, Boeing.
- Scutts, Jerry (13 November 1995), Mustang Aces of the Ninth & Fifteenth Air Forces & the RAF (book), p. 47, ISBN 9781855325838.
- Hickman; Kennedy, "World War II: North American P-51 Mustang", Military History, About, archived from the original on 1 July 2014, retrieved 19 June 2014
- "North American P-51D Mustang". National Museum of the United States Air Force. 20 April 2015. Archived from the original on 22 November 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- Guilmartin, John. "P-51 Mustang Facts". Britannica.com. Britannica. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
- Borth 1945, pp. 92, 244.
- Kinzey 1996, p. 5.
- Kinzey 1996, p. 57.
- Kinzey 1996, p. 56.
- Kinzey 1997, pp. 10–13.
- Gunston 1984, p. 58.
- Tillman 1996, pp. 78–79.
- Brinkworth, Brian. "On the planning of British aircraft production for the Second World War and reference to James Connolly" (PDF). Journal of Aeronautical History: 233–299. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
- Pearcy 1996, p. 15.
- Pearcy 1996, p. 30.
- Chorlton, Martyn (2012), Allison-Engined P-51 Mustang, Air Vanguard 1, Osprey, p. 11, 12, ISBN 9781780961514
- Delve 1999, p. 11.
- Delve 1999, p. 12.
- Jackson 1992, p. 3.
- Wagner 2000, pp. 16, 18.
- Selig, Michael. "P-51D wingroot section." Archived 8 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine uiuc.edu. Retrieved: 22 March 2008
- "We also found out, later on, that the heat from the engine actually produced thrust... That horsepower gained by the radiator was only discovered by wind-tunnel investigation..." Mustang Designer, Edgar Schmued and the P-51, p. 61. The comparison was between wind-tunnel tests of full-scale models, with normal heating (thermic engine) and without heat production (electric engine).
- Yenne 1989, p. 49.
- The British Air Ministry sent over the Canadian aerodynamicist Dr Beverley Shenstone in early 1941, who also assisted with the cooling airflow (Ray Wagner Mustang Designer)
- Jackson 1992, p. 4.
- Kinzey 1996, pp. 5, 11.
- Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, p. 6.
- "P-51 History: Mustang I." Archived 15 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine The Gathering of Mustangs & Legends. Retrieved: 26 March 2009.
- "North American XP-51 Prototype No. 4 – NX51NA ." Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine EAA AirVenture Museum (Experimental Aircraft Association). Retrieved: 23 July 2013.
- Marshall, James; Ford, Lowell (21 July 2020). "The Birth of the Merlin Mustang". P-51B Mustang: North American's Bastard Stepchild that Saved the Eighth Air Force. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-3967-1.
- Model Designations of U.S.A.F. Aircraft Engines. U.S.A.F. Air Material Command. 1949. p. 29. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
- Hooker, Stanley (1984). Not much of an engineer. UK: Airlife Books. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-85310-285-1.
- Hazen, R. "Service Use of High Power Outputs on Allison V-1710 Engines" (PDF). Allison Division, General Motors Corporation. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- "Merlin 61, 65 & V-1650-3 Power Curves. R.D.E. 66-41". Retrieved 10 September 2020.
- Gruenhagen, Robert (1976). Mustang: The Story of the P-51 Fighter (rev. ed.). New York: Arco Publishing. p. 68.
- Gruenhagen, Robert W. (1976). Mustang: The Story of the P-51 Fighter (rev. ed.). New York: Arco Publishing. p. 74.
- Newby Grant, William (1980). P-51 Mustang. UK: Paul Hamlyn Pty Ltd. p. 24. ISBN 0-7296-0183-8.
- Gruenhagen 1980, p. 193.
- Gruenhagen 1980, pp. 195–196.
- Delve (1994), p. 191
- Hatch (1993), p. 15
- Born, Charles. "British Army Cooperation Tactical Employment of the Mustang I (P-51)". Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- Gruenhagen 1980, pp. 199–200.
- Gruenhagen 1980, pp. 201, 205.
- Gunston 1990 p. 39.
- Miller 2007, p. 41.
- Miller 2007, p. 46.
- Miller 2007, p. 42.
- Hastings 1979, pp. 214–215.
- Boylan 1955, p. 154.
- Boylan 1955, p. 155.
- Boylan 1955, pp. 155–156.
- Parker, Dana T. (19 October 2013). Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II. pp. 77, 90–92. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4..
- Dean 1997, p. 338.
- Fredriksen, John C. (1999). American Military Leaders: A-L. American Military Leaders. Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 227. ISBN 9781576070017.
- Spick 1983, p. 111.
- Robertie, William G (December 1974). "Cobbler College" (PDF). Second Air Division Association. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
- Bowen 1980[page needed]
- Sherman, Steven. "Aces of the Eighth Air Force in World War Two." Archived 13 August 2011 at Wikiwix Ace pilots, June 1999. Retrieved: 7 August 2011.
- Olmsted 1994, p. 144.
- Forsyth 1996, pp. 149, 194.
- Scutts 1994, p. 58.
- Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, p. 12.
- Glancey 2006, p. 188.
- Dean 1997, p. 339.
- "4th Fighter Wing." Archived 6 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine Global Security. Retrieved: 12 April 2007.
- Craven and Cate (1953), pp. 639–640
- Hoyt (1987), p. 398
- Tillman (2010), pp. 172–173
- Craven and Cate (1953), pp. 640–642
- Hastings (2007), p. 336
- Craven and Cate (1953), pp. 642–644
- Kerr (1991), pp. 261–262
- Frank (1999), pp. 76–77
- Miller (2001), p. 460
- Russ (2001), p. 22
- Craven and Cate (1953), p. 634
- Craven and Cate (1953), pp. 634–635
- Russ (2001), p. 24
- Russ (2001), p. 25
- Thompson, Steve; Smith, Peter C.; Allan, Ian; Spinetta, Lawrence J. (2008). Air Combat Manoeuvres: The Technique and History of Air Fighting for Flight Simulation. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-903223-98-7.
- Flight Tests on the North American P-51B-5-NA Airplane Archived 9 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Army Air Forces Material Command, Flight Test Engineering Branch, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, 24 April 1944
- Sims 1980, pp. 134–135.
- Rymaszewski, Michael (July 1994). "Playing Your Aces". Computer Gaming World. pp. 101–105. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017.
- United Press, "Last of Prop Fighters Will Go to Museum", The San Bernardino Daily Sun, San Bernardino, California, Saturday 26 January 1957, Volume LXIII, Number 127, page 22.
- "'Mustang' Taken Out of Mothballs For Demonstration". The Okaloosa News-Journal, Crestview, Florida, Volume 43, Number 14, page 3E.
- Gunston, Bill. North American P-51 Mustang. New York: Gallery Books, 1990. ISBN 0-8317-1402-6.[page needed]
- Wixey 2001, p. 55.
- "Dominican Republic." Archived 29 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine acig.org. Retrieved: 17 January 2012.
- Knaack 1978
- Munson 1969, p. 97.
- Anderson 1975, pp. 16–43.
- Anderson 1975, pp. 50–65.
- Hagedorn 1993, p. 147.
- Hagedorn 2006[page needed]
- Dienst 1985
- Gunston and Dorr 1995, p. 107.
- Gunston and Dorr 1995, pp. 109–110.
- Smith et al. 2004, pp. 78–79, 80, 82.
- Smith et al. 2004, pp. 108–114.
- Gilman and Clive 1978, p. 314.
- Gunston and Dorr 1995, p. 108.
- Cavalier Mustangs Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Mustangs-Mustangs. Retrieved: 12 April 2007.
- "Indonesian Air Arms Overview" Archived 16 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine Scramble: Dutch Aviation Society. Retrieved: 12 April 2007.
- "Kisah pilot TNI AU tembak jatuh pesawat pengebom CIA". merdeka.com. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
- Darling 2002, p. 66.
- Herzog (1982) p. 118
- Norton, Bill (2004) – Air War on the Edge – A History of the Israeli Air Force and its Aircraft since 1947
- Yenne 1989, p. 62.
- "North American P-51". Aeronautica Militare. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- "Italian Air Force". aeroflight. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Sgarlato 2003[page needed]
- Kahin 2003, p. 90.
- Wilson 2010, p. 42.
- "Blue Diamonds: Philippine Air Force." geocities.com. Retrieved: 21 March 2008.
- "309 Sqn photo gallery." Archived 11 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine polishairforce.pl. Retrieved: 18 February 2010.
- Mietelski 1981[page needed]
- "Somali (SOM)." Archived 2 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine World Air Forces. Retrieved: 10 September 2011.
- Andersson, Lennart (2002). Bortom horisonten: Svensk flygspaning mot Sovjetunionen 1946-1952. ISBN 978-91-7243-015-0.
- Gordon 2008, pp. 448–449.
- Kyburz, Martin. "Racing Mustangs." Archived 21 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Swiss Mustangs, 2009. Retrieved: 17 January 2012.
- "Mustang NA P-51C Mustang." Archived 12 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine NASM. Retrieved: 30 September 2010.
- "P-51s for Sale." Archived 15 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine mustangsmustangs.net. Retrieved: 30 September 2010.
- "North American P-51". Archived 15 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine FAA Registry. Retrieved: 15 May 2011.
- "Aircraft rides." Dixie Wing. Retrieved: 1 September 2010. Archived 4 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Doug Matthews sets several records flying a P-51 Mustang". World Warbird News. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "Doug Matthews Sets World Records in P-51D". eaa.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "July 2012 NAA Record Newsletter". constantcontact.com. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "NTSB Identification: OAK73FVG65". National Transportation Safety Board. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013.
- "The Crash at Farrell's Ice Cream Parlor in Sacramento, CA – September 24, 1972, Postscript." Archived 20 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine Check Six, 2002. Retrieved: 8 February 2014.
- "Warbird Registry". Retrieved 18 September 2009.
- Barboza, Tony. "Reno air races crash: NTSB investigates elevator trim tab." Archived 3 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine Los Angeles Times, 14 June 2012. Retrieved: 17 September 2011.
- Andrade, John M. U.S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909, p. 150. Leicester, UK: Midland Counties Publication, 1979, ISBN 0-904597-22-9
- Peçzkowski, Robert. North American P-51D Mustang, p. 28. Sandomierz, Poland: STRATUS s.c., 2009, ISBN 978-83-89450-60-9
- AN 01-60JE-4 Parts Catalog USAF Series P-51D and P-51K Aircraft, revised 31 May 1949, p. 55
- AN 01-60JE-4 Parts Catalog USAF Series F-51D, TF-51D, and F-51K Aircraft, revised 15 May 1953, p. 55
- History of the TP-51C Mustang, Collings Foundation., archived from the original on 31 July 2012, retrieved 17 September 2012
- Birch 1987, pp. 96–98.
- "Australian Built Military Aircraft". www.adf-serials.com. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
- AN 01-60JE-2 1944.
- "P-51 Tactical Planning Characteristics & Performance Chart". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- Green and Swanborough 2001
- Loftin 2006.
- ""Objects: A19520106000 – Packard (Rolls-Royce) Merlin V-1650-7"", Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Collections Database, archived from the original on 27 March 2009
- Pilot's Flight Operating Instructions, Army Model P-51-D-5, British Model Mustang IV Airplanes (PDF), 5 April 1944, p. 38–40, archived (PDF) from the original on 10 February 2015, retrieved 13 July 2015 – via wwiiaircraftperformance.org.
- AN 01-60JE-2 1944, pp. 398–399.
- AN 01-60JE-2 1944, p. 400.
- Smith, O.S. "Other Mustang Kits and Links." Archived 6 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine Unofficial Stewart 51 Builders Page. Retrieved: 24 April 2012.
- "Where Dreams Take Flight." Archived 4 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine Titan Aircraft, 2012. Retrieved: 24 April 2012.
- "P-51D Mustang Replica." Archived 3 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine SOS-Eisberg, 2012. Retrieved: 24 April 2012.
- Aerei da combattimento della Seconda Guerra Mondiale (in Italian). Novara, Italy: De Agostini Editore, 2005.
- Anderson, Peter N. Mustangs of the RAAF and RNZAF. Sydney, Australia: A.H. & A.W. Reed Pty Ltd, 1975. ISBN 0-589-07130-0.
- Angelucci, Enzo and Peter Bowers. The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft from 1917 to the Present. New York: Orion Books, 1985. ISBN 0-517-56588-9.
- Aro, Chuck and Colin Aro. "World's Fastest Mustangs". Air Enthusiast. No. 13, August–November 1980. pp. 56–62. ISSN 0143-5450
- Birch, David. Rolls-Royce and the Mustang. Derby, UK: Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust, 1987. ISBN 0-9511710-0-3.
- Bowen, Ezra. Knights of the Air (Epic of Flight). New York: Time-Life Books, 1980. ISBN 0-8094-3252-8.
- Borth, Christy. Masters of Mass Production. Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1945.
- Bowman, Martin W. P-51 Mustang vs Fw 190: Europe 1943–45. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1-84603-189-3.
- Boylan, Bernard. Development of the Long Range Escort Fighter. Washington, D.C: USAF Historical Division, Research Studies Institute, Air University, 1955. Retrieved: 15 July 2014.
- Boyne, Walter J. Clash of Wings. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. ISBN 0-684-83915-6.
- Breffort, Dominique with André Jouineau. Le North-American P-51 Mustang – de 1940 à 1980 (Avions et Pilotes 5)(in French). Paris: Histoire et Collections, 2003. ISBN 2-913903-80-0.
- Bridgman, Leonard, ed. "The North American Mustang." Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. ISBN 1-85170-493-0.
- Caldwell, Donald and Richard Muller. The Luftwaffe over Germany – Defense of the Reich. St. Paul, Minnesota: Greenhill books, MBI Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-185367-712-0.
- Carson, Leonard "Kit." Pursue & Destroy. Granada Hills, California: Sentry Books Inc., 1978. ISBN 0-913194-05-0.
- Carter, Dustin W. and Birch J. Matthews.Mustang: The Racing Thoroughbred. West Chester, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Company, 1992. ISBN 978-0-88740-391-0.
- Cleaver, Tom (April–July 1982). "Return of the Razorbacks". Air Enthusiast. No. 18. pp. 26–31. ISSN 0143-5450.
- Craven, Wesley and James Cate. The Army Air Forces in World War II, Volume Two: Europe, Torch to Pointblank, August 1942 to December 1943. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1949.
- Darling, Kev. P-51 Mustang (Combat Legend). Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife, 2002. ISBN 1-84037-357-1.
- Davis, Larry. P-51 Mustang. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1995. ISBN 0-89747-350-7.
- Dean, Francis H. America's Hundred Thousand. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1997. ISBN 0-7643-0072-5.
- Delve, Ken. The Mustang Story. London: Cassell & Co., 1999. ISBN 1-85409-259-6.
- Delve, Ken. The Source Book of the RAF. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1994. ISBN 1-85310-451-5.
- Dienst, John and Dan Hagedorn. North American F-51 Mustangs in Latin American Air Force Service. London: Aerofax, 1985. ISBN 0-942548-33-7.
- Donald, David, ed. Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Etobicoke, Ontario: Prospero, 1997. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
- Dorr, Robert F.. P-51 Mustang (Warbird History). St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International Publishers, 1995. ISBN 0-7603-0002-X.
- Ethell, Jeffrey L. Mustang: A Documentary History of the P-51. London: Jane's Publishing, 1981. ISBN 0-531-03736-3
- Ethell, Jeffrey L. P-51 Mustang: In Color, Photos from World War II and Korea. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International Publishers & Wholesalers, 1993. ISBN 0-87938-818-8.
- Ethell, Jeffrey and Robert Sand. World War II Fighters. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7603-1354-1.
- Forsyth, Robert. JV44: The Galland Circus. Burgess Hill, West Sussex, UK: Classic Publications, 1996. ISBN 0-9526867-0-8
- Furse, Anthony. Wilfrid Freeman: The Genius Behind Allied Survival and Air Supremacy, 1939 to 1945. Staplehurst, UK: Spellmount, 1999. ISBN 1-86227-079-1.
- Gilman J.D. and J. Clive. KG 200. London: Pan Books Ltd., 1978. ISBN 0-85177-819-4.
- Glancey, Jonathan. Spitfire: The Illustrated Biography. London: Atlantic Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-84354-528-6.
- Gordon, Doug (July–August 2001). "Tac Recon Masters: The 66th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing in Europe, Part One". Air Enthusiast (94): 31–39. ISSN 0143-5450.
- Gordon, Yefim. Soviet Air Power in World War 2. Hinckley, UK: Midland Ian Allan Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-1-85780-304-4.
- Grant, William Newby. P-51 Mustang. London: Bison Books, 1980. ISBN 0-89009-320-2.
- Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Great Book of Fighters. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1194-3.
- Gruenhagen, Robert W. Mustang: The Story of the P-51 Fighter (rev. ed.). New York: Arco Publishing Company, Inc., 1980. ISBN 0-668-04884-0.
- Gunston, Bill. An Illustrated Guide to Allied Fighters of World War II. London: Salamander Books Ltd, 1981. ISBN 0-668-05228-7.
- Gunston, Bill. Aerei della seconda guerra mondiale (in Italian). Milan: Peruzzo editore, 1984. No ISBN.
- Gunston, Bill and Mike Spick. Modern Air Combat. Crescent Books, 1983, ISBN 91-972803-8-0.
- Gunston, Bill. North American P-51 Mustang. New York: Gallery Books, 1990. ISBN 0-8317-1402-6.
- Gunston, Bill and Robert F. Dorr. "North American P-51 Mustang: The Fighter That Won the War." Wings of Fame, Volume 1. London: Aerospace, 1995, pp. 56–115. ISBN 1-874023-74-3.
- Hagedorn, Dan. Central American and Caribbean Air Forces. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians), 1993. ISBN 0-85130-210-6.
- Hagedorn, Dan. Latin American Air Wars & Aircraft. Crowborough, UK: Hikoki, 2006. ISBN 1-902109-44-9.
- Hammond, Grant. The Mind of War: John Boyd and American Security, Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001, ISBN 1-56098-941-6.
- Hastings, Max. Bomber Command. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Press, 1979. ISBN 978-0-76034-520-7.
- Hatch, Gardner N.; Winter, Frank H. (1993). P-51 Mustang. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-56311-080-1.
- Hess, William N. Fighting Mustang: The Chronicle of the P-51. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1970. ISBN 0-912173-04-1.
- "History, Boeing: P-51 Mustang". Boeing. Retrieved: 24 June 2014.
- Jackson, Robert. Aircraft of World War II: Development, Weaponry, Specifications. Edison, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, 2003. ISBN 0-7858-1696-8.
- Jackson, Robert. Mustang: The Operational Record. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 1992. ISBN 1-85310-212-1.
- Jerram, Michael F. P-51 Mustang. Yeovil, UK: Winchmore Publishing Services Ltd., 1984, ISBN 0-85429-423-6.
- Johnsen, Frederick A. Bell P-39/P-63 Airacobra & Kingcobra. St. Paul, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 1998. ISBN 1-58007-010-8.
- Johnsen, Frederick A. North American P-51 Mustang. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press Publishers and Wholesalers, 1996. ISBN 0-933424-68-X.
- Kaplan, Philip. Fly Navy: Naval Aviators and Carrier Aviation: A History. New York: Michael Friedman Publishing Group Incorporated, 2001. ISBN 1-58663-189-6.
- Kinzey, Bert. P-51 Mustang in Detail & Scale: Part 1; Prototype through P-51C. Carrollton, Texas: Detail & Scale Inc., 1996. ISBN 1-888974-02-8.
- Kinzey, Bert. P-51 Mustang in Detail & Scale: Part 2; P-51D thu P-82H. Carrollton, Texas: Detail & Scale Inc., 1997. ISBN 1-888974-03-6
- Knaack, Marcelle Size. Encyclopedia of U.S. Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems: Volume 1 Post-World War II Fighters 1945–1973. Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1978. ISBN 0-912799-59-5.
- Lednicer, David A. and Ian J. Gilchrist. "A Retrospective: Computational Aerodynamic Analysis Methods Applied to the P-51 Mustang." AIAA paper 91-3288, September 1991.
- Lednicer, David A. "Technical Note: A CFD Evaluation of Three Prominent World War II Fighter Aircraft." Aeronautical Journal, Royal Aeronautical Society, June/July 1995.
- Lednicer, David A. "World War II Fighter Aerodynamics." EAA Sport Aviation, January 1999.
- Leffingwell, Randy (and David Newhardt, photography). Mustang: 40 Years. St. Paul, Minnesota: Crestline (Imprint of MBI Publishing Company), 2003. ISBN 0-7603-2122-1.
- Liming, R.A. Mathematics for Computer Graphics. Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers, 1979. ISBN 978-0-8168-6751-6.
- Liming, R.A. Practical Analytic Geometry With Applications to Aircraft. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1944.
- Loftin, LK, Jr. Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft, NASA SP-468. Washington, D.C.: NASA History Office. Retrieved: 22 April 2006.
- Lowe, Malcolm V. North American P-51 Mustang (Crowood Aviation Series). Ramsbury, Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press, 2009. ISBN 978-1-86126-830-3.
- Loving, George. Woodbine Red Leader: A P-51 Mustang Ace in the Mediterranean Theater. New York: Ballantine Books, 2003. ISBN 0-89141-813-X.
- Matricardi, Paolo. Aerei militari: Caccia e Ricognitori(in Italian). Milan: Mondadori Electa, 2006.
- Mietelski, Michał, Samolot myśliwski Mustang Mk. I-III wyd. I (in Polish). Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej, 1981. ISBN 83-11-06604-3.
- Miller, Donald L. Eighth Air Force: The American Bomber Crews in Britain. London: Aurum Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84513-221-7.
- Munson, Kenneth. Caccia e aerei da attacco e addestramento dal 1946 ad oggi(in Italian). Torino: Editrice S.A.I.E., 1969. No ISBN.
- O'Leary, Michael. P-51 Mustang: The Story of Manufacturing North American's Legendary World War II Fighter in Original Photos. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-58007-152-9.
- O'Leary, Michael. USAAF Fighters of World War Two. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., 1986. ISBN 0-7137-1839-0.
- Olmsted, Merle. The 357th Over Europe: the 357th Fighter Group in World War II. St. Paul, Minnesota: Phalanx Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0-933424-73-6.
- Pace, Steve. "Mustang – Thoroughbred Stallion of the Air". Stroud, UK: Fonthill Media, 2012. ISBN 978-1-78155-051-9
- Pearcy, Arthur. Lend-Lease Aircraft in World War II. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 1996. ISBN 1-85310-443-4.
- "Pentagon Over the Islands: The Thirty-Year History of Indonesian Military Aviation". Air Enthusiast Quarterly (2): 154–162. n.d. ISSN 0143-5450.
- Sgarlato, Nico. "Mustang P-51" (in Italian). I Grandi Aerei Storici (Monograph series) N.7, November 2003. Parma, Italy: Delta Editrice. ISSN 1720-0636.
- Shores, Christopher. "The Allison-engined Mustang: A Fighting Combination". Air Enthusiast Quarterly, No. 2, n.d., pp. 191–206. ISSN 0143-5450
- Sims, Edward H. Fighter Tactics and Strategy 1914–1970. Fallbrook, California: Aero publisher Inc., 1980. ISBN 0-8168-8795-0.
- Smith, J. Richard, Eddie J. Creek and Peter Petrick. On Special Missions: The Luftwaffe's Research and Experimental Squadrons 1923–1945 (Air War Classics). Hersham, Surrey, UK: Classic Publications, 2004. ISBN 1-903223-33-4.
- Spick, Mike. Fighter Pilot Tactics. The Techniques of Daylight Air Combat. Cambridge, UK: Patrick Stephens, 1983. ISBN 0-85059-617-3.
- Spick, Mike. Designed for the Kill: The Jet Fighter—Development and Experience. United States Naval Institute, 1995, ISBN 0-87021-059-9.
- Stevenson, James. The Pentagon Paradox: The Development of the F-18 Hornet. Naval Institute Press, 1993, ISBN 1-55750-775-9.
- Tillman, Barrett. Hellcat Aces of World War 2. London: Osprey Aerospace, 1996. ISBN 1-85532-596-9.
- United States Air Force Museum Guidebook. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975.
- United States Army Air Force. AN 01-60JE-2: Maintenance and Erection Instructions for Army Model P-51D-5, −10, −15, 20, −25; P-51K-1, −5, −10, −15; British Model Mustang IV Aeroplanes. Evansville, Indiana: U.S.A.A.F, 1944.
- Wagner, Ray. American Combat Planes of the 20th Century. Reno, Nevada: Jack Bacon & Company, 2004. ISBN 978-0-930083-17-5.
- Wagner, Ray. Mustang Designer: Edgar Schmued and the P-51. Herndon, Virginia: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000. ISBN 978-1-56098-994-3.
- Walker, Jeff. "Empire of the Sun." Air Classics, Volume 24, Number 1, January 1988.
- White, Graham. Allied Aircraft Piston Engines of World War II. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society for Automotive Engineers, 1995. ISBN 1-56091-655-9.
- Wilson, Stewart, ed. "Mustang Warbirds: Civil Registered Mustangs of Australia and New Zealand Then and Now." Warbirds of Australia and New Zealand 2010. St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia: Chevron Publishing Group, 2010.
- Wixey, Ken. "Magnificent Mustang: A Production History of the North American P-51." Air Enthusiast, Issue 95, September/October 2001.
- Yenne, Bill: Rockwell: The Heritage of North American. New York: Crescent Books, 1989. ISBN 0-517-67252-9.
- Young, Edward (Spring 1994). "Counter-Air: 2nd Air Commando Group in Burma & Thailand". Air Enthusiast. No. 53. pp. 10–19. ISSN 0143-5450.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to North American P-51 Mustang.|
- "A Fighter From the Ground Up." Popular Science, July 1943, one of earliest detailed articles on P-51A
- "Wild Horses of the Sky," Popular Mechanics, November 1943
- Joe Baugher, North American P-51 Mustang
- Camouflage and Markings of P-51 Mustang Parts 1–4 USAAF plus Allison engine versions RAF and Commonwealth
- Allison-powered Mustang performance test reports; 1940, 1942, 1943, 1944
- P-51B Mustang performance test report, May 1943
- P-51 combat reports
- NACA-WR-L-566 "Flying qualities and stalling characteristics of North American XP-51 airplane", April 1943. (PDF)
- North American P-51 profile, photos and technical details for each mk
- on YouTube
- "Mustang Squadron" a 1942 Flight article
- "Army Co-Op Mustang" a 1942 Flight article
- "Unobtrusive Cleverness" a 1942 Flight article
- "Long Range Mustang" a 1944 Flight article
- P-51 in Flight Over California (1942)