Royal Worcester is believed to be the oldest or second oldest remaining English porcelain brand still in existence today, established in 1751 (this is disputed by Royal Crown Derby, which claims 1750 as its year of establishment). Since 2009 part of the Portmeirion Group, Royal Worcester remains in the luxury tableware and giftware market, although production in Worcester itself has ended.
Technically, the Worcester Royal Porcelain Co. Ltd. known as Royal Worcester was formed in 1862, and wares produced before this are known as Worcester porcelain, although the company had a royal warrant from 1788. The enterprise has followed the pattern of other leading English porcelain brands, with increasing success during the 18th and 19th centuries, and a gradual decline during the 20th century, especially the latter half.
Dr John Wall, a physician, and William Davis, an apothecary, developed a unique method for producing porcelain and, in 1751, persuaded a group of 13 businessmen to invest in a new factory at Warmstry House, Worcester, England, on the banks of the River Severn. Dr Wall secured the sum of £4500 from the partners to establish the factory, known then as "The Worcester Tonquin Manufactory"; the original partnership deeds are still housed in the Museum of Worcester Porcelain.
The Flight and Barr partnerships
In 1783, the factory was purchased by Thomas Flight—the former London sales agent for the concern—for £3,000. He let his two sons run the concern, with John Flight taking the lead role till his death in 1791. In 1788 George III, following a visit to the company, granted it a royal warrant, and it became known as the "Royal Porcelain Works". Knowledge of this period is largely a result of the excellent diary that John Flight kept from 1785–1791. This is discussed in detail in Appendix III of Flight & Barr Worcester Porcelain by Henry Sandon.
During this period, the factory was in poor repair. Production was limited to low-end patterns of mostly Blue and White porcelains after Chinese porcelain designs of the period. It was also pressured by competition from inexpensive Chinese export porcelain, and from Thomas Turner’s Caughley (pronounced "Calf-ley") Factory.
Martin Barr joined the firm as a partner in 1792; porcelains of this period are often identified by an incised capital "B" and, later, by more elaborate printed and impressed marks.
Thomas Flight died in 1800, leaving the factory in the hands of his son Joseph Flight and Martin Barr. Barr’s sons Martin Barr Jr. and George Barr were being prepared at that time to run the factory. In addition to the warrant granted by George III, royal warrants were also issued by the Prince of Wales in 1807, and the Princess of Wales in 1808.
Worcester Porcelain Museum
The factory's former site includes the independent Museum of Royal Worcester (formerly known as the 'Dyson Perrins Museum' and 'Worcester Porcelain Museum') owned by the Dyson Perrins Museum Trust. The Museum houses the world’s largest collection of Worcester porcelain. The collections date back to 1751 and the Victorian gallery, the ceramic collections, archives and records of factory production, form the primary resource for the study of Worcester porcelain and its history.
In the 20th century Royal Worcester's most popular pattern has been "Evesham Gold", first offered in 1961, depicting the autumnal fruits of the Vale of Evesham with fine gold banding on an "oven to table" body.
After the 1976 merger with Spode, and due to heavy competition from overseas, the production was switched to factories in Stoke and abroad. 100 staff were made redundant in 2003 and another 100 went in 2005. Fifteen porcelain painters left the Severn Street factory on Friday 29 September 2006, together with 100 other workers. The last trading date for Royal Worcester was 14 June 2009.
The company went into administration on 6 November 2008 and on 23 April 2009 the brand name and intellectual property were acquired by Portmeirion Pottery Group – a pottery and homewares company based in Stoke-on-Trent. As Portmeirion Group has a factory in Stoke-on-Trent, the purchase did not include Royal Worcester and Spode manufacturing facilities.
- Dr. Wall and the first Worcester factory (Worcester Porcelain Museum - 31 Dec 2010).
- Jervis, William Percival. A Pottery Primer pp. 104-6 (New York: The O'Gorman Publishing Co., 1911).
- Osborne, Harold (ed), The Oxford Companion to the Decorative Arts, p. 141, 1975, OUP, ISBN 0198661134
- Royal Porcelain Works. A guide through the Royal Porcelain Work (1895) p37.
- Charity Commission. Dyson Perrins Museum Trust, registered charity no. 223753.
- "Evesham Gold" is no. 17 in "Appendix A: 100 Most Popular Patterns" listed from the records of Replacements.com and illustrated in Shax Riegler. 2011. Dish: 813 Colorful, Wonderful Dinner Plates pp256ff.
- "Porcelain maker Royal Worcester & Spode goes bust". Associated Press. 2008-11-07. Retrieved 2008-11-07.[dead link]
- "China firm quits after 250 years". BBC News. 2006-09-30. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- Richard William Binns. A century of potting in the city of Worcester: being the history of the Royal Porcelain Works, from 1751 to 1851 (B. Quaritch, 1865).
- Royal Porcelain Works. A guide through the Royal Porcelain Work (1895).
- Henry Sandon. The Illustrated Guide to Worcester Porcelain 1751–1793. Praeger, New York. 1969.
- Lawrence Branyan, Neal French, John Sandon. Worcester Blue & White Porcelain 1751–1790. Vintage/Ebury (A Division of Random House Group). 1981. ISBN 978-0-09-144060-2
- Gerald Coke. In Search of James Giles. Micawber. Saint Paul. 1983.
- Simon Spero. Worcester Porcelain: The Klepser Collection. Alan Wofsy Fine Arts. ISBN 978-0-8390-0342-7.
- Franklin Allen Barrett. Worcester Porcelain & Lund's Bristol. Faber & Faber. 1966.
- Geoffrey A. Godden. Caughley & Worcester Porcelains 1775–1800. Barrie & Jenkins, 1969. ISBN 978-0-257-65022-7.
- F. Severne Mackenna. Worcester Porcelain, The Wall Period and its Antecedents. F. Lewis, 1950.
- H. Rissik Marshall. Coloured Worcester Porcelain of the First Period 1751–1783. Ceramic Book Company, 1954.
- Dinah Reynolds. Worcester Porcelain: Marshall Collection (Ashmolean Handbooks). Ashmolean Museum, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85444-127-0
- Simon Spero, John Sandon. Worcester Porcelain 1751–1790, The Zorensky Collection. Antique Collectors Club Dist A/C, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85149-228-2
- Geoffrey A. Godden. Chamberlain-Worcester Porcelain: 1788–1852. First Glance Books, 1996. ISBN 978-1-85422-303-6
- Henry Sandon. Flight and Barr Worcester Porcelain 1783–1840. ACC Distribution, 1993. ISBN 978-0-902028-75-3
- Peter Woodger. James Hadley & Sons Artist Potters Worcester. Woodger-Great Britain, 2003. ISBN 978-0-9546058-0-3
- Henry Sandon, John Sandon. Grainger's Worcester Porcelain. David & Charles, 1990. ISBN 978-0-7126-2052-9
- Harris & Willis. An Exhibition of Porcelain Manufactured by E. Locke & Co. Worcester. 1989.
- Henry Sandon. Royal Worcester Porcelain 1862 to the Present Day. Clarkson N. Potter, 1973.
- H. J., David Sandon. The Sandon guide to Royal Worcester figures: 1900–1970. Alderman Press, 1987. ISBN 978-0-946619-18-4
- Richard William Binns. Worcester China: A Record of the Work of Forty-five Years, 1852–1897. Adamant Media Corporation, 1897. ISBN 978-1-4021-6005-9
- Derek Shirley. A Guide to the Dating of Royal Worcester — Porcelain Marks from 1862. Mid Wales Litho Ltd., Griffithstown, 1987.
- John Edwards. The Charlton Standard Catalogue of Royal Worcester Figurines. The Charlton Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-88968-271-9
- Harry Frost. Royal Worcester Porcelain and the Dyson Perrins Collection. Pitkin, 1993. ISBN 978-0-85372-553-4
- Aileen Dawson. The Art of Worcester Porcelain, 1751–1788: Masterpieces from the British Museum Collection. UPNE, 2009. ISBN 978-1-58465-752-1
- Ray Jones. Porcelain in Worcester 1751–1951, An Illustrated Social History. Parkbarn, 1993. ISBN 978-1-898097-00-6
- S. Fisher. Worcester Porcelain. 1968.
- Richard William Binns. A Century of Potting in the City of Worcester 1751–1851. Bernard Quaritch, 1877.
- Tony Horsley. Distinguished Extinguishers. 1999.
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