Rubin Carter

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rubin Carter
Born(1937-05-06)May 6, 1937
DiedApril 20, 2014(2014-04-20) (aged 76)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • United States
  • Canada
    • Mae Thelma Basket
    • Lisa Peters
Boxing career
Other namesThe Hurricane
Height5 ft 8 in (1.73 m)
Reach72 in (183 cm)[1]
Boxing record
Total fights40
Wins by KO19

Rubin "Hurricane" Carter (May 6, 1937 – April 20, 2014) was an American-Canadian middleweight boxer, wrongfully convicted and imprisoned for murder,[2] until released following a petition of habeas corpus after almost 20 years in prison.

In 1966, Carter, and his co-accused, John Artis, were arrested for a triple homicide which was committed at the Lafayette Bar and Grill in Paterson, New Jersey, United States. Shortly after the killings at 2:30 am, a car, carrying Carter, Artis, and a third man, was stopped by police outside the bar while its occupants were on their way home from a nearby nightclub. They were allowed to go on their way but, after dropping off the third man, Carter and Artis were stopped and arrested while they were passing the bar a second time, 45 minutes later.

Carter and Artis were interrogated for 17 hours, released, then re-arrested weeks later. In 1967, they were convicted of all three murders, and given life sentences, to be served in Rahway State Prison; a retrial in 1976 upheld their sentences, but they were overturned in 1985. Prosecutors appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, but declined to try the case a third time after the appeal failed.

Carter's autobiography, titled The Sixteenth Round, written while he was in prison, was published in 1974 by Viking Press. The story inspired the 1975 Bob Dylan song "Hurricane" and the 1999 film The Hurricane, starring Denzel Washington as Carter. From 1993 to 2005, Carter served as executive director of the Association in Defence of the Wrongly Convicted (later rebranded as Innocence Canada).

In 2019, the case was the focus of a 13-part BBC podcast series, The Hurricane Tapes. The series was based on interviews which were conducted with survivors, case notes which were taken during the original investigations, and 40 hours of recorded interviews of Carter by the author Ken Klonsky, who cited them in his 2011 book The Eye of the Hurricane.

Early life[edit]

Carter was born in Clifton, New Jersey in 1937, the fourth of seven children.[3] He later admitted to a troubled relationship with his father, a strict disciplinarian; at the age of eleven, he was sentenced to a juvenile reformatory for assault, having stabbed a man who he alleged had tried to sexually assault him.[4] Carter escaped from the reformatory in 1954 and joined the United States Army.[3] A few months after completing basic training at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, he was sent to West Germany.[5] While in Germany, Carter began to box for the Army.[5] He was discharged in 1956 as unfit for service, after four courts-martial.[6] Shortly after his discharge, he returned home to New Jersey, was convicted of two muggings and sent to prison.[7]

Boxing career[edit]

Rubin Carter

After his release from prison in September 1961, Carter became a professional boxer.[8] At 5 ft 8 in (1.73 m), Carter was shorter than the average middleweight, but he fought all of his professional career at 155–160 lb (70–72.6 kg). His aggressive style and punching power (resulting in many early-round knockouts) drew attention, establishing him as a crowd favorite and earning him the nickname "Hurricane". After he defeated a number of middleweight contenders—such as Florentino Fernandez, Holley Mims, Gomeo Brennan, and George Benton—the boxing world took notice. The Ring first listed him as one of its Top 10 middleweight contenders in July 1963. At the end of 1965, they ranked him as the number five middleweight.[9]

He fought six times in 1963, winning four bouts and losing two.[8] He remained ranked in the lower part of the top 10 until December 20, when he surprised the boxing world by flooring past and future world champion Emile Griffith twice in the first round and scoring a technical knockout.[10] That win resulted in The Ring's ranking of Carter as the number three contender for Joey Giardello's world middleweight title. Carter won two more fights (one a decision over future heavyweight champion Jimmy Ellis) in 1964, before meeting Giardello in Philadelphia for a 15-round championship match on December 14. Carter landed a few solid rights to the head in the fourth round that left Giardello staggering, but was unable to follow them up, and Giardello took control of the fight in the fifth round. The judges decided unanimously in favor of Giardello.[11]

After that fight, Carter's ranking in The Ring began to decline. He fought nine times in 1965, winning five but losing three of four against contenders Luis Manuel Rodríguez, Dick Tiger, and Harry Scott.[8] Tiger, in particular, floored Carter three times in their match. "It was", Carter said, "the worst beating that I took in my life—inside or outside the ring".[citation needed] During his visit to London to fight Scott, Carter was involved in an incident in which a shot was fired in his hotel room.[12]

Carter's last fight was in August 5, 1966, against Juan Carlos Rivero. He lost the fight via Points decision. Carter's career ended short with a record of 27 wins with 19 total knockouts (8 KOs and 11 TKOs), 12 losses, and one draw in 40 fights.[13] He received an honorary championship title belt from the World Boxing Council in 1993 (as did Joey Giardello at the same banquet) and was later inducted into the New Jersey Boxing Hall of Fame.[8]

Arrest and conviction[edit]

Paterson Court House

At approximately 2:30 AM on June 17, 1966, two men entered the Lafayette Bar and Grill in Paterson, New Jersey, and began shooting.[14] The bartender, James Oliver, and a customer, Fred Nauyoks, were killed immediately. Hazel Tanis died in a hospital a month later, having suffered multiple wounds from shotgun pellets; a third customer, Willie Marins, survived the attack, despite a head wound that blinded him in one eye. When questioned, both told police the shooters had been black males, but neither identified Carter or John Artis.[15]

Ten minutes after the murders, around 2:40 AM, a police cruiser stopped Carter and Artis in a rental car, returning from a night out at the Nite Spot, a nearby bar. Carter was in the back, with Artis driving, and a third man, John Royster, in the passenger seat. The police recognised Carter, a well-known and controversial local figure, but let him go. Minutes later, the same officers solicited a description of the getaway car from two eyewitnesses outside the bar, Patricia "Patty" Valentine and Alfred Bello.[16]

Bello later admitted he was in the area acting as a lookout while an accomplice, Arthur Bradley, broke into a nearby warehouse. At the time, he claimed to have discovered the bodies when he entered the bar to buy cigarettes; it also transpired that he took the opportunity to empty the cash register, and encountered the police as he exited. At the trial, he testified he was approaching the Lafayette when two black males, one with a shotgun, the other a pistol, came around the corner.[17] He ran from them, and they got into a white car that was double-parked near the Lafayette.[14]

Valentine lived above the bar, and heard the shots. Like Bello, she reported seeing two black men leave the bar, then get into a white car.[18] They reportedly described it as white, with "a geometric design, sort of a butterfly type design in the back of the car", and New York state license plates, with blue background and orange lettering.[19] Another neighbor, Ronald Ruggiero, also heard the shots, and said that, from his window, he saw Alfred Bello running west on Lafayette Street toward 16th Street. He then heard the screech of tires and saw a white car shoot past, heading west, with two black males in the front seat.[citation needed]

Valentine initially stated the car had rear lights which lit up completely like butterflies. At the retrial in 1976, she changed this to an accurate description of Carter's car, which had conventional tail-lights with aluminum decoration in a butterfly shape.[20] This aligned with that provided by Bello; the prosecution later suggested the confusion was the result of a misreading of a court transcript by the defense.[19]

Having dropped off Royster, Carter was now being driven home by Artis; they were stopped again at 3:00 AM, and ordered to follow the police to the station, where they were arrested. However, variances in descriptions given by Valentine and Bello, the physical characteristics of the attackers provided by the two survivors, lack of forensic evidence, and the timeline provided by the police were key factors in the conviction being overturned in 1985.[21]

Forensics later established the victims were shot by a .32-caliber pistol and a 12-gauge shotgun, although the weapons were never found. There was no forensic evidence linking Carter or Artis to the murders. While gun residue tests were commonly used, DeSimone, the lead detective, later claimed he had insufficient time to bring in an expert to administer the tests. He did arrange for an expert to conduct lie detector tests, which they passed. In 1976, a second report was discovered, claiming they failed. After 17 hours of interrogation, they were released.[21] Carter and Artis voluntarily appeared before a grand jury, which found there was no case to answer.[22]

East Jersey State Prison, formerly Rahway, where Carter was imprisoned

Several months later, Bello changed his story, after the police discovered why he was in the area, and his theft from the cash register. He positively identified Artis as one of the attackers, while Bradley now came forward to claim Carter was the other; based on this, the two were arrested and indicted.[23] Bello later claimed that in return he was promised the U$10,500 reward offered for catching the killers, though it was never paid.[24]

The rental car had been impounded when Carter and Artis were arrested, and retained by police. Five days after their release a detective reported that on searching it again he discovered two unfired rounds, one .32 caliber, the other 12-gauge. Neither matched those retrieved from the victims; the .32 round was brass, rather than copper, while the shotgun shell was an older model, with a different wad and color.[22]

Asked to account for these differences at the trial, the prosecution produced a second report, allegedly lodged 75 minutes after the murders which recorded the two rounds. They were unable to explain why, having that evidence, the police released the men, or why standard 'bag and tag' procedure was not followed. They also argued that, since the expended rounds retrieved at the scene were also a mixture, the fact that the two rounds did not match was meaningless; what did matter was they were the same caliber as those used in the shootings.[19]

The defense, led by Raymond A. Brown, focused on inconsistencies in the evidence given by eyewitnesses Marins and Bello.[25] He also produced witnesses who confirmed Carter and Artis were still in the Nite Spot at the time of the shootings.[17] The all-white jury convicted both men of first-degree murder, with a recommendation of mercy, so that they were not sentenced to death. Judge Samuel Larner imposed one concurrent and two consecutive life sentences on Carter, and three concurrent life sentences on Artis.[citation needed]

Retrial and release[edit]

In 1974, Bello and Bradley withdrew their identifications of Carter and Artis, and these recantations were used as the basis for a motion for a new trial. Judge Samuel Larner denied the motion on December 11, saying they "lacked the ring of truth".[26]

Despite Larner's ruling, Madison Avenue advertising executive George Lois organized a campaign on Carter's behalf, which led to increasing public support for a retrial or pardon. Boxer Muhammad Ali lent his support to the campaign (including publicly wishing Carter good luck on his appeal during his appearance on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson in September 1973). Bob Dylan co-wrote (with Jacques Levy) and performed a song called "Hurricane" (1975), which declared that Carter was innocent. On December 7, 1975, Dylan performed the song at a concert at Trenton State Prison, where Carter was temporarily an inmate.[27]

During the hearing on the recantations, defense attorneys also argued that Bello and Bradley had lied during the 1967 trial, telling the jurors that they had made only certain narrow, limited deals with prosecutors in exchange for their trial testimony. A detective taped one interrogation of Bello in 1966, and when it was played during the recantation hearing, defense attorneys argued that the tape revealed promises beyond what Bello had testified to. If so, prosecutors had either had a Brady obligation to disclose this additional exculpatory evidence, or a duty to disclose that their witnesses had lied on the stand.[citation needed]

Larner denied this second argument as well, but the New Jersey Supreme Court unanimously held that the evidence of various deals made between the prosecution and witnesses Bello and Bradley should have been disclosed to the defense before or during the 1967 trial as this could have "affected the jury's evaluation of the credibility" of the eyewitnesses. "The defendants' right to a fair trial was substantially prejudiced", said Justice Mark Sullivan.[17] The court set aside the original convictions and granted Carter and Artis a new trial.

Despite the difficulties of prosecuting a ten-year-old case, Prosecutor Burrell Ives Humphreys decided to try Carter and Artis again. To ensure, as best he could, that he did not use perjured testimony to obtain a conviction, Humphreys had Bello polygraphed—once by Leonard H. Harrelson and a second time by Richard Arther, both well-known and respected experts in the field. Both men concluded that Bello was telling the truth when he said that he had seen Carter outside the Lafayette immediately after the murders.

However, Harrelson also reported orally that Bello had been inside the bar shortly before and at the time of the shooting, a conclusion that contradicted Bello's 1967 trial testimony wherein he had said that he had been on the street at the time of the shooting. Despite this oral report, Harrelson's subsequent written report stated that Bello's 1967 testimony had been truthful.[28]

Second conviction and appeal[edit]

During the new trial in 1976, Alfred Bello repeated his 1967 testimony, identifying Carter and Artis as the two armed men he had seen outside the Lafayette Grill. Bradley refused to cooperate with prosecutors, and neither prosecution nor defense called him as a witness.[citation needed]

The defense responded with testimony from multiple witnesses who identified Carter at the locations he claimed to be at when the murders took place.[29] Investigator Fred Hogan, whose efforts had led to the recantations of Bello and Bradley, appeared as a defense witness. Hogan was asked on cross examinations whether any bribes or inducements were offered to Bello to secure his recantation, which Hogan denied.[30] His original handwritten notes on his conversations with Bello were entered into evidence.[citation needed] The defense also pointed out the inconsistencies in the testimony of Patricia Valentine, and read the 1967 testimony of William Marins, who had died in 1973, noting that his descriptions of the shooters were drastically different from Artis and Carter's actual appearances.[20]

The court also heard testimony from a Carter associate that Passaic County prosecutors had tried to pressure her into testifying against Carter. Prosecutors denied the charge.[31] After deliberating for almost nine hours, the jury again found Carter and Artis guilty of the murders. Judge Leopizzi re-imposed the same sentences on both men: a double life sentence for Carter, a single life sentence for Artis.[citation needed]

Artis was released on parole in 1981.[32] Carter's attorneys continued to appeal. In 1982, the Supreme Court of New Jersey affirmed his convictions (4–3). Although the justices felt that the prosecutors should have disclosed Harrelson's oral opinion (about Bello's location at the time of the murders) to the defense, only a minority thought this was material. The majority thus concluded that the prosecution had not withheld information the Brady disclosure law required them to provide to the defense.[33]

According to bail bondswoman Carolyn Kelley, in 1975–1976 she helped raise funds to win a second trial for Carter, which resulted in his release on bail in March 1976. On a fund-raising trip the following month, Kelley said the boxer beat her (Kelley weighed 112 pounds at the time of the alleged beating) severely over a disputed hotel bill. The Philadelphia Daily News reported the alleged beating in a front-page story several weeks later, and celebrity support for Carter quickly eroded, though Carter denied the accusation. Kelley declined to pursue charges, stating that she felt Carter needed help, stating "I don't want to press charges because jail is not the place for Rubin. He needs treatment. I don't want to do anything to hurt him". Passaic County Judge William Marchese held hearings on the incident in July 1976 and changed the terms of Carter's bail after determining that the assault had occurred.[20][34] Mae Thelma Basket, whom Carter had married in 1963,[4] divorced him after their second child was born, because she found out that he had been unfaithful to her.[35]

Federal court action[edit]

In 1985, Carter's attorneys filed a petition for a writ of habeas corpus in federal court. Later that year, Judge H. Lee Sarokin of the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey granted the writ, noting that the prosecution had been "predicated upon an appeal to racism rather than reason, and concealment rather than disclosure", and set aside the convictions.[22] Carter, 48 years old, was freed without bail in November 1985.[14]

Prosecutors appealed Sarokin's ruling to the Third Circuit Court of Appeals and filed a motion with the court to return Carter to prison pending the outcome of the appeal.[36][37] The court denied this motion and eventually upheld Sarokin's opinion, affirming his Brady analysis without commenting on his other rationale.[38]

The prosecutors appealed to the United States Supreme Court, which declined to hear the case.[14][39]

Prosecutors therefore could have tried Carter (and Artis) a third time, but decided not to, and filed a motion to dismiss the original indictments. "It is just not legally feasible to sustain a prosecution, and not practical after almost 22 years to be trying anyone", said New Jersey Attorney General W. Cary Edwards. Acting Passaic County Prosecutor John P. Goceljak said several factors made a retrial impossible, including Bello's "current unreliability" as a witness and the unavailability of other witnesses. Goceljak also doubted whether the prosecution could reintroduce the racially motivated crime theory due to the federal court rulings.[40] A judge granted the motion to dismiss, bringing an end to the legal proceedings.[41]


Carter lived in Toronto, Ontario, where he became a Canadian citizen,[42] and was executive director of the Association in Defence of the Wrongly Convicted (AIDWYC) from 1993 until 2005. Carter resigned when the AIDWYC declined to support Carter's protest of the appointment to a judgeship of Susan MacLean, who was the prosecutor of Canadian Guy Paul Morin,[43] who served over eighteen years in prison for rape and murder until exonerated by DNA evidence.[44]

Carter's second marriage was to Lisa Peters.[when?] The couple separated later.[4]

In 1996, Carter, then 59, was arrested when Toronto police mistakenly identified him as a suspect in his thirties believed to have sold drugs to an undercover officer. He was released after the police realized their error.[45]

Carter often served as a motivational speaker. On October 14, 2005, he received two honorary Doctorates of Law, one from York University (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and one from Griffith University (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia), in recognition of his work with AIDWYC and the Innocence Project. Carter received the Abolition Award from Death Penalty Focus in 1996.[46]

Prostate cancer and death[edit]

In March 2012, while attending the International Justice Conference in Burswood, Western Australia, Carter revealed that he had terminal prostate cancer.[47] At the time, doctors gave him between three and six months to live. Beginning shortly after that time, John Artis lived with and cared for Carter,[48] and on April 20, 2014, he confirmed that Carter, at the age of 76, had succumbed to his illness.[49] He was afterwards cremated and his ashes were scattered in part over Cape Cod and in part at a horse farm in Kentucky.[50][51]

In the months leading up to his death, Carter had worked for the exoneration of David McCallum, a Brooklyn man who had been incarcerated since 1985 on charges of murder.[52] Two months before his death, Carter published "Hurricane Carter's Dying Wish", an opinion piece in the New York Daily News, in which he asked for an independent review of McCallum's conviction. "I request only that McCallum be granted a full hearing by the Brooklyn conviction integrity unit, now under the auspices of the new district attorney, Ken Thompson. Knowing what I do, I am certain that when the facts are brought to light, Thompson will recommend his immediate release ... Just as my own verdict 'was predicated on racism rather than reason and on concealment rather than disclosure', as Sarokin wrote, so too was McCallum's", Carter wrote.[53] On October 15, 2014, McCallum was exonerated.[54] John Artis died of an Abdominal aortic aneurysm on November 7, 2021, at the age of 75.[55]

In popular culture[edit]

Carter's story inspired:

Professional boxing record[edit]

40 fights 27 wins 12 losses
By knockout 19 1
By decision 8 11
Draws 1
No. Result Record Opponent Type Round, time Date Location Notes
40 Loss 27–12–1 Juan Carlos Rivero PTS 10 Aug 6, 1966 Rosario, Argentina
39 Draw 27–11–1 Wilbert McClure MD 10 Mar 8, 1966 Sports Arena, Toledo, Ohio, US
38 Win 27–11 Ernest Burford KO 8 (10) Feb 26, 1966 Orlando Stadium, Johannesburg, South Africa
37 Loss 26–11 Stan Harrington UD 10 Jan 25, 1966 Honolulu International Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, US
36 Loss 26–10 Johnny Morris SD 10 Jan 18, 1966 Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US
35 Win 26–9 Wilbert McClure SD 10 Jan 8, 1966 Aragon Ballroom, Chicago, Illinois, US
34 Win 25–9 Joe N'Gidi TKO 2 (10) Sep 18, 1965 Wembley Stadium, Johannesburg, South Africa
33 Loss 24–9 Luis Manuel Rodríguez UD 10 Aug 26, 1965 Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, US
32 Win 24–8 Fate Davis TKO 1 (10), 1:26 Jul 14, 1965 Armory, Akron, Ohio, US
31 Loss 23–8 Dick Tiger UD 10 May 20, 1965 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, US
30 Win 23–7 Johnny Torres TKO 8 (10), 1:38 Apr 30, 1965 Armory, Paterson, New Jersey, US
29 Loss 22–7 Harry Scott PTS 10 Apr 20, 1965 Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, London, England
28 Win 22–6 Harry Scott TKO 9 (10) Mar 9, 1965 Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, London, England
27 Win 21–6 Fabio Bettini KO 10 (10) Feb 22, 1965 Palais des Sports, Paris, France
26 Loss 20–6 Luis Manuel Rodríguez UD 10 Feb 12, 1965 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, US
25 Loss 20–5 Joey Giardello UD 15 Dec 14, 1964 Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US For WBA, WBC, and The Ring middleweight titles
24 Win 20–4 Clarence James TKO 1 (10), 1:54 Jun 24, 1964 Sports Arena, Los Angeles, California, US
23 Win 19–4 Jimmy Ellis UD 10 Feb 28, 1964 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, US
22 Win 18–4 Emile Griffith TKO 1 (10), 2:13 Dec 20, 1963 Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US
21 Loss 17–4 Joey Archer SD 10 Oct 25, 1963 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, US
20 Win 17–3 Farid Salim UD 10 Sep 14, 1963 Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US
19 Win 16–3 George Benton SD 10 May 25, 1963 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, US
18 Loss 15–3 Jose Gonzalez TKO 6 (10) Mar 30, 1963 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, US
17 Win 15–2 Gomeo Brennan UD 10 Feb 2, 1963 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, US
16 Win 14–2 Holley Mims UD 10 Dec 22, 1962 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, US
15 Win 13–2 Florentino Fernández KO 1 (10), 1:09 Oct 27, 1962 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, US
14 Win 12–2 Mel Collins TKO 5 (10), 0:42 Oct 8, 1962 Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey, US
13 Win 11–2 Ernest Burford TKO 2 (10), 2:17 Aug 4, 1962 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, US
12 Loss 10–2 Ernest Burford UD 8 Jun 23, 1962 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, US
11 Win 10–1 Sugar Boy Nando TKO 3 (10), 2:07 May 21, 1962 St. Nicholas Arena, New York City, New York, US
10 Win 9–1 Walter Daniels TKO 2 (10), 2:03 Apr 30, 1962 St. Nicholas Arena, New York City, New York, US
9 Win 8–1 Johnny Tucker TKO 1 (8), 1:05 Apr 16, 1962 St. Nicholas Arena, New York City, New York, US
8 Win 7–1 Jimmy McMillan KO 3 (6) Mar 16, 1962 Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey, US
7 Win 6–1 Felix Santiago KO 1 (8), 1:38 Feb 28, 1962 State Garden, Union City, New Jersey, US
6 Win 5–1 Tommy Settles KO 1 (6) Feb 14, 1962 State Garden, Union City, New Jersey, US
5 Loss 4–1 Herschel Jacobs PTS 6 Jan 19, 1962 Gladiators' Arena, Totowa, New Jersey, US
4 Win 4–0 Herschel Jacobs PTS 4 Nov 17, 1961 Gladiators' Arena, Totowa, New Jersey, US
3 Win 3–0 Frank Nelson TKO 1 (4) Oct 24, 1961 Alhambra A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US
2 Win 2–0 Joey Cooper KO 2 (4) Oct 11, 1961 American Legion Arena, Reading, Pennsylvania, US
1 Win 1–0 Pike Reed SD 4 Sep 22, 1961 Navy-Marine Corps Mem. Stadium, Annapolis, Maryland, US

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "BoxRec: Rubin Carter".
  2. ^ "Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter dead at 76". CBC News. April 20, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
  3. ^ a b McLaughlin, Eliott C. "Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter still fighting long after boxing days pass". CNN. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c "Rubin 'The Hurricane' Carter - obituary". 21 April 2014. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12.
  5. ^ a b Houston, Frank (24 December 1999). "Storm of the century". Salon. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
  6. ^ "The Hurricane: the facts of Rubin Carter's life story are beaten to a pulp | Film | The Guardian". 24 April 2014.
  7. ^ "Newsmaker / Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter: Film of his life a contender".
  8. ^ a b c d "Rubin Carter 'Hurricane'". New Jersey Boxing Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  9. ^ Hirsch 2000, p. 85.
  10. ^ "Emile Griffith vs. Rubin Carter". Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  11. ^ "Joey Giardello vs. Rubin Carter". Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  12. ^ Duff, Mickey (1999). Twenty and Out: A Life in Boxing. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-218926-2.
  13. ^ "Rubin Carter".
  14. ^ a b c d Raab, Selwyn (January 12, 1988). "Supreme Court Refuses to Revive Hurricane Carter's Murder Case". The New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  15. ^ Hirsch 2000, pp. 17, 34.
  16. ^ "Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter dead at 76". The Globe and Mail. April 2014. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
  17. ^ a b c "The Seventeenth Round". Time. March 29, 1976. Archived from the original on January 13, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  18. ^ Hirsch 2000, p. 37.
  19. ^ a b c Carter v. Rafferty.
  20. ^ a b c Wice 2000, p. ?.
  21. ^ a b Kelly 2000.
  22. ^ a b c "Carter v. Rafferty". 621 F. Supp. 533, 534 (D.N.J. 1985). Retrieved 2014-04-22.
  23. ^ "Carter Artis arrest report, 1966". Hurricane Carter - The Other Side of the Story. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
  24. ^ Raab 1974.
  25. ^ "Microsoft Word - Valentine 1967 Trial Testi.doc" (PDF). Retrieved April 8, 2011.
  26. ^ Hirsch 2000.
  27. ^ Bjorner, Olof (October 20, 2015). "1975 rolling Thunder by ellan Revue, 7 December 1975, Trenton Jail". Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  28. ^ "826 F2d 1299 Carter v. J Rafferty I Artis". OpenJurist. 21 August 1987. p. 1299. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
  29. ^ Maitland, Leslie (December 12, 1976). "Testimony Supports Rubin Carter's Alibi". New York Times. New York, NY. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  30. ^ Maitland, Leslie (December 10, 1976). "Rubin Carter Jury Hears Investigator Deny Bribe Offers". New York Times. New York, NY. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  31. ^ Raab, Selwyn (October 14, 1976). "An Ex-Associate of Rubin Carter Charges 'Pressure' by Prosecution". New York Times. New York, NY. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  32. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (December 15, 1981). "Artis Wins Parole". The New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  33. ^ Rhoden, William; Levine, Richard (August 22, 1982). "Rubin Carter's Plea Rejected". New York Times. New York, NY. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  34. ^ "Woman claims 'Hurricane' movie left out boxer's attack". The Washington Times. February 17, 2000. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
  35. ^ Michael Carlson (1937-05-06). "Guardian obituary". Retrieved 2014-04-22.
  36. ^ Carter v. Rafferty, 826 F.2d 1299 (3rd Cir. 1987)
  37. ^ "Court Urged to Return Rubin Carter to Prison". The New York Times. Associated Press. December 20, 1985. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  38. ^ "U.S. Court Refuses to Order Rubin Carter Back to Prison". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 19, 1986. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  39. ^ Carter v. Rafferty, 484 U.S. 1011 (1988)
  40. ^ Raab, Selwyn (February 20, 1988). "Jersey Ends Move to Retry Rubin Carter". The New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  41. ^ "Judge Drops Murder Charges in the Hurricane Carter Case". The New York Times. February 27, 1988. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
  42. ^ "Rubin "Hurricane" Carter dead at 76". 20 April 2014.
  43. ^ "Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter continues to stand for what is right". August 13, 2004. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
  44. ^ Farnsworth, Clyde H. (April 11, 1995). "Queensville Journal; Jailed in Killing, He's Guilty Only of Being a Misfit". The New York Times. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 9, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  45. ^ "World News Briefs; American Boxer May Sue Toronto Police for Arrest". The New York Times. April 14, 1996. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
  46. ^ "Death Penalty Focus Awards Records". January 2024.
  47. ^ "Wrongly convicted boxer's cancer battle". Perth Now News. March 10, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
  48. ^ "Rubin (Hurricane) Carter faces a lonely last fight against cancer". The Globe and Mail. March 31, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
  49. ^ "Rubin "Hurricane" Carter has died at 76". The Globe and Mail. April 20, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
  50. ^ Wilson, Scott (19 August 2016). Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed. McFarland. ISBN 9781476625997.
  51. ^ "Boxer Rubin "Hurricane" Carter Dies at 76". 20 April 2014.
  52. ^ "Rubin (Hurricane) Carter, Boxer Found Wrongly Convicted, Dies at 76". The New York Times. April 20, 2014. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
  53. ^ "Hurricane Carter's Dying Wish". The NY Daily News. February 21, 2014. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
  54. ^ "Exonerated and Set Free After 29 Years". The Wall Street Journal. October 15, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  55. ^ Roberts, Sam (12 November 2021). "John Artis, Convicted with Rubin (Hurricane) Carter, Dies at 75". The New York Times.
  56. ^ Maslin, Janet (January 26, 1978). "Renaldo Clara (1978) 'Renaldo and Clara,' Film by Bob Dylan:Rolling Thunder". The New York Times.
  57. ^ Brody, Richard (June 14, 2019). ""Rolling Thunder Revue," Reviewed: Martin Scorsese's Slippery Chronicle of Bob Dylan in Concert". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  58. ^ Parmar, Raj. "Dare To Dream: Rubin "Hurricane" Carter Shares His Thoughts",, February 22, 2011


External links[edit]