AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode, //) is a display technology used in smartwatches, mobile devices, laptops, and televisions. OLED describes a specific type of thin-film-display technology in which organic compounds form the electroluminescent material, and active matrix refers to the technology behind the addressing of pixels.
As of 2008[update], AMOLED technology was used in mobile phones, media players and digital cameras and continued to make progress toward low-power, low-cost and large-size (for example, 40-inch or 100-centimetre) applications.[neutrality is disputed][needs update]
- 1 Design
- 2 Disadvantages
- 3 Future development
- 4 Comparison to other technologies
- 5 Marketing terms
- 6 Future
- 7 Uses
- 8 References
- 9 External links
An AMOLED display consists of an active matrix of OLED pixels generating light (luminescence) upon electrical activation that have been deposited or integrated onto a thin-film transistor (TFT) array, which functions as a series of switches to control the current flowing to each individual pixel.
Typically, this continuous current flow is controlled by at least two TFTs at each pixel (to trigger the luminescence), with one TFT to start and stop the charging of a storage capacitor and the second to provide a voltage source at the level needed to create a constant current to the pixel, thereby eliminating the need for the very high currents required for passive-matrix OLED operation.
TFT backplane technology is crucial in the fabrication of AMOLED displays. In AMOLEDs, the two primary TFT backplane technologies, polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si), are currently used offering the potential for directly fabricating the active-matrix backplanes at low temperatures (below 150 °C) onto flexible plastic substrates for producing flexible AMOLED displays.
Red and green OLED films have longer lifespans compared to blue OLED films. This variation results in colour shifts as a particular pixel fades faster than the other pixels.
Manufacturers have developed in-cell touch panels, integrating the production of capacitive sensor arrays in the AMOLED module fabrication process. In-cell sensor AMOLED fabricators include AU Optronics and Samsung. Samsung has marketed its version of this technology as "Super AMOLED". Researchers at DuPont used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software to optimize coating processes for a new solution-coated AMOLED display technology that is competitive in cost and performance with existing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology. Using custom modeling and analytic approaches, Samsung has developed short and long-range film-thickness control and uniformity that is commercially viable at large glass sizes.
Comparison to other technologies
AMOLED displays provide higher refresh rates than passive-matrix,[not specific enough to verify] often reducing the response time to less than a millisecond, and they consume significantly less power. This advantage makes active-matrix OLEDs well-suited for portable electronics, where power consumption is critical to battery life.
The amount of power the display consumes varies significantly depending on the color and brightness shown. As an example, one commercial QVGA OLED display consumes 0.3 watts while showing white text on a black background, but more than 0.7 watts showing black text on a white background, while an LCD may consume only a constant 0.35 watts regardless of what is being shown on screen. Because the black pixels turn completely off, AMOLED also has contrast ratios that are significantly higher than LCD.
AMOLED displays may be difficult to view in direct sunlight compared with LCDs because of their reduced maximum brightness. Samsung's Super AMOLED technology addresses this issue by reducing the size of gaps between layers of the screen. Additionally, PenTile technology is often used for a higher resolution display while requiring fewer subpixels than needed otherwise, sometimes resulting in a display less sharp and more grainy than a non-(pen tile) display with the same resolution.
The organic materials used in AMOLED displays are very prone to degradation over a relatively short period of time, resulting in color shifts as one color fades faster than another, image persistence, or burn-in.
As of 2010, demand for AMOLED screens was high, and, due to supply shortages of the Samsung-produced displays, certain models of HTC smartphones were changed to use next-generation LCD displays from the Samsung-Sony joint-venture SLCD in the future.
Flagship smartphones sold as of December 2011 used either Super AMOLED or IPS panel premium LCD. Super AMOLED displays, such as the one on the Galaxy Nexus and Samsung Galaxy S III have often been compared to IPS panel premium LCDs, found in the iPhone 4S, HTC One X, and Nexus 4. For example, according to ABI Research the AMOLED display found in the Motorola Moto X draws just 92 mA during bright conditions and 68 mA while dim. On the other hand, compared with the IPS, the yield rate of AMOLED is low, the cost is also higher.
"Super AMOLED" is a marketing term created by device manufacturers for an AMOLED display with an integrated digitizer: the layer that detects touch is integrated into the screen, rather than overlaid on top of it. The display technology itself is not improved. According to Samsung, Super AMOLED reflects one-fifth as much sunlight as the first generation AMOLED. Super AMOLED is part of the Pentile matrix family, sometimes abbreviated as SAMOLED. For the Samsung Galaxy S III, which reverted to Super AMOLED instead of the pixelation-free conventional RGB (non-PenTile) Super AMOLED Plus of its predecessor Samsung Galaxy S II, the S III's larger screen size encourages users to hold the phone further from their face to obscure the PenTile effect.
Super AMOLED Advanced
Super AMOLED Advanced is a term marketed by Motorola to describe a brighter display than Super AMOLED screens, but also a higher resolution — qHD or 960×540 for Super AMOLED Advanced than WVGA or 800×480 for Super AMOLED and 25% more energy efficient. Super AMOLED Advanced features PenTile, which sharpens subpixels in between pixels to make a higher resolution display, but by doing this, some picture quality is lost. This display type is used on the Motorola Droid RAZR and HTC One S.
Super AMOLED Plus
Super AMOLED Plus, first introduced with the Samsung Galaxy S II and Samsung Droid Charge smartphones, is a branding from Samsung where the PenTile RGBG pixel matrix (2 subpixels) used in Super AMOLED displays has been replaced with a traditional RGB RGB (3 subpixels) arrangement typically used in LCDs. This variant of AMOLED is brighter and therefore more energy efficient than Super AMOLED displays and produces a sharper, less grainy image because of the increased number of subpixels. In comparison to AMOLED and Super AMOLED displays, they are even more energy efficient and brighter. However, Samsung cited screen life and costs by not using Plus on the Galaxy S II's successor, the Samsung Galaxy S III.
HD Super AMOLED
HD Super AMOLED is a branding from Samsung for an HD-resolution (above 1280×720) Super AMOLED display. The first device to use it was the Samsung Galaxy Note. The Galaxy Nexus and the Galaxy S III both implement the HD Super AMOLED with a PenTile RGBG-matrix (2 subpixels/pixel), while the Galaxy Note II uses an RBG matrix (3 subpixels/pixel) but not in the standard 3 stripe arrangement.
HD Super AMOLED Plus
Full HD Super AMOLED
As featured on the Samsung Galaxy S4, Samsung Galaxy S5, and Samsung Galaxy Note 3, this display has a 1920×1080 resolution that is better known as 1080p. It has a color gamut of up to 97% of the Adobe RGB color space.
Quad HD Super AMOLED
Quad HD Super AMOLED technology was first used by AU Optronics in April 2014. After AU Optronics released their phone which used a Quad HD Super AMOLED screen, other companies such as Samsung released phones utilizing the technology such as the Samsung Galaxy Note 4 and Samsung Galaxy Note 5 Broadband LTE-A and Samsung Galaxy S6 and S7.
Future displays exhibited from 2011 to 2013 by Samsung have shown flexible, 3D, unbreakable, transparent Super AMOLED Plus displays using very high resolutions and in varying sizes for phones. These unreleased prototypes use a polymer as a substrate removing the need for glass cover, a metal backing, and touch matrix, combining them into one integrated layer.
So far, Samsung plans on branding the newer displays as Youm.
Also planned for the future are 3D stereoscopic displays that use eye tracking (via stereoscopic front-facing cameras) to provide full resolution 3D visuals.
Below is a mapping table of marketing terms versus resolutions and sub-pixel types. Note how the pixel density relates to choices of sub-pixel type.
Commercial devices using AMOLED include:
- Apple Watch
- Apple Watch Edition
- Apple Watch Sport
- Asus ZenWatch
- Huawei W1
- KingWear KW88 Smartwatch
- Samsung Galaxy Gear (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Gear 2 (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Gear 2 Neo (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Gear Fit (Curved Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Gear Fit 2 (Curved Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Gear Live (Curved Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Gear S (Curved Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Gear S2
- Samsung Gear S3
- Alcatel One Touch Idol Ultra (HD Super AMOLED)
- Apple iPhone X (Super Retina HD)
- Asus Zenfone 5 (Super AMOLED PLUS)
- BenQ-Siemens S88
- BlackBerry DTEK60 (WQHD Super AMOLED)
- BlackBerry Priv (WQHD Super AMOLED)
- BlackBerry Q10 (Super AMOLED)
- BlackBerry Z30 (HD Super AMOLED)
- Cherry Mobile Cosmos X (HD Super AMOLED)
- Dell Venue 8 7000
- Motorola Droid Turbo 2 (Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Gionee Elife E5 (HD Super AMOLED)
- GIONEE ELIFE S5.1 (HD Super AMOLED)
- GIONEE ELIFE S5.5 (Full HD Super AMOLED)
- Gionee GN858
- Gionee GN868 (Super AMOLED plus)
- GIONEE GN878 (HD Super AMOLED)
- Google Galaxy Nexus (HD Super AMOLED)
- Google Nexus 6 (Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Google Nexus 6P (WQHD Super AMOLED)
- Google Nexus One (Early models)
- Google Nexus S (Super AMOLED)
- Google Pixel (FHD AMOLED)
- Google Pixel 2 (FHD AMOLED)
- Google Pixel XL (QHD AMOLED)
- HTC Desire (early models)
- HTC Droid Incredible
- HTC J (Super AMOLED Advanced)
- HTC Legend
- HTC One S (Super AMOLED Advanced)
- Lenovo S90 Sisley (HD Super AMOLED)
- LG E-730
- LG Franklin Phone
- LG G Flex (HD Plastic-OLED)
- LG G Flex 2 (Full HD Plastic-OLED)
- LYF Earth 1
- LYF Flame 1
- LYF Water 1
- LYF Water 2
- LYF Wind 6
- Micromax a315
- Micromax a90
- Micromax a90s
- Micromax Canvas Hue
- Micromax Superfone Pixel A90
- Microsoft Lumia 650
- Microsoft Lumia 950 XL
- Microsoft Lumia 950
- Moto X (2nd Generation) (1080p Super AMOLED)
- Moto Z2 Play (1080p Super AMOLED)
- Motorola Droid Maxx (HD Super AMOLED)
- Motorola Droid RAZR HD and RAZR Maxx HD
- Motorola Droid RAZR Maxx (Super AMOLED Advanced)
- Motorola Droid RAZR (Super AMOLED Advanced)
- Motorola Droid Turbo (Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Motorola Droid Ultra (HD Super AMOLED)
- Motorola Moto X Pro (QHD Super AMOLED)
- Motorola Moto X (HD Super AMOLED)
- MP-809T (Full HD Super AMOLED)
- Nokia 700 (CBD)
- Nokia 808 Pureview (CBD)
- Nokia C6-01 (CBD)
- Nokia C7-00
- Nokia E7-00 (CBD)
- Nokia Lumia 1020 (CBD)
- Nokia Lumia 800 (CBD)
- Nokia Lumia 810 (CBD)
- Nokia Lumia 820 (CBD)
- Nokia Lumia 822 (CBD)
- Nokia Lumia 900 (CBD)
- Nokia Lumia 925 (CBD)
- Nokia Lumia 928 (CBD)
- Nokia Lumia 930
- Nokia N85
- Nokia N86 8MP
- Nokia N8
- Nokia N9 (CBD)
- Nokia X7
- OnePlus 3
- OnePlus 3T
- OnePlus 5
- OnePlus 5T
- OnePlus X
- Pantech Burst
- QMobile Noir Z3
- Samsung AMOLED Beam SPH-W9600
- Samsung ATIV S (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung ATIV SE (Full HD Super AMOLED®)
- Samsung Droid Charge (Super AMOLED Plus)
- Samsung Focus (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Focus 2 (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Focus S (Super AMOLED Plus)
- Samsung Galaxy A3 (qHD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy A5 (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy A7 (FULL HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy A8 (FULL HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Ace Style LTE (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Alpha (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy E5 (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy E7 (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Express (Super AMOLED Plus)
- Samsung Galaxy J (Full HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy J3 (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy J5 (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy J7 (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy K Zoom (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Nexus (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Note (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Note 3 Neo (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Note 3 (Full HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Note 4 (Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Note 5 (Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Note 8 (Flexible Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Note Edge (Flexible Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Note II (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy Note7 (Flexible Quad HD Super AMOLED) (Discontinued and recalled)
- Samsung Galaxy Round (Full HD Flexible Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S Advance (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S Blaze 4G (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S Plus (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S II Plus (Super AMOLED Plus)
- Samsung Galaxy S II (Super AMOLED Plus)
- Samsung Galaxy S III Mini (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S III neo (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S III (HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S4 (Full HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S4 Mini (qHD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S4 zoom (qHD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S5 (Full HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S6 (Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge+ (Flexible Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge (Flexible Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge (Flexible Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S7 (Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S8 (Flexible Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Galaxy S8 Plus (Flexible Quad HD Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Haptic Beam SPH-W7900
- Samsung i7500 Galaxy
- Samsung Impression
- Samsung Infuse 4G (SGH-i997) (Super AMOLED Plus)
- Samsung Jet
- Samsung Omnia 2
- Samsung Omnia 7 (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung i8910
- Samsung Omnia M (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Omnia W (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung S8600 Wave III (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Rogue
- Samsung SPH-m900 Moment
- Samsung Transform
- Samsung Wave S8500 (Super AMOLED)
- Samsung Z (HD Super AMOLED)
- Wiko Highway Star (Super AMOLED)
- Xiaomi Mi Note 2
- YotaPhone 2 (Full HD Super AMOLED)
- ZTE Axon7 (WQAD HD AMOLED)
- ZTE Blade (Initial Models)
Portable music players
Music production hardware
- Lee, Hyunkoo; Park, Insun; Kwak, Jeonghun; Yoon, Do Y.; Kallmann, Changhee Lee (2010). "Improvement of electron injection in inverted bottom-emission blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanoparticles". Applied Physics Letters. 96: 153306. doi:10.1063/1.3400224.
- Kim, Yang Wan; Kwak, Won Kyu; Lee, Jae Yong; Choi, Wong Sik; Lee, Ki Yong; Kim, Sung Chul; Yoo, Eui Jin (2009). "40 Inch FHD AM-OLED Display with IR Drop Compensation Pixel Circuit". SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers. 40: 85. doi:10.1889/1.3256930.
- Lee, Myung Ho; Seop, Song Myoung; Kim, Jong Soo; Hwang, Jung Ho; Shin, Hye Jin; Cho, Sang Kyun; Min, Kyoung Wook; Kwak, Won Kyu; Jung, Sun I; Kim, Chang Soo; Choi, Woong Sik; Kim, Sung Cheol; Yoo, Eu Jin (2009). "Development of 31-Inch Full-HD AMOLED TV Using LTPS-TFT and RGB FMM". SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers. 40: 802. doi:10.1889/1.3256911.
- Hamer, John W.; Arnold, Andrew D.; Boroson, Michael L.; Itoh, Masahiro; Hatwar, Tukaram K.; Helber, Margaret J.; Miwa, Koichi; Levey, Charles I.; Long, Michael; Ludwicki, John E.; Scheirer, David C.; Spindler, Jeffrey P.; Van Slyke, Steven A. (2008). "System design for a wide-color-gamut TV-sized AMOLED display". Journal of the Society for Information Display. 16: 3. doi:10.1889/1.2835033.
- "Introduction to OLED Displays – Design Guide for Active Matrix OLED (AMOLED) Displays" (PDF). 4D Systems. 2008-05-22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-06.
- Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Yung-Chih. "A Novel LTPS-TFT Pixel Circuit Compensating for TFT Threshold-Voltage Shift and OLED Degradation for AMOLED". IEEE Electron Device Letters. 28: 129. doi:10.1109/LED.2006.889523.
- Sarma, Kalluri R.; Chanley, Charles; Dodd, Sonia R.; Roush, Jared; Schmidt, John; Srdanov, Gordana; Stevenson, Matthew; Wessel, Ralf; Innocenzo, Jeffrey; Yu, Gang; O'Regan, Marie B.; MacDonald, W. A.; Eveson, R.; Long, Ke; Gleskova, Helena; Wagner, Sigurd; Sturm, James C. (2003). "Active-matrix OLED using 150°C a-Si TFT backplane built on flexible plastic substrate (Proceedings Paper)". SPIE Proceedings. 5080: 180. doi:10.1117/12.497638. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 2010-09-06.
- "Advantages and disadvantages of AMOLED". Version Daily. 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2015-12-03.
- Reid Chesterfield, Andrew Johnson, Charlie Lang, Matthew Stainer, and Jonathan Ziebarth, "Solution-Coating Technology for AMOLED Displays", Information Display Magazine, January 2011.
- Suyko, Alan. "Oleds Ready For The Mainstream." Electronics News (2009): 20. Associates Programs Source Plus. Web. 9 Dec. 2011.
- Mian Dong; Choi, Y.-S.K; Lin Zhong (July 2009). "Power modeling of graphical user interfaces on OLED displays". Design Automation Conference, 2009. DAC '09. 46th ACM/IEEE. IEEE: 652–657.
- "AMOLED vs LCD: differences explained". Android Authority. Retrieved 2017-02-06.
- Tim CarmodyEmail Author. "How Super AMOLED displays work". Wired.com. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
- "What Are The Benefits Of Using The Super AMOLED Display In My SGH-t959 (Vibrant) Phone?". Samsung. 2010-07-15. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2010-09-07.
- "Big is beautiful". The Age. 2010-08-12. Archived from the original on 29 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-07.
- Ashtiani, Shahin J.; Reza Chaji, G.; Nathan, Arokia. "AMOLED Pixel Circuit With Electronic Compensation of Luminance Degradation". Journal of Display Technology. 38: 36. doi:10.1109/JDT.2006.890711.
- US 7352345, Chun-huai Li, "Driving apparatus and method for light emitting diode display", issued 2008-04-01
-  Construction of new production facilities in 2011 was expected to increase the production of AMOLED screens to cope with demand.
- Google/Motorola Mobility Display a Bright Efficient Future, ABI Research
- "Galaxy Note 2: Display hat keine PenTile-Matrix | BestBoyZ". Bestboyz.de. 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
- "Samsung Smartphones | Technology". Samsung.com. 2012-01-06. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
- "Super AMOLED". Oled-info.com. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
- Sakr, Sharif (25 March 2012). "Samsung Galaxy S III review". Engadget. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- "Super AMOLED Advanced". Retrieved March 24, 2014.
- "DROID RAZR – Thinnest 4G LTE Android Smartphone – Motorola Mobility LLC. USA". Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- "http://www.oled-info.com/super-amoled-plus". OLED-Info. Retrieved 23 August 2011. External link in
- "Galaxy Nexus – Android 4. 0 Smartphone – SAMSUNG UK – OVERVIEW" (in Ukrainian). Samsung.com. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
- "http://consumer.huawei.com/minisite/nz/huawei-watch/index.htm". consumer.huawei.com. Retrieved 2016-12-31. External link in
- "Samsung Galaxy J3 2016 5.0" 4G HD sAMOLED | Samsung UK". Samsung uk. Retrieved 2017-05-14.
- "Samsung Renews Mirrorless NX Camera System". photographylife.com. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "specification nx100 -samsung" (PDF). Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Retrieved 15 July 2016.