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Shahpuri is a Punjabi dialect spoken in the Sargodha Division of Punjab Province in Pakistan. Grierson considered it to be representative of Western Punjabi ("Lahnda"), but later opinions have tended to see it as a dialect of Punjabi "proper" that is transitional to Siraiki. Its name is derived from former Shahpur District (now Shahpur Tehsil, part of Sargodha District).
Geographic distribution and classification
It is mostly spoken in Sargodha and Khushab Districts. It is also spoken in neighbouring Mianwali,Jhang,Chiniot Mandi Bahudin and Bhakkar Districts. It is mainly spoken on western end of Sindh River to Chennab river crossing Jehlam river. This entire area has almost the same traditions, customs and culture. The Shahpuri dialect of Punjabi has several aspects that set it apart from other Punjabi variants.
In common with Thali and Hindko, there is a class of two-syllable nouns that mark case distinctions by vowel alternation. The case suffixes of the older language have dropped, leaving the assimilated root vowels as the only indicator of the case: /jʌŋɡʊl/ ~ /jʌŋɡəl/ /jʌŋɡɪl/. Grierson explains this by substratal Dardic influence, whereas Shackle finds it more plausible that it is the result of Shahpuri's central position between areas favouring one or another vowel in these contexts.
- Shackle, Christopher (1976). The Siraiki language of central Pakistan : a reference grammar. London: School of Oriental and African Studies.
- Shackle, Christopher (1979). "Problems of classification in Pakistan Panjab". Transactions of the Philological Society. 77 (1): 191–210. doi:10.1111/j.1467-968X.1979.tb00857.x. ISSN 0079-1636.
- Grierson, George A. (1919). Linguistic Survey of India. Volume VIII , Part 1, Indo-Aryan family. North-western group. Specimens of Sindhī and Lahndā. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India.
- Wilson, James (1898). Grammar and dictionary of western Panjabi, as spoken in the Shahpur district with proverbs, sayings, & verses. Lahore: Panjab Govt. Press.