SkyActiv

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SKYACTIV is a brand name for a series of technologies developed by Mazda which increase fuel efficiency and engine output. The initial announcement of the SKYACTIV technologies included new engines, transmissions, body, and chassis, which appeared in Mazda products from 2011.[1][2][3]

The Mazda SKY concept[edit]

The precursor of SKYACTIV, which featured a Mazda SKY-G 2.3-litre direct injection gasoline engine, a Mazda SKY-D 2.2-litre diesel engine, a SKY-Drive automatic transmission, a Mazda Kiyora with SKY-G 1.3 engine and SKY-Drive automatic transmission, was unveiled at the 40th Tokyo Motor Show in 2008.[4][5] The SKYACTIV concept features a revised suspension geometry, improved automatic and manual transmission, and various improvements to Mazda's L- engine such as direct injection, upgraded exhaust manifold, increased compression ratio for cleaner burn and higher thermal efficiency, etc. Mazda's previous chassis for the Mazda 3 and Mazda 6 were carried over to the new vehicles.

SKYACTIV-G[edit]

SKYACTIV-G
Mazda SKY-G in Tokyo Motor Show 2009.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Mazda
Also called
  • SKY-G
  • SKYACTIV-P
Production 2012-present
Layout
Configuration Straight-4
Displacement
  • 1,298 cc (79.2 cu in)
  • 1,496 cc (91.3 cu in)
  • 1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)
  • 2,488 cc (151.8 cu in)
Cylinder bore
  • 71.0 mm (2.80 in)
  • 74.5 mm (2.93 in)
  • 83.5 mm (3.29 in)
  • 89.0 mm (3.50 in)
Piston stroke
  • 82.0 mm (3.23 in)
  • 85.8 mm (3.38 in)
  • 91.2 mm (3.59 in)
  • 100.0 mm (3.94 in)
Cylinder block alloy Aluminum
Cylinder head alloy Aluminum
Valvetrain DOHC
Compression ratio
  • 13.0:1
  • 14.0:1
Combustion
Fuel system Gasoline direct injection
Fuel type Gasoline
Oil system Wet sump
Cooling system Water-cooled
Chronology
Predecessor

The SKYACTIV-G or formerly SKY-G[6] is a family of direct injection gasoline engines. The engine compression ratio is increased to 14:1. To reduce the risk of engine knock at high compression, residual gas is reduced by using 4-2-1 engine exhaust systems, implementing a piston cavity, and optimizing fuel injection. In addition, combustion duration is shortened by intensifying air flow, increasing injection pressure, and using multi-hole injectors.

It features an all-aluminum construction with chain-driven dual overhead camshafts with VVT and gasoline direct injection; with direct ignition, it meets ULEV emission standards. SKYACTIV-G engines for the U.S. market have a lower compression ratio of 13:1 allowing them to operate on standard instead of premium fuel with an approximate 3-5 percent reduction in torque and fuel economy.[7]

Generation 1[edit]

1.3 L[edit]

The SKYACTIV-G 1.3 is a variant with 1,298 cc (79 cu in) engine displacement and features a 71.0 mm (2.80 in) bore and a 82.0 mm (3.23 in) stroke.

The engine was unveiled at the 2011 Automotive Engineering Exposition.[8][9]

Five Mazda engineers were awarded the 2011 Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Medal on April 20, 2012 specifically for the "[d]evelopment of [a] gasoline engine (1.3L) with a super-high compression ratio and achieving fuel efficiency of 30km per liter (under Japan's 10-15 cycle)".[10]

The engine was first used in the Mazda2 13-SKYACTIV.[11][12]

It is rated at 83 hp (62 kW) and 83 lb⋅ft (113 N⋅m).[13]

Applications:

1.5 L [edit]

The SKYACTIV-G 1.5, or (P5-VPS) for RWD applications and (F-P5) for FWD applications, is a 1,496 cc (91.3 cu in) engine with a 74.5 mm (2.93 in) bore and a 85.8 mm (3.38 in) stroke.

This 4 cylinder engine was introduced in the 14MY Mazda3 for the Asian and European markets, it develops 114 hp (85 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 111 lb⋅ft (150 N⋅m) of torque at 4,000 rpm (Asia Markets). This new gasoline engine added to the SKYACTIV line-up achieves a high compression ratio of 13.0:1 (14.0:1 in some markets). It greatly improves dynamic performance and fuel economy over the MZR 1.5 engine of the previous model. It should be noted that the Mazda MX-5 version of the engine in the Australian market with the same 13:1 compression ratio requires 95 RON fuel, has a higher redline and is rated at 96 kW (129 hp) at 7,000 rpm and 150 N⋅m (111 lb⋅ft) at 4,800 rpm. It also produces slightly more emissions and has slightly less fuel economy as a result.[14]

Applications:

2.0 L [edit]

The SKYACTIV-G 2.0 or (PE-VPS) was the first engine in the SKYACTIV-G family to be produced.

This engine features an engine displacement of 1,998 cc (2.0 L; 121.9 cu in), with a bore X stroke of 83.5 mm × 91.2 mm (3.29 in × 3.59 in). The U.S. version has a compression ratio of 13.0:1 producing 155 bhp (157 PS; 116 kW) at 6000 rpm and 200 N⋅m (148 lbf⋅ft) of torque at 4600 rpm.[15] In some markets, the 162 bhp (164 PS; 121 kW) and 210 N⋅m (155 lbf⋅ft) of torque is available.

According to Mazda, it is more fuel efficient than the engine it replaces. Versus the engine in the 2011 Mazda3 (with an automatic transmission), they improved fuel economy from 10.2 l/100 km (23 mpg‑US) to 8.4 l/100 km (28 mpg‑US) in town, and from 7.1 l/100 km (33 mpg‑US) to 5.8 l/100 km (41 mpg‑US) on the highway compared to the 2011 model.[16]

Applications:

2.5 L [edit]

The SKYACTIV-G 2.5 or (PY-VPS) is a 2,488 cc (151.8 cu in) engine first used in the 2013 Mazda 6 and features a 89.0 mm (3.50 in) bore and a 100.0 mm (3.94 in) stroke.

The U.S. version with a 13.0:1 compression ratio produces 184 hp (137 kW) at 5,700 rpm and 185 lb⋅ft (251 N⋅m) of torque at 3,250 rpm.[17]

Applications:

Generation 2[edit]

Mazda's next-generation SkyActiv-X engine will use HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) to reach a compression ratio of 16:1 instead of 14.0:1 of previous generation and is planned to be available before 2020.[18]

SKYACTIV-D[edit]

SH-VPTS SkyActiv-D Diesel engine
SkyActiv-D (SH-VPTR) Diesel engine(For Mazda 6)

SKYACTIV-D is a family of turbocharged diesel engines, designed to comply with global emissions regulations.

To eliminate the need of NOx and particulate treatment in contemporary diesel engines, the cylinder compression ratio is reduced to 14.0:1. Cold engine start is achieved via multi-hole piezo injectors with 3 programmable injection patterns, and adoption of ceramic glow plugs. Engine misfiring is prevented via variable valve lift at exhaust, which opens exhaust valves during the intake stroke, which increases engine air temperature. The SKYACTIV-D also uses a two-stage turbocharger, in which one small and one large turbo are selectively operated, according to driving conditions.

SKYACTIV-D 2.2[edit]

The SKYACTIV-D 2.2 (SH-VPTS) engine is the first SKYACTIV-D engine used in production vehicles. It was first used in the Mazda CX-5.[19][20] In the Mazda6, it produces 129 kW (173 hp) and 420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft).[21] An upgraded version of the SKYACTIV-D was run in the 2013 Rolex Sports Car Series season and helped Mazda win the GX manufacturer's championship. The engine is slated to be used again in two Lola LMP2s in the United SportsCar Series.

CX-5 with SKYACTIV-D engines were reported to have oil levels rising earlier than expected, which requires owners to check the vehicle's engine oil every 1000 kilometres or every month, but vehicles were reported to be returned to dealerships every 2000 km to prevent potential engine damage.[22] Following the oil level problem, the launch of Mazda6 with SKYACTIV-D engines were delayed.[23]

Recall[edit]

In September 2016, Mazda recalled 130,000 vehicles in Japan over a defect that could lead to diesel engine failure.[24]

SKYACTIV-Drive[edit]

The SKYACTIV-Drive is a family of automatic transmissions, named SKY-Drive. Mazda rejected dual-clutch technology in automatic transmissions, because the dual-clutch behavior in certain situations was sub-optimal.[25] Instead, Mazda chose to re-design the conventional automatic transmission, making the torque converter take less duty while a multi-plate clutch disengages the torque converter most of the time. The new SkyActiv automatic transmission was designed to have six gears forward, one reverse gear, a short torque converter and a clutch integrated with the torque converter.[26]

SKYACTIV-MT[edit]

The SKYACTIV-MT is a family of manual transmissions.

To achieve lighter shift effort with a short shift lever stroke, the lever ratio is increased. However, to overcome the shorter internal stroke, a small module spline is used. Shift throws are reduced by 15 percent, making it the shortest shifting of any passenger car.[citation needed]

To allow weight reduction, the triple-shafted gear train is made with reverse and first gears on the same shaft, and the use of a shorter secondary shaft.

SKYACTIV-Body[edit]

The SKYACTIV-Body is a next-generation, lightweight, highly-rigid car body, with improved crash safety performance. The SKYACTIV-Body is 8% lighter and 30% more rigid than previous generations. [27]

SKYACTIV-Hybrid[edit]

The SKYACTIV-Hybrid technology is an electric hybrid engine technology using SKYACTIV-G engine with technology from Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive, originally licensed for use with SKY engine for vehicles sold in 2013.[28][29]

The first retail Mazda SKYACTIV-Hybrid vehicle, a Mazda3 SKYACTIV-Hybrid with SKYACTIV-G 2.0 engine with 14:1 compression, was unveiled in 2013 Tokyo Motor Show.[30][31]

SKYACTIV-CNG[edit]

The SKYACTIV-CNG engine is powered by compressed natural gas.

The first retail Mazda SKYACTIV-CNG prototype vehicle, a Mazda3 SKYACTIV-CNG Concept, was unveiled in 2013 Tokyo Motor Show.[30][31][32][33]

SKYACTIV-R[edit]

The SKYACTIV-R engine is New Generation Rotary Engine. (Never released)

The first retail Mazda SKYACTIV-R vehicle, a Mazda RX-VISION Concept, was unveiled in 2015 Tokyo Motor Show.[34]

SKYACTIV-X[edit]

First commercial gasoline engine to use compression ignition, in which the fuel-air mixture ignites spontaneously when compressed by the piston.[35]

This engine targets 20-30% greater fuel efficiency by utilising homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology. In order to handle ignition problems caused by compression ignition, each cylinder also incorporates a spark plug featuring Spark Controlled Compression Ignition (SPCCI) technology.[36]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mazda groups suite of new technologies under the "SkyActiv" umbrella". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  2. ^ "【MAZDA】ニュース". Mazda.co.jp. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  3. ^ "MAZDA: Mazda Reveals Next-Generation 'SKYACTIV' Technologies - News Releases". Mazda.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  4. ^ "MAZDA: Mazda Global Premiere of Eco-Friendly and Powerful Next Generation 'SKY-G' and 'SKY-D' Engines at Tokyo Motor Show 2009 - News Releases". Mazda.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  5. ^ "【MAZDA】ニュース". Mazda.co.jp. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  6. ^ "Prototype Mazda3 with 2.0L Sky-G engine gets 30/40 mpg". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  7. ^ "Mazda Skyactiv-G and Skyactiv-D Engines in Detail". Caranddriver.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  8. ^ "MAZDA: Mazda Develops Highly Efficient "SKYACTIV-G 1.3" Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine - News Releases". Mazda.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  9. ^ "【MAZDA】ニュース". Mazda.co.jp. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  10. ^ "Skyactiv Tech Wins 2011 Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Medal". Integrityexports.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  11. ^ "MAZDA: Pre-Orders Start for Facelifted Mazda Demio in Japan - News Releases". Mazda.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  12. ^ "【MAZDA】ニュース". Mazda.co.jp. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  13. ^ "Mazda 2 with New 1.3-liter SKYACTIV-G Engine Gets Claimed 50-Percent Mileage Boost". Blog.caranddriver.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  14. ^ [1][dead link]
  15. ^ "Mazda MX-5 Miata RF Club, 2017 MY US". carfolio.com. February 22, 2017. Retrieved July 27, 2018. 
  16. ^ "Turning Up the Pressure to Keep Gas in the Game". New York Times. November 11, 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-14. But the most daring advance is the 2-liter Skyactiv-G gasoline engine. That 4-cylinder power plant made its North American debut in the 2012 Mazda 3, where it raised the fuel economy rating to 8.5 l/100km in town and 5.8 on the highway with an automatic transmission, from 24/33 for the 2011 model sedan with a 2-liter engine. ... 
  17. ^ Orlando, Sport Mazda (12 December 2012). "MazdaExperts-SportMazdaOrlando.com: Mazda Debuts The New Skyactiv-G Gasoline 2.5 Liter Engine". Mazdaexperts.blogspot.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  18. ^ "Next-Generation SkyActiv-X gasoline engine". Mazda Motor Corporation. Retrieved 2018-04-02. 
  19. ^ "MAZDA: Mazda to Introduce Next-Generation Clean Diesel Vehicles in Japan - News Releases". Mazda.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  20. ^ "【MAZDA】ニュース". Mazda.co.jp. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  21. ^ "2014 Mazda 6 2.5L / 2.2L Diesel". Caranddriver.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  22. ^ "Backlash over Mazda CX-5 diesel oil issues". News.drive.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  23. ^ "2015 Mazda 6 Diesel Sedan Further Delayed, Company Says". Greencarreports.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  24. ^ Horie, Masatsugu (Sep 1, 2016). "Mazda Recalls Japan Diesel Models". Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  25. ^ Swan, Tony (February 2013). "2014 Mazda 6 2.5L – First Drive Review". Car and Driver. Hearst Communications. Retrieved 2014-04-02. The engineering team nixed a CVT option early on and then decided against a dual-clutch type a little later in the planning process. The reasoning: A dual-clutch automated manual delivers sportier performance, but Mazda felt it was a little abrupt for everyday urban driving. As a result, the new self-shifter is a conventional automatic, with paddle shifters available in higher trim levels. 
  26. ^ Halvorson, Bengt (2011-10-08). "Mazda Rejects DSGs, Redefines Automatic Transmissions Instead". Motor Authority. High Gear Media. Retrieved 2014-04-02. 
  27. ^ Mazda. "MAZDA: SKYACTIV-BODY". Mazda. High Gear Media. Retrieved 2018-02-25. 
  28. ^ "トヨタとマツダ、ハイブリッドシステムの技術ライセンス供与に合意" (PDF). Mazda.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  29. ^ "TMC and Mazda Agree to Hybrid System Technology License" (PDF). Mazda.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  30. ^ a b "Mazda3 Skyactiv-Hybrid and CNG Concept shown in Japan". Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  31. ^ a b "Mazda3 to showcase CNG, Hybrid versions in Tokyo". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  32. ^ "【MAZDA】マツダ、東京モーターショーに新型「アクセラ」を出品|ニュースリリース". Mazda.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  33. ^ "MAZDA: Mazda to Exhibit All-New Mazda3 at Tokyo Motor Show - News Releases". Mazda.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  34. ^ "Mazda RX-VISION named most beautiful concept". Mazda-press.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  35. ^ "MAZDA: Mazda Announces Long-Term Vision for Technology Development, 'Sustainable Zoom-Zoom 2030' - News Releases". 2.mazda.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  36. ^ Engineering Explained (2017-08-13), Mazda Creates The Holy Grail Of Gasoline Engines - HCCI SkyActiv-X, retrieved 2017-08-13 

External links[edit]