Social media and suicide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Social media and suicide is a relatively new phenomenon, which concerns social media's influence on suicide-related behavior. Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide: approximately 1.54 million people will die from suicide in the year 2020, according to the World Health Organization.[1] Suicide has been identified not only as an individual phenomenon, but also as being influenced by social and environmental factors.[1] Additionally, there is increasing evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide-related behavior.[2] As the internet becomes more ingrained in people's everyday life, the mental and emotional damage it can potentially cause to an individual increases.[3]Social media has been a part of the internet that has expanded throughout the years. There are a variety of sources that are accessible to the public in various forms. Sites include Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Youtube, Google+, Snapchat, TikTok, VSCO, and more. While these platforms were intended to allow for people to connect in a virtual way, it has taken a turn for the worst and can often be a toxic environment that leads to cyberbullying, insecurity, emotional distress, and ultimately suicide.

In one of the more widely known cases, the death of Phoebe Prince, it is generally believed that her suicide was a direct consequence of relentless bullying and cyberbullying. Bullying, be it on social media or not, or physical or not, is a huge problem, significantly increasing victims' risk of suicidal behavior.[4][5]

Another risk factor may be media accounts of suicide that romanticize or dramatize the description of suicidal deaths, possibly leading to an increased number of suicides.[6]

The first person who committed suicide live on social media platforms—Océane Ebem, an 18-year-old woman from Égly in the suburbs of Paris—explicitly said, "I want to communicate a message, and I want it to be passed around, even if it's very shocking."[7] In Océane Ebem's suicide, she live-streamed it on a social networking site. In this stream she talked about how she had been physically and sexually abused by her boyfriend, and gave his name and means to contact him. In response to her confession, the viewers watching the live stream couldn't care less about what she had to say and how to help. Instead they bullied her in the comments section and said incredibly mean and hurtful things. In response, she live-streamed her suicide and thousands of people saw it.[8]

The media tends to popularize videos and social media posts to inform the country of the rising trouble, which may create a popular appeal to the young and immature minds of teenagers. Social media could provide higher risks with the promotion of different kinds of pro-suicidal sites, message boards, chat rooms, and forums. Also, the Internet not only reports suicide incidents but documents suicide methods (for example, suicide pacts, an agreement between two or more people to commit suicide at a particular time and often by the same lethal means). The role the Internet plays, particularly social media, in suicide-related behavior is a topic of growing interest.

Social media risks[edit]

Social media is a relatively new phenomenon that has swept the world during the past decade. There is substantial evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide-related behavior. Such evidence includes an increase of exposure to graphic content as well as the opportunity for cyberbullying to occur. Over the past ten years, cyberbullying has increasingly led to self-harm and suicide. An April 2020 study done by The National Center for Health Statistics (NPHC) revealed that suicide is the second leading cause of death of US citizens ages 10-34. Although this study does not directly state the cause of these suicides, it can be alluded that cyberbullying was a potential cause. NPHC had previously done a study in 2018 that showed how adolescents under the age of 25 that were victims of cyberbullying became twice as likely to commit suicide or cause various forms of self harm. They even showed that younger males were more likely than females to commit suicide. Overall, teen suicide rates have increased within the past decade. This is a highly considerable public health problem, having over 40,000 suicide deaths in the United States and nearly one million suicide deaths worldwide occur yearly.[9]

One risk that has been more prevalent over the years has been suicide challenges from different "games" such as the Momo Challenge, The Blue Whale Challenge, and others that trick the individuals into committing suicide after performing various acts.

Further social media platforms have additionally impacted suicides around the world as well as self harm habits.

Social Media’s Influence on Suicide[edit]

Oftentimes, the media may portray suicidal behavior or language which can potentially influence people to act on these suicidal tendencies. Such examples may include news reports of actual suicides that have occurred, television shows and films that reenact suicides or such behavior, suicidal readings, etcetera. Although this may affect all ages, younger individuals are more commonly impacted or influenced by this. An additional problem that the media fails to include regarding suicide is that they often extenuate the causes leading up to suicide. The main cause of suicide, mental illness, is the most untouched subject in the media. This is a vital issue that raised the discussion of how to fix it. There lies the proposal to present guidelines for media that restrict what can be produced about suicide. Suggestions include refraining from disposing any dramatic displays of suicide, as well as promoting facts and emphasizing suicide’s main cause: mental health. Some concerns from the media regarding such ideas include a possible violation of freedom of speech, which is something to take into consideration. The most desirable approach to ensuring proper suicide prevention on social media would be to adequately train people with media professions about what to and what not to publish regarding this topic.

Impact of pro-suicidal sites, message boards, chat rooms and forums[edit]

Social media platforms, such as chat rooms, blogging sites (e.g., Tumblr, Reddit), video sites (e.g., YouTube), social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, Instagram, MySpace, Twitter, Google+), as well as e-mail, text messaging, and video chat, have transformed traditional methods of communication by allowing the instantaneous and interactive sharing of information created and controlled by individuals, groups, organizations, and governments.[10] As of the third quarter of 2015, Facebook had 1.55 billion monthly active users.[11] An immense quantity of information on the topic of suicide is available on the Internet and via social media. The information available on social media on the topic of suicide can influence suicidal behavior, both negatively and positively.

The social cognitive theory plays a vital role in suicide attempts influenced through social media. This theory is demonstrated when one is influenced by what they see through various processes that form into modeled behaviors. This can be shown when people post their suicide attempts online or promote suicidal behavior in general.

Contributors to these social media platforms may also exert peer pressure to commit suicide, idolize those who have completed suicide, and facilitate suicide pacts. These pro-suicidal sites reported the following. For example, on a Japanese message board in 2008 it was shared that a person can kill himself/herself using hydrogen sulfide gas. Shortly after 220 people attempted suicide in this way, and 208 were successful.[12] Biddle et al.[13] conducted a systematic Web search of 12 suicide-associated terms (e.g., suicide, suicide methods, how to kill yourself, and best suicide methods) to analyze the search results and found that pro-suicide sites and chat rooms that discussed general issues associated with suicide most often occurred within the first few hits of a search.[14] also conducted a study that examined suicide-related sites that can be found using Internet search engines. Of 373 website hits, 31% were suicide neutral, 29% were anti-suicide, and 11% were pro-suicide. Together, these studies have shown that obtaining pro-suicide information on the Internet, including detailed information on suicide methods, is very easy.[10]

While social media has been prevalent in young adult suicide, some young adults find comfort and solace through these platforms. Young adults are making connections with people in like situations that is helping them feel less lonely.[15] Although, the public opinion is that message boards are harmful, the following studies show how they point to suicide prevention and have positive influences. A study using content analysis analyzed all of the postings on the AOL Suicide Bulletin Board over 11 months and concluded that most contributions contained positive, empathetic, and supportive postings.[16] Then, a multi-method study was able to demonstrate that the users of such forums experience a great deal of social support and only a small amount of social strain. Lastly, in survey participants were asked to assess the extent of their suicidal thoughts on a 7-level scale (0, absolutely no suicidal thoughts, to 7, very strong suicidal thoughts) for the time directly before their first forum visit and at the time of the survey.[16] The study found a significant reduction after using the forum. The study however cannot conclude the forum is the only reason for the decrease. Together, these studies show how forums can reduce the number of suicides.

An example of how social media can play a role in suicide is that of a male adolescent who arrived at the emergency department with his parents after suspected medication ingestion in which he attempted to overdose. Beforehand he had sent an ex-girlfriend a Snapchat picture of himself holding a bottle of acetaminophen, which was forwarded to the young male's parents. This picture was used by medical experts to establish a time of his ingestion, oral N-acetylcysteine was discovered and he was brought to a pediatric care facility, where he had an uneventful recovery and psychiatric evaluation.[17]

In 2013, the main cause of nine teen suicides was due to hateful anonymous messages on Ask.fm.[18]

Cyberbullying and suicide[edit]

Cyberbullying has received considerable attention as a possible cause of suicide.[19] It has been deemed a major health concern for affected teens and major health threat to those affected by the psychological trauma inflicted by perpetrators on social media.[20] Some state legislatures have been considering and adjusting legislation to criminalize the activity. Prosecutors have been using existing laws against suspected cyberbullies in absence of cyber-specific law. Criminal harassment statutes often provide a basis for bringing charges in severe cases, and more serious criminal charges have been brought in cases where evidence indicates a resultant suicide or other tragic consequences. Civil remedies have been sought in many cases where criminal liability was difficult to prove.[21]

In a Florida case, two preteens were arrested after they were accused of cyberbullying another female student. The victim killed herself and investigators asserted that the suicide was prompted by cyberbullying perpetrated by the two preteen girls who were later charged with cyberstalking.[22]

Sadie Riggs, a Pennsylvania teen, killed herself in 2015 allegedly because of online bullying and harassment at school on her appearance. Sadie's aunt, Sarah Smith, contacted various social media companies, police, and Sadie's school in hopes to make the bullying stop. In desperation, Smith went as far as to break Sadie's phone, in her presence, in an attempt to stop the bullying. No charges were ever filed against any alleged suspect.[23]

In the death of Phoebe Prince, prosecutors initially charged each of the six teens responsible for her death with assault and battery with a dangerous weapon, criminal harassment, disturbing a school assembly and a civil rights violation with a bodily injury resulting. The felony civil rights violation with bodily injury alone carries a 10-year maximum sentence. Some of the other accused teens also faced the violation of civil rights with bodily injury charges as well as statutory rape and stalking. The teens later pleaded guilty to misdemeanor criminal harassment with the more serious charges dropped.[24]

Media contagion effect[edit]

Suicide contagion can be viewed within the larger context of behavioral contagion, which has been described as a situation in which the same behavior spreads quickly and spontaneously through a group. Persons most susceptible to suicide contagions are those under 25 years of age.[25] A recent study by Dunlop et al.[26] specifically examined possible contagion effects on suicidal behavior via the Internet and social media. Of 719 individuals aged 14 to 24 years, 79% reported being exposed to suicide-related content through family, friends, and traditional news media such as newspapers, and 59% found such content through Internet sources.[27] These information may pose a hazard for vulnerable groups by influencing decisions to die by suicide. In particular, interactions via chat rooms or discussion forums may foster peer pressure to die by suicide, encourage users to idolize those who have completed suicide, or facilitate suicide pacts.[27] Recently there has been a trend in creating memorial social media pages in honor of a deceased person. In New Zealand, a memorial page was made after a person committed suicide, this resulted in the suicide of 8 other persons thereafter, which further shows the power of the media contagion effect.[28]

Suicide notes[edit]

It has generally been found that those who post suicide notes online tend to not receive help.[29]

Several notable cases support this argument:

  • Kevin Whitrick and Abraham K. Biggs webcast both of their suicides. "I am going to leave this for whoever stumbles across my bookmarks later on."
  • Paul Zolezzi indicated via a Facebook update his intent to commit suicide.[30]
  • In 2010, John Patrick Bedell left a Wikipedia user page and YouTube videos interpreted by some as a suicide note; the former was deleted by Wikipedia administrators.[31]
  • Joe Stack also posted a suicide note online.[32]
  • Chris McKinstry, an AI researcher, committed suicide after posting a note to both his blog and the Joel on Software off-topic forum explaining the reasons for his demise.
  • A girl who attended a Louisville-area high school posted a video suicide note and then killed herself back in 2014. The girl did not receive any help prior to her suicide, leading H. Eric Sparks, director of the American School Counselor Association, to say that troubled students should be directed to help hotlines or to trusted authorities to seek intervention as quickly as possible.[33]

Suicide Pacts[edit]

A suicide pact is an agreement between two or more people to die by suicide at a particular time and often by the same lethal means.[34][35] Suicide pacts are found to be rare. Traditional suicide pacts have typically developed among individuals who know each other, such as a couple of friends. A suicide pact that has been formed or developed in some way through the use of the Internet is a cyber suicide pact.[36] A primary difference between cybersuicide pacts and traditional suicide pacts is that these pacts are usually formed among strangers.[34] They use online chat rooms and virtual bulletin boards and forums as an unmediated avenue to share their feelings with other like-minded individuals, which can be easier than talking about such thoughts and feelings in person.[27]

The first documented use of the Internet to form a suicide pact was reported in Japan in 2000. It has now become a more common form of suicide in Japan, where the suicide rate increased from 34 suicides in 2003 to 91 suicides in 2005. South Korea now has one of the world's highest suicide rates (24.7/100 000 in 2005), and evidence exists that cyber suicide pacts may account for almost one-third of suicides in that country.[27] Suicide pacts are also in the United States. In April 2018, Macon Middle School, a middle school in North Carolina, became aware of a group on social media called "Edgy" or "Edgy Fan Page 101" in which this group came up with a suicide pact and had suicide ideations. The middle school contacted the parents and informed them to look into their children's social media pages and talk with them about the dangers of a group like this.[37]

Gerald Krein[38] and William Francis Melchert-Dinkel were accused of arranging internet suicide pacts.

Interventions[edit]

Suicidal intervention on social media has saved many lives on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook. All of the aforementioned companies have slightly different ways to report posts that may seem suicidal.

Facebook[edit]

Facebook, assisted by, among a handful of other experts, Dr. Dan Reidenburg of Suicide Awareness Voices of Education—"uses an algorithm to track down buzzwords and phrases that are commonly associated with suicide" and has intervened in over 3,500 cases, according to company reports. The algorithm reportedly tracks buzzwords and phrases associated with suicide and an alert is sent to Facebook's Safety Center.[39]

"The technology itself isn’t going to send somebody to their house. A person at Facebook would have to do that…"

–Dr. Dan Reidenburg[39]

Twitter[edit]

  • Demi Moore and her followers intervened to stop a suicide that had been announced on Twitter.[40]
  • Twitter followers of Chicago rapper CupcakKe alerted authorities after the rapper posted ominous phrases onto Twitter. She later thanked all of her followers after receiving help.[41]

Forums[edit]

  • A German was prevented from killing himself after Spanish internet users saw him announcing his decision.[42]

Discussion and support groups[edit]

Some online groups, such as alt.suicide.holiday, have emerged as discussion and support groups for suicidal individuals. Research indicates that providing more online support for suicidal people would be more effective than shutting down pro-suicide websites.[43] The Defense Centers of Excellence have expressed interest in using social media for suicide prevention.[44] Facebook groups have sometimes been set up for suicide prevention purposes,[45] including one that attracted 47,000 members.[46] Although many teens and preteens encounter suicide-related posts from peers on different social media apps, they also encounter suicide prevention hotlines and website links as well.[47]

SAMHSA's Suicide Prevention Lifeline operates on Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube.[48] The American Foundation For Suicide Prevention is trying to understanding and preventing suicide through research, education, and advocacy.

Reidenberg, the executive director of the United States-based prevention organization Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE), has become very involved in responding to suicidal messages. Facebook, the world's largest social network, has now implemented a direct intervention method. 25 of the 50 American states, when a user posts a message on Facebook containing a phrase that its algorithms flag as indicating suicidal thoughts or intentions, a banner pops up on the user's page. If the user's page is flagged the user is provided with the number of the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline and given tips and links to support videos aligned with best prevention practices. Suicide is still a worldwide problem today and social media does not help.

See also[edit]

References[50][edit]

  1. ^ a b Gvion, Yari; Apter, Alan (December 2012). "Suicide and Suicidal Behavior". Public Health Reviews. 34 (2): 9. doi:10.1007/BF03391677.
  2. ^ Luxton, David D.; June, Jennifer D.; Fairall, Jonathan M. (May 2012). "Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective". American Journal of Public Health. 102 (S2): S195–S200. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300608. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 3477910. PMID 22401525.
  3. ^ Tingle, John (2015-06-11). "Preventing suicides: developing a strategy". British Journal of Nursing. 24 (11): 592–593. doi:10.12968/bjon.2015.24.11.592. ISSN 0966-0461. PMID 26067795.
  4. ^ Hertz, Marci Feldman; Donato, Ingrid; Wright, James (July 2013). "Bullying and Suicide: A Public Health Approach". Journal of Adolescent Health. 53 (1): S1–S3. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.05.002. ISSN 1054-139X. PMC 4721504. PMID 23790194.
  5. ^ Hinduja, Sameer; Patchin, Justin W. (2010-07-28). "Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Suicide". Archives of Suicide Research. 14 (3): 206–221. doi:10.1080/13811118.2010.494133. ISSN 1381-1118. PMID 20658375. S2CID 1717577.
  6. ^ Sudak, Howard S.; Sudak, Donna M. (2005-11-01). "The Media and Suicide". Academic Psychiatry. 29 (5): 495–499. doi:10.1176/appi.ap.29.5.495. ISSN 1545-7230. PMID 16387977. S2CID 774385.
  7. ^ Dasgupta, Rana (August 29, 2017). "The first social media suicide". The Guardian. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
  8. ^ Dasgupta, Rana (2017-08-29). "The first social media suicide". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  9. ^ "Cyberbullying Statistics and Facts for 2020". Comparitech. Retrieved 2020-12-07.
  10. ^ a b David D. Luxton, Jennifer D. June and Jonathan M. Fairall (May 2012), "Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective", American Journal of Public Health, 102 (Suppl 2): S195–S200, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300608, PMC 3477910, PMID 22401525
  11. ^ Number of monthly active Facebook users worldwide as of 3rd quarter 2015 (in millions)
  12. ^ Luxton, David D.; June, Jennifer D.; Fairall, Jonathan M. (2012-03-08). "Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective". American Journal of Public Health. 102 (S2): S195–S200. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300608. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 3477910. PMID 22401525.
  13. ^ Biddle L, Donovan J, Hawton K, Kapur N, Gunnell D (2008), "Suicide and the Internet", BMJ, 336 (7648): 800–802, doi:10.1136/bmj.39525.442674.AD, PMC 2292278, PMID 18403541
  14. ^ Recupero R, Harmss E, Noble JM (2008), "surfing for suicide information on the internet. J Clin Psychiatry", The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69 (6): 878–88, doi:10.4088/jcp.v69n0601, PMID 18494533
  15. ^ ROBINSON, Jo; RODRIGUES, Maria; FISHER, Steve; BAILEY, Eleanor; HERRMAN, Helen (2015-02-25). "Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey". Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. 27 (1): 27–35. doi:10.11919/j.issn.1002-0829.214133. ISSN 1002-0829. PMC 4372758. PMID 25852253.
  16. ^ a b Eichenberg, Christiane (February 2008). "Internet Message Boards for Suicidal People: A Typology of Users". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 11 (1): 107–113. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.9924. ISSN 1094-9313. PMID 18275323.
  17. ^ Chhabra, Neeraj; Bryant, Sean M. (2016). "Snapchat Toxicology: Social Media and Suicide". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 68 (4): 527. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.05.031. PMID 27666358.
  18. ^ Edwards, J (2013). "Users On This Web Site Have Successfully Driven Nine Teenagers To Kill Themselves". Business Insider: 1–2.
  19. ^ Görzig, Anke (August 2016). "Adolescents' Viewing of Suicide-Related Web Content and Psychological Problems: Differentiating the Roles of Cyberbullying Involvement" (PDF). Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 19 (8): 502–509. doi:10.1089/cyber.2015.0419. ISSN 2152-2715. PMID 27448043.
  20. ^ Bering, Jesse. "Web of Despair". Psychology Today. 51 (6): 80–88 – via EBSCOhost.
  21. ^ "Cyberbullying Laws". Findlaw. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  22. ^ https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states/florida/articles/2018-01-23/2-12-year-olds-charged-with-cyberstalking-in-girls-suicide
  23. ^ "Plight of the 'screenager': Is social media taking a deadly toll on teens?". NBC News. Retrieved 2019-03-25.
  24. ^ Webley, Kayla (2011-05-05). "Teens Who Admitted to Bullying Phoebe Prince Sentenced". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  25. ^ Cox, Georgina R.; Robinson, Jo; Williamson, Michelle; Lockley, Anne; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Pirkis, Jane (2012-01-01). "Suicide Clusters in Young People". Crisis. 33 (4): 208–214. doi:10.1027/0227-5910/a000144. hdl:11343/58495. ISSN 0227-5910. PMID 22713976.
  26. ^ Dunlop, S. M.; More, E.; Romer, D. (2011). "Where do youth learn about suicides on the Internet, and what influence does this have on suicidal ideation?". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 52 (10): 1073–1080. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02416.x. PMID 21658185.
  27. ^ a b c d Luxton, D. D., June, J. D., & Fairall, J. M. (2012). Social media and suicide: a public health perspective. American Journal of Public Health, 102(S2), S195-S200.
  28. ^ Robertson, Lindsay; Skegg, Keren; Poore, Marion; Williams, Sheila; Taylor, Barry (2012-01-01). "An Adolescent Suicide Cluster and the Possible Role of Electronic Communication Technology". Crisis. 33 (4): 239–245. doi:10.1027/0227-5910/a000140. ISSN 0227-5910. PMID 22562859.
  29. ^ Elana Premack Sandler (April 6, 2009), Can Social Media Help Prevent Suicide?, Psychology Today
  30. ^ Gendar, Alison & Connor, Tracy, Facebook status update becomes suicide note for aspiring Brooklyn model, actor Paul Zolezzi, New York Daily News
  31. ^ Carlin DeGuerin Miller (March 5, 2010), John Patrick Bedell: Rants on Wikipedia and YouTube May Have Foreshadowed Breakdown, CBS News
  32. ^ Neil Katz (February 18, 2010), Joe Stack Suicide Note Full Text: "American Zombies Wake Up and Revolt", CBS News
  33. ^ HEROLD, BENJAMIN. "Louisville Suicide Highlights Role of Social Media in Crisis Response." Education Week, vol. 33, no. 29, 23 Apr. 2014, p. 14. EBSCOhost, 199.245.164.25:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=95759427&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
  34. ^ a b Rajagopal, S (2004). "Suicide pacts and the internet: Complete strangers may make cyberspace pacts". BMJ: British Medical Journal. 329 (7478): 1298–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7478.1298. PMC 534825. PMID 15576715.
  35. ^ Brown, M., & Barraclough, B. (1997). Epidemiology of suicide pacts in England and Wales, 1988-92. BMJ, 315(7103), 286-287.
  36. ^ , Rajagopal, S. (2009). The Internet and suicide pacts. Internet and Suicide. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 185–196.
  37. ^ "NC school district warns of possible social media suicide pact". 8News. 2018-04-26. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  38. ^ Sheriff: Online suicide pact had sexual overtones, CNN, February 13, 2005
  39. ^ a b Severson, Gordon (2019-01-01). "Facebook trying to prevent suicide by tracking what we post". KARE. Retrieved 2019-01-01. The technology itself isn’t going to send somebody to their house. A person at Facebook would have to do that…
  40. ^ "Demi Moore's Twitter followers help stop a suicide – CNET". CNET. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
  41. ^ Bryant, Miranda (2019-01-10). "What are social media companies doing about suicidal posts?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-03-25.
  42. ^ "Un Allemand sauvé du suicide grâce à Internet".
  43. ^ "Online suicide support needed". ScienceAlert. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
  44. ^ Harnessing New and Social Media to Prevent Suicide, Defense Centers of Excellence, January 22, 2010
  45. ^ Elana Premack Sandler (June 16, 2010), Suicide prevention in cyberspace, Psychology Today
  46. ^ Minsky, Amy (2001-11-24), Anti-suicide Facebook group elicits positive messages, The Vancouver Sun
  47. ^ Martin, Florence, et al. "Middle School Students' Social Media Use." Educational Technology & Society, vol. 21, no. 1, 2018, p. 213+. Academic OneFile, http://libraryproxy.tulsacc.edu:2095/apps/doc/A524180841/AONE?u=odl_tcc&sid=AONE&xid=490683d3
  48. ^ SAMHSA, Suicide Prevention Lifeline Update
  49. ^ Dunlop, S., More, E., & Romer, D. (2009, January 1). Where Do Youth Learn about Suicides on the Internet, and What Influence Does this Have on Suicidal Ideation? Retrieved January 1, 2014, from http://www.annenbergpublicpolicycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/Where-do-youth-learn-about-suicide.pdf
  50. ^ Luxton, David D.; June, Jennifer D.; Fairall, Jonathan M. (2012-5). "Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective". American Journal of Public Health. 102(Suppl 2): S195–S200. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300608. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 3477910. PMID 22401525.

[1][2]

  1. ^ Hawton, K. (2002-12-14). "Influences of the media on suicide". BMJ. 325 (7377): 1374–1375. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7377.1374. PMC 1124845. PMID 12480830.
  2. ^ Liu, Xingyun; Huang, Jiasheng; Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Li, Qing; Zhu, Tingshao (2020-04-28). "Mediation Effect of Suicide-Related Social Media Use Behaviors on the Association Between Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt: Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 22 (4): e14940. doi:10.2196/14940. ISSN 1438-8871.