Special Constabulary

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Special Constables and regular officers of the Avon and Somerset Constabulary at the 175th anniversary of the Special Constabulary in Taunton, Somerset

The Special Constabulary is the part-time volunteer section of statutory police forces in the United Kingdom and some Crown dependencies. Its officers are known as special constables.

Every United Kingdom territorial police force has a special constabulary except the Police Service of Northern Ireland, which has a Reserve constituted on different grounds. However, the Royal Ulster Constabulary (and the previous Royal Irish Constabulary) did have its own Ulster Special Constabulary from 1920 until 1970, when the Reserve was formed. The British Transport Police (a national "special police force") also has a special constabulary. In the Crown dependencies, the Isle of Man Constabulary and the States of Guernsey Police Service also have special constabularies, but the States of Jersey Police does not. Jersey has Honorary Police.

The strength of the special constabulary as of September 2018 in England and Wales was 11,343, -12.3% on the previous year.[1] The number of special constables in Scotland in 2018 was 610.[2] Special constables are not the same as police community support officers (PCSOs), who are employed by police forces to provide operational support to regular officers. Special constables usually work for a minimum number of hours per month (depending on the force – the national minimum is 16 hours), although many do considerably more. Special constables might receive some expenses and allowances from the police service, including a £1,100 "recognition award" in Scotland and some forces in England, but their work is in the main voluntary and unpaid.

Special constables have identical powers to their regular (full-time) colleagues and work alongside them, but most special constabularies in England and Wales have their own organisational structure and grading system, which varies from force to force. Special constabularies are headed by a chief officer. In Scotland, special constables have no separate administrative structure and grading system.

History[edit]

While the idea of a populace policing itself dates back to Anglo-Saxon times, with English common law requiring that all citizens have the legal obligation to come to the assistance of a police officer, it was not until 1673 that Charles II ruled that citizens may be temporarily sworn in as constables during times of public disorder. This ruling was in response to rising public disorder relating to enforcement of religious conformity, and any citizen refusing to acknowledge the call would have been subject to fines and jail sentences. The 1673 act was enforced for centuries after, mainly used to call up constables in the north of England.[3]

Public disorder of that nature was renewed during the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries, which was coupled with falling living standards and starvation[citation needed]. In 1819, mass meetings calling for Parliamentary reform took place across England, including 60,000 demonstrators rioting in Manchester where a special constable was killed. In light of these events, in 1820, an Act was passed allowing magistrates to recruit men as special constables.

In 1831, Parliament passed "An act for amending the laws relative to the appointment of Special Constables, and for the better preservation of the Police".[4] This Act, forming the basis of special-constable principles to the modern day, and in particular allowed the formation of special constables outside of times of unrest, if the regular police force was deemed to be too small in a particular area. Specials were also granted full powers of arrest like their regular counterparts at this time, as well as weapons and equipment to carry out their duty.

A further act in 1835 redefined the Special Constabulary as a volunteer organisation, and expanded its jurisdiction. The Constabulary was redefined for the last time into the organisation which exists today by the Special Constables Act 1914 just after the outbreak of World War I, during which they safeguarded water supplies from German infiltrators. During the Second World War, besides their normal duties, they were trained to deal with a range of eventualities such as first aid in case of injury, initial coordination of the security of aircraft crash sites, clearing people from the vicinity of unexploded bombs, handling of unignited incendiary bombs and checking compliance with lighting regulations.[5]

Application[edit]

Requirements for being a special constable vary from force to force. The recruitment process in Scotland is also significantly different from the process in England and Wales. It can take from as few as six to as many as eighteen months from initial application through to attestation where recruits take the Police Oath. A number of different steps are involved in the recruitment process and the order can vary from force to force. The first part of the process usually involves completing an application form. After that, there may be a combination of entrance test (the Police Initial Recruitment Test in England and Wales or the Standard Entrance Test in Scotland), interview, security checks, fitness test and medical assessment although the exact process is force specific.

Ranks[edit]

There are currently a total of nine ranks currently in use across the special constabularies. Some of these ranks are rarely in use and special constabularies rarely use more than six ranks. The "NIPA" style rank insignia have a set of only seven ranks. There is no basis in law for ranks or grades for special constables. As such there is no equivalency of a regular police sergeant versus a special police sergeant for example. A special constable who is a higher rank or grade has no additional powers or opportunities in the same way as a regular officer. For example, a custody sergeant must be a regular police sergeant. A special inspector cannot authorise a section 18(1) PACE search and so on. In an operational setting, a special constable whatever their rank or grade has no formal authority over a regular officer in terms of supervision, although occasionally a very experienced senior special officer may informally temporarily oversee inexperienced regular officers.

Special Constabulary Ranks
Styles Officers Chief Officers
"Bar" style ranks Special Constable Special Sergeant Special Inspector Special Chief Inspector Special Superintendent Special Chief Superintendent Assistant Chief Officer Deputy Chief Officer Chief Officer
"NIPA" style ranks No equivalent

Only the Cheshire Special Constabulary use the Special Chief Superintendent rank within the force.
Within the City of London Special Constabulary is the Honourable Artillery Company Specials, provided by the Honourable Artillery Company;[6] members of this unit wear HAC on the shoulders in addition to other insignia.

Insignia[edit]

There is a large variation in the design of epaulettes used across Great Britain for Special Constables. This has been recognised at national level and as part of the Special Constabulary National Strategy 2018-2023 the structure and insignia is under review with the intention to standardise.[7]

Special constabulary epaulettes frequently bear the letters "SC" (with or without a crown above) to differentiate them from regular officers. Senior special constables wear the same markings on their hats as equivalent regular ranks.

Special constabularies using the NPIA approved rank insignia
Constabulary Chief officer Deputy chief officer Special superintendent Special chief inspector Special inspector Special sergeant Special constable Notes
Durham Special Constabulary[8] NPIA SCO.svg NPIA SSupt.svg NPIA SCI.svg NPIA SInsp.svg Durham SSgt.svg Durham SC.svg
  • The Special superintendent is not currently in use.
Hampshire Special Constabulary[9] Rank insignia for Hampshire Constabulary - Special Superintendant.svg Rank insignia for Hampshire Constabulary - Special Chief Inspector.svg Rank insignia for Hampshire Constabulary - Special Inspector.svg Rank insignia for Hampshire Constabulary - Special Sergeant.svg Rank insignia for Hampshire Constabulary - Special Constable.svg
  • Collar numbers begin with a 9
Kent Special Constabulary Kent SCO.png Supt.svg CInsp.svg Wiltshire Insp.svg Kent SSergeant.png Kent SConstable.png
  • The ranks of special constable and special sergeant feature the force emblems.
Merseyside Special Constabulary[10] NPIA SCO.svg NPIA SCI.svg NPIA Special Inspector Insignia NPIA S SGT with crowns 2 prefix.svg NPIA SC.svg
Northamptonshire Special Constabulary[11] ACC.svg Northamptonshire SInsp.svg Northamptonshire SSgt.svg Durham SC.svg
South Wales Special Constabulary[12] NPIA SCO.svg NPIA SSupt.svg NPIA SInsp.svg NPIA S SGT with crowns 7 prefix.svg SC with crowns 7 prefix.svg
  • South Wales Police issue special constabulary officers with the prefix of 7 for their collar numbers.
South Yorkshire Special Constabulary[13] South Yorks SCO.svg NPIA SCO.svg NPIA SCI.svg NPIA SInsp.svg NPIA S SGT with crowns 7 prefix.svg SC with crowns 7 prefix.svg
Wiltshire Special Constabulary[14] Wiltshire Supt.svg Wiltshire Insp.svg Wiltshire SSgt.svg Wiltshire SC.svg
Gloucestershire Special Constabulary[15] Gloucestershire SCO Proposed.svg Gloucestershire SCInsp Proposed.svg Gloucestershire SInsp Proposed.svg Gloucestershire SSgt Proposed.svg Gloucestershire SC Proposed.svg
  • Proposed new insignia in 2019
City of London Special Constabulary COLP Commander SQ.svg COLP SCSupt SQ.svg COLP SSupt SQ.svg COLP SCInsp SQ.svg COLP SInsp SQ.svg COLP SSGT SQ.svg COLP SC SQ.svg
  • The Honourable Artillery Company special constables wear the letters HAC in addition.
  • The deputy chief officer of the special constabulary rank is named "special chief superintendent".
  • The chief officer of the special constabulary is named "special commander".
Notes
  • Blank spaces in the table indicate that a rank is not used in a force's structure.
  • This table of constabularies is not complete.

Other special constabularies use combinations of bars, half bars, pips, crowns, laurel wreaths, collar numbers, force crests and the SC identity (with or without a crown) to distinguish ranks (and/or role).

Special constabularies using the alternative "bar style" rank insignia
Constabulary Chief officer Deputy chief officer Assistant chief officer Special chief superintendent Special superintendent Special chief inspector Special inspector Special sergeant Special constable Notes
Avon and Somerset Special Constabulary[16] CO.svg SSupt.svg SCI.svg SInsp.svg A&S SSgt.svg A&S SC.svg
Bedfordshire Special Constabulary[17] 4Bars+SC+Crown.svg SSupt with Crown.svg SInsp with Crown.svg SSGT with Crowns no prefix.svg SC with Crowns no prefix.svg
British Transport Police[18] CO.svg SSupt.svg SCI.svg SInsp.svg SSgt.svg Special Constable rank insignia
Cambridgeshire Special Constabulary[19] 4Bars+SC+Crown.svg 2Bars+SC+Crowns.svg SSupt with Crown.svg SCI with Crown.svg SInsp with Crown.svg Cleveland SSgt.svg Cleveland SC.svg
Cheshire Special Constabulary[20] CheshireSCCO.svg CheshireSCSupt.svg SSupt.svg SCI.svg SInsp.svg Cheshire SSgt.svg Cheshire SC.svg
Cleveland Special Constabulary[21] 4Bars+SC+Crown.svg 2Bars+SC+Crowns.svg SCI with Crown.svg SInsp with Crown.svg Cleveland SSgt.svg Cleveland SC.svg
Cumbria Special Constabulary[22] CO.svg SSupt.svg SCI.svg SInsp.svg A&S SSgt.svg A&S SC.svg
  • All special constable collar numbers start with a 6 or a 7
  • The deputy chief officer rank is currently vacant
  • The chief officer rank is currently vacant
Derbyshire Special Constabulary[23] Derbyshire SInsp.svg Derbyshire SSgt.svg Derbyshire SC.svg
Devon and Cornwall Special Constabulary[24] StaffsCO.svg DandC SSupt.svg StaffsInsp.svg DandC SSgt.svg DandC SC.svg
Dorset Special Constabulary[25] Dorset CO.svg Dorset DCO.svg Dorset Supt.svg Dorset SInsp.svg Dorset SSgt.svg Dorset SC.svg
Dyfed-Powys Special Constabulary[26] 4Bars+SC+Crown.svg SCI with Crown.svg SInsp with Crown.svg South Wales SSgt.svg SC with crowns 7 prefix.svg
Essex Special Constabulary[27] DCO.svg SSupt.svg SInsp.svg A&S SSgt.svg A&S SC.svg
Gloucestershire Special Constabulary[28] Gloucestershire SCO.svg Gloucestershire SCI.svg Gloucestershire SInsp.svg Gloucestershire SSgt.svg Gloucestershire SC.svg
Greater Manchester Special Constabulary[29] CO.svg SCI.svg SInsp.svg Dorset SSgt.svg Dorset SC.svg
Gwent Special Constabulary[30] CO.svg Gwent SCInsp.svg Gwent SInsp.svg Gwent SSgt.svg Gwent SC.svg
Hertfordshire Special Constabulary[31] CO.svg SSupt.svg SCI.svg SInsp.svg West Mercia SSgt.svg West Mercia SC.svg
Constabulary Chief officer Deputy chief officer Assistant chief officer Special chief superintendent Special superintendent Special chief inspector Special inspector Special sergeant Special constable Notes
Lancashire Special Constabulary[32] PS Epaulette.svg SInsp.svg Lancashire SSGT.svg Special Constable.svg
  • Regular police sergeant acts as a chief officer
Leicestershire Special Constabulary[33] SCI with Crown.svg SInsp with Crown.svg Leicestershire SSgt.svg Leicestershire SC.svg
  • Special chief inspector acts as special constable lead
Lincolnshire Special Constabulary[34] DandC SSupt.svg StaffsInsp.svg SSgt no crown no prefix.svg SC no crown no prefix.svg
Metropolitan Special Constabulary[35] 4Bars+SC+Crown.svg 2Bars+SC+Crowns.svg SCI with Crown.svg SInsp with Crown.svg Met SSgt Epaulette.svg Met SC Epaulette.svg
Norfolk Special Constabulary[36] 4Bars+SC+Crown.svg SSupt with Crown.svg SCI with Crown.svg SInsp with Crown.svg South Wales SSgt.svg SC with crowns 7 prefix.svg
Northumbria
Special
Constabulary
[37]
Special Constable.svg
  • Northumbria Special Constabulary abolished its ranks in 2006. All officers hold the rank of special constable, although those who previously held a supervisory rank are entitled to continue wearing their rank insignia.
North Wales Special Constabulary[38] 4Bars+SC+Crown.svg SCI with Crown.svg SInsp with Crown.svg NorthWalesSSgt Epaulette.svg NorthWalesSC Epaulette.svg
Nottinghamshire Special Constabulary[39] Notts CO.svg Notts SCInsp.svg Notts SInsp.svg Notts SSgt.svg Notts SC.svg
Police Scotland[40] Special Constable rank insignia
  • Police Scotland do not currently have a rank structure for special constables.
Staffordshire Special Constabulary[41] StaffsCO.svg StaffsDCO.svg StaffsSCI.svg StaffsInsp.svg Staffs SSgt.svg Staffs SC.svg
Suffolk Special Constabulary[42] 4Bars+SC+Crown.svg 3Bars+SC+Crowns.svg SCI with Crown.svg SInsp with Crown.svg Suffolk SSgt.svg Suffolk SC.svg
Surrey
Special
Constabulary
CO.svg Special Inspector Surrey.png Surrey SC.svg
Thames Valley Special Constabulary[43] 4Bars+SC+Crown.svg 3Bars+SC+Crowns.svg 2Bars+SC+Crowns.svg SCI with Crown.svg SInsp with Crown.svg TVP SSGT.svg TVP SC.svg
  • Assistant chief officer is not currently in use
Warwickshire Special Constabulary[44] CO.svg DCO.svg Special Chief Inspector Rank Insignia Special Inspector Rank Insignia Northamptonshire SC.svg Durham SC.svg
West Mercia Special Constabulary[45] CO.svg SSupt.svg SCI.svg SInsp.svg West Mercia SSgt.svg West Mercia SC.svg
West Midlands Special Constabulary[46] West Midlands Chief Officer.svg 4Bars+SC+Crown.svg SInsp with Crown.svg West Midlands SSGT.svg West Midlands SC.svg
West Yorkshire Special Constabulary[47] CInsp.svg West Yorks Senior Section Officer.svg West Yorks Section Officer.svg West Yorks SC.svg
  • The special sergeant is known as a section officer
  • The special inspector is known as a senior section officer
  • A regular chief inspector acts as a chief officer
Constabulary Chief officer Deputy chief officer Assistant chief officer Special chief superintendent Special superintendent Special chief inspector Special inspector Special sergeant Special constable Notes
Notes
  • Blank spaces in the table indicate that a rank is not used in a force's structure.
  • This table of constabularies is not complete.

Wiltshire Police Special Constabulary is believed to be the only force within the UK to not have a rank structure. Instead they operate a Section Leader role with various Special Constable Section Leaders (SCSLs) strategically located around the County. Special Constables in Wiltshire for a part of the Community Policing Team (CPT) and come under the Regular Police Sergeant.[citation needed]

Uniform[edit]

Special constables generally wear identical uniforms to their regular colleagues. In some constabularies, their shoulder number may be prefixed with a certain digit or they may have additional insignia on their epaulettes which is usually a crown with the letters SC above or below it (although some forces just use the letters). Formerly, male special constables in English and Welsh forces did not wear helmets while on foot patrol but wore patrol caps instead, but in most forces they now do wear helmets. Some forces also issue special constables with a different hat badge from that of their regular counterparts although this is now extremely rare.

Current UK Special Constabulary Chief Officers[edit]

The table below lists the Special Chief Officers of British police forces. The majority of these officers are titled 'Special Chief Officer’, but some hold other titles such as ‘Special Commander’. Some forces do not have a Chief Officer at all due to abolishing their rank structure and are therefore headed by a more junior rank, and some forces are led by a regular (full-time) police officer such as a Sergeant or Chief Inspector.

Police force Special Chief officer name
Avon and Somerset Constabulary David Farrell
Bedfordshire Police Clint Sharp
British Transport Police Dr Ben Clifford BEM
Cambridgeshire Constabulary
Cheshire Constabulary Celvyn Jones
City of London Police James Phipson (Special Commander)
Cleveland Police David Robinson
Cumbria Constabulary
Derbyshire Constabulary Derbyshire Special Constabulary does not have a chief officer or ranks above Special Inspector.
Devon and Cornwall Police Marc Kastner
Dorset Police John Hannan
Durham Constabulary Dale Checksfield
Dyfed–Powys Police
Essex Police Essex Special Constabulary is headed by a Deputy Chief Officer
Gloucestershire Constabulary David Pedrick-Friend
Greater Manchester Police Michael Walmsley MBE DL
Gwent Police Gareth Chapman
Hampshire Constabulary Hampshire Special Constabulary is currently headed by a Special Superintendent.[48]
Hertfordshire Constabulary Mark Kendrew
Humberside Police John Philip
Kent Police Gavin McKinnon CF
Lancashire Constabulary Lancashire Special Constabulary is headed by a regular Police Sergeant
Leicestershire Police Leicestershire Special Constabulary is headed by a Special Chief Inspector
Lincolnshire Police Lincolnshire Special Constabulary is headed by a team of Special Superintendents
Merseyside Police Dave Lyons
Metropolitan Special Constabulary John Conway
Norfolk Constabulary Darren Taylor
North Wales Police Mark Owen
Northamptonshire Police Mike Maywood
Northumbria Police Northumbria Special Constabulary does not currently have a rank structure for Special Constables.
North Yorkshire Police Mike Maiden
Nottinghamshire Police
Police Scotland Police Scotland do not currently have a rank structure for Special Constables.
Police Service of Northern Ireland
South Wales Police Dr Dale Cartwright OStJ DL [49]
South Yorkshire Police Stephen Merrett
Staffordshire Police Tony Athersmith [50]
Suffolk Constabulary Dean Knight
Surrey Police Ken Iredale
Sussex Police Jackie Connor
Thames Valley Police Jason Morley-Smith, MStJ
Warwickshire Police Katherine Hancock
West Mercia Police Nick Marlow
West Midlands Police Michael Rogers
West Yorkshire Police West Yorkshire Special Constabulary is headed by a regular Chief Inspector
Wiltshire Police Wiltshire Special Constabulary does not have a rank structure (since 2020)

Equipment[edit]

Special constables all carry the same personal protective equipment (PPE) as their regular counterparts, such as handcuffs, batons, incapacitant spray (CS/PAVA spray), and protective vests.

The issuing of equipment varies from force to force with financial factors being the main reason behind the differences. In some forces protective vests, or body armour, may be personally issued to an officer, made to measure, however many other forces cannot afford this practice and instead the use of pool sets is prevalent.

The same practice is also seen with regard to radios: although many forces provide special constables with personal radios kept securely at their police station, other forces may only have pool sets. The management task is to ensure there are enough working pooled radios available in a command area to meet any "surge" need.

Taser authorisation is in the early days of being approved for Specials.[51] Like regular officers, SCs will be required to undergo the same additional training to carry a Taser. Special constables, whilst not lawfully excluded from doing so, do not carry firearms due to enhanced vetting and the training commitments required.

Powers and jurisdiction[edit]

Territorial police forces[edit]

The vast majority of special constables serve with one of the 45 territorial police forces in the United Kingdom. Depending on where they are attested, they have full police powers throughout one of three distinct legal systems - either England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland.[52][53][54] This is identical to the jurisdiction granted to regular officers, although prior to 1 April 2007, special constables in England and Wales only had jurisdiction within their force area and any adjacent force areas. Recent changes have seen special constables enjoy the same cross-border powers as regular constables.

British Transport Police[edit]

Special constables of the British Transport Police have exactly the same powers and privileges as regular BTP constables, and the same cross-border powers.[55] BTP special constables do not wear the distinctive "SC" insignia on their epaulettes. They work across England, Wales and Scotland and will often parade on at their home station and work 40 to 80 miles away from it.

Duties[edit]

As well as patrol duties, special constables often take part in response duties and specials often police events such as sports matches, carnivals, parades and fêtes. While this event policing is the stereotypical image of a special constable, it only represents one of the wide range of duties undertaken. Many police forces in England and Wales have introduced neighbourhood policing teams and the Special Constabulary has been incorporated into this concept.[56]

The City of London Police recruits accountancy specialists to work directly for its fraud squad.

Special operations[edit]

Many special constables have taken the opportunity to join specialist teams within their constabularies such as marine support, dog units and roads policing. Durham Constabulary, Warwickshire Police,[57] West Mercia Police and Devon and Cornwall Police have for a number of years been training some of their specials to work with the road policing unit (RPU); this has been expanded and some specials with Warwickshire and West Mercia are now working with the force's criminal intercept team.[58]

In 1995, special constables from Cheshire Police assisted officers from the Ministry of Defence Police with a surveillance operation at the former Royal Ordnance Factory at Radway Green near Crewe.[59]

Public order[edit]

A number of special constables are trained in public order duties, including policing of football matches and demonstrations. In West Yorkshire Police, 24 specials have received Level 2 PSU (Police Support Unit) training, and have become part of the Operation Target team.[60] Operation Target has now disbanded, but West Yorkshire Police have kept the service of the specials in their own operational support unit.


2012 Olympics[edit]

There were plans for the Metropolitan Police to have up to 10,000 specials to help with security at the 2012 Olympic Games. This was to be done either through recruitment, with 700 extra specials being employed in the last year[61] or by borrowing them from other forces.[62] While this idea would have created a much safer environment for the Olympic celebrations, the plans came under fire from the police federation, which said that "volunteer special constables could drop out at the last minute, causing significant staffing problems".[62] After the security firm G4S failed to hire enough security staff, the government called in 3,500 additional military personnel to cover the shortfall.[63]

Acceptance[edit]

Historically, special constables were often looked down upon by regular officers and resented, as they were sometimes seen as "hobby bobbies" and not proper police officers. During the 1980s, specials were often considered to be preventing regular officers from earning overtime pay.[64] Nowadays, they have a much closer relationship with the regular police and are a supplement to understaffed police forces.[citation needed]

A sizeable proportion of regular officers have served as special constables before joining the regular force, which is encouraged by recruitment departments. Most police forces will accept applications from the age of 18; and the minimum age to commence training is 17 years 9 months in Essex Constabulary and 17 years 6 months for Humberside Police.[citation needed]

Allowing special constables to be paid for their work has been a contentious issue, with mixed comments from all sides, with some people believing that as specials are doing much the same job as regular officers they should be paid the same, but others thinking that this would attract the 'wrong' type of person (those motivated by monetary gain as opposed to those who are community minded)[citation needed]

The Association of Special Constabulary Officers was established as a registered charity to represent special constables in relation to terms and conditions and representation at various Home Office and College of Policing boards. ASCO has also represented special constables for welfare issues and supported them as a 'police friend' in misconduct cases.[65]

Honours, medals and awards[edit]

Medal ribbon bar of the Special Constabulary Long Service Medal

Established by Royal Warrant on 30 August 1919, the Special Constabulary Long Service Medal may be earned by special constables after nine years' service, with a clasp issued for each additional period of 10 years. The name and rank of the recipient and the date of the award are engraved on the rim of the medal.

Special constables are also eligible for other honours and a full list of honours can be found at the List of British Special Constables awarded honours with seven members of the Special Constabulary being awarded MBEs and BEMs in the 2019 New Year Honours. Due to a loophole in legislation, special constables in England and Wales are not eligible to be nominated for award of the Queen's Police Medal, whereas special constables in Scotland are eligible for nomination. The Association of Special Constabulary Chief Officers made representation to the Home Office requesting clarification in 2016.

The Lord Ferrers' Awards recognise outstanding contributions to volunteering in policing. The awards, previously known as the Special Constable and Police Support Volunteer Awards, highlight the vital role volunteers play in support of policing, by giving up their free time to make communities safer, and enhancing the effectiveness of policing across England and Wales. In 2013, they were renamed in memory of Rt Hon Lord Ferrers, the former Home Office minister who created the awards in 1993.[66]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Police workforce, England and Wales: 30 September 2018". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  2. ^ icebomb.co.uk, Marc - (2018-03-12). "Number of Special Constables in Scotland has more than halved since 2013 - Scottish Conservatives". Scottish Conservatives. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  3. ^ "Police Specials website: history (accessed 3 November 2006)". Archived from the original on 16 November 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
  4. ^ "PoliceSpecials.com - History of the Special Constabulary". Archived from the original on 2013-11-16. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  5. ^ "Lincolnshire Special Constabulary Bulletin No.27-September, 1942". Archived from the original on 2009-08-21. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
  6. ^ The HAC Special Constabulary website[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ ACC Richard Debicki (2018). "Special Constabulary National Strategy 2018-2023" (PDF). NPCC. p. 13. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  8. ^ Durham Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  9. ^ Hampshire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  10. ^ Merseyside Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  11. ^ Northamptonshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  12. ^ South Wales Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  13. ^ South Yorkshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  14. ^ Wiltshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  15. ^ Gloucestershire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  16. ^ Avon and Somerset Constabulary"Avon and Somerset Constabulary Website - Police Ranks", Viewed 21 January 2019
  17. ^ Bedfordshire Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  18. ^ British Transport Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  19. ^ Cambridgeshire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  20. ^ British Transport Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  21. ^ Cleveland Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  22. ^ Cumbria Constabulary"Special Constable Ranks FOI Request 2019
  23. ^ Derbyshire Constabulary"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  24. ^ Devon and Cornwall Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  25. ^ Dorset Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  26. ^ Dyfed-Powys Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  27. ^ Essex Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  28. ^ Gloucestershire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  29. ^ Lancashire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  30. ^ Gwent Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  31. ^ Hertfordshire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  32. ^ Lancashire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  33. ^ Leicestershire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  34. ^ Lincolnshire Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  35. ^ Metropolitan Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  36. ^ Norfolk Contabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  37. ^ North Wales Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  38. ^ North Wales Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  39. ^ Nottinghamshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  40. ^ Police Scotland "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  41. ^ Staffordshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  42. ^ Suffolk Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  43. ^ Thames Valley Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  44. ^ Warwickshire Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  45. ^ West Mercia Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  46. ^ West Midlands Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  47. ^ West Yorkshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  48. ^ Hampshire dismissed their Chief Specials Officer Tom Haye at a Misconduct hearing on 3 Feb 2021 https://www.hampshire.police.uk/police-forces/hampshire-constabulary/areas/misconduct/misconduct-hearing-outcomes/ A decision CSO Haye said he would appeal against
  49. ^ "Special Constabulary Chief Officer Dale Cartwright". beta.south-wales.police.uk. Retrieved 2021-03-16.
  50. ^ "New Chief Officer of Staffordshire Special Constabulary appointed | Staffordshire Police". www.staffordshire.police.uk. Retrieved 2020-06-25.
  51. ^ "Force 'to train special constables to use Tasers'". BBC News. 11 September 2019. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  52. ^ Police and Justice Act 2006
  53. ^ Police (Scotland) Act 1967
  54. ^ Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000
  55. ^ Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003
  56. ^ Commitment to the Community, Specials magazine published by Story Worldwide for the Home Office (Summer 2006)
  57. ^ Special Beat
  58. ^ Specials magazine Autumn 2006
  59. ^ Special Beat magazine produced on behalf of the NPIA (National Policing Improvement Agency) for Special Constabulary members in England & Wales
  60. ^ Specials magazine Autumn 2005
  61. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2010-03-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  62. ^ a b "Met Police to fill London Olympics security roles with special constables - 1/22/2010 - Personnel Today". Archived from the original on 2012-02-25. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
  63. ^ Burns, John F. (14 July 2012). "Amid Reports of Ineptitude, Concerns Over Security at London Olympics". The New York Times.
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