|SEM micrograph of S. aureus colonies; note the grape-like clustering common to Staphylococcus species.|
|Classification and external resources|
Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that can cause a wide variety of infections in humans and other animals through infection or the production of toxins. Staphylococcal toxins are a common cause of food poisoning, as they can be produced in improperly-stored food. Staphylococci are also known to be a cause of bacterial conjunctivitis. Staphylococcus aureus can cause a number of different skin diseases. Among neurosurgical patients, it can cause community-acquired meningitis.
|Main Staphylococcus aureus infections|
|Localized skin infections|
Diffuse skin infection
Deep, localized infections
|Unless else specified in boxes, then reference is|
Other infections include:
- Closed-space infections of the fingertips, known as paronychia.
The main coagulase-positive staphylococcus is Staphylococcus aureus, although not all strains of Staphylococcus aureus are coagulase positive. These bacteria can survive on dry surfaces, increasing the chance of transmission. S. aureus is also implicated in toxic shock syndrome; during the 1980s some tampons allowed the rapid growth of S. aureus, which released toxins that were absorbed into the bloodstream. Any S. aureus infection can cause the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, a cutaneous reaction to exotoxin absorbed into the bloodstream. It can also cause a type of septicaemia called pyaemia. The infection can be life-threatening. Problematically, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. MRSA has also been recognized with increasing frequency in community-acquired infections. The symptoms of a Staph Infection include a collection of pus, such as a boil or furuncle, or abscess. The area is typically tender or painful and may be reddened or swollen.
- S. epidermidis, a coagulase-negative staphylococcus species, is a commensal of the skin, but can cause severe infections in immune-suppressed patients and those with central venous catheters.
- S. saprophyticus, another coagulase-negative species that is part of the normal vaginal flora, is predominantly implicated in uncomplicated lower genitourinary tract infections in young sexually active women.
- In recent years, several other staphylococcal species have been implicated in human infections, notably S. lugdunensis, S. schleiferi, and S. caprae.
The generic name Staphylococcus is derived from the Greek word "staphyle," meaning bunch of grapes, and "kokkos," meaning granule. The bacteria, when seen under a microscope, appear like a branch of grapes or berries.
- "Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis or Pinkeye) Symptoms, Treatment, Home Remedies, Medication, Causes". MedicineNet. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Staphylococcus aureus Infections - Infections". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Retrieved 2015-12-03.
- Cheng-Ching, Esteban; Chahine, Lama; Baron, Eric P.; Alexander Rae-Grant (28 March 2012). Comprehensive Review in Clinical Neurology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 670. ISBN 9781451153637. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
Neurosurgical patients are predisposed to meningitis with aerobic gram-negative bacilli (including Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus coagulase negative (such as epidermidis).
- Kurono, Y.; Tomonaga, K.; Mogi, G. (1988-11-01). "Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus in otitis media with effusion". Archives of Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery. 114 (11): 1262–1265. doi:10.1001/archotol.1988.01860230056023. ISSN 0886-4470. PMID 3262358.
- Pastacaldi, C.; Lewis, P.; Howarth, P. (2011-04-01). "Staphylococci and staphylococcal superantigens in asthma and rhinitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Allergy. 66 (4): 549–555. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02502.x. ISSN 1398-9995. PMID 21087214.
- Payne, Spencer C.; Benninger, Michael S. (2007-11-15). "Staphylococcus aureus Is a Major Pathogen in Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis: A Meta-Analysis". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 45 (10): e121–e127. doi:10.1086/522763. ISSN 1058-4838. PMID 17968816.
- Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series). Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 349. ISBN 0-7817-8215-5.
- "Staphylococcal Infections". MedlinePlus. US National Institutes of Health.
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- Becker, Karsten; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg (2014). "Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 27 (4): 870–926. doi:10.1128/CMR.00109-13. ISSN 0893-8512.