Stridsvagn 122

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Stridsvagn 122
Strv122 3 cropped.jpg
TypeMain battle tank
Place of originSweden/Germany[1]
Service history
In service1997–present [2]
Used bySwedish Army
Production history
ManufacturerKrauss-Maffei Wegmann: 29 chassis[1]
Land Systems Hägglunds AB: 91 chassis[1]
Unit costUS$5.74 million
Produced1994-present
No. built120
VariantsStrv 122A (110 chassis)
Strv 122B (10 chassis)
Specifications
Mass62.5 tonnes (61.5 long tons; 68.9 short tons)[2][3]
Length9.97 m (32 ft 9 in) (gun forward)
Width3.75 m (12 ft 4 in)
Height3.0 m (9 ft 10 in)
Crew4

Armour3rd generation composite; including high-hardness steel, tungsten and plastic filler with ceramic component.
Main
armament
1 x 120 mm Rheinmetall L44 smoothbore tank gun
42 rounds
Secondary
armament
2 x 7.62×51mm NATO Ksp m/94 machine gun
4,750 rounds
4 x 2 GALIX smoke grenade launchers[3]
EngineMTU MB 873 Ka-501 liquid-cooled V-12 Twin-turbo diesel engine
1,500 PS (1,479 hp, 1,103 kW) at 2,600 rpm
Power/weight24.19 PS/t (17.79 kW/t)
TransmissionRenk HSWL 354
SuspensionTorsion-bar suspension
Ground clearance540 mm
Fuel capacity1,200 liters (317 US gallons; 264 imp. gal)
Operational
range
550 km (340 mi) (internal fuel)[2][3]
Maximum speed 68 km/h (42 mph)[2][3]
Stridsvagn 122 during an urban warfare exercise, 2006

Stridsvagn 122 (Strv 122) (IPA: [ˈstrɪ̂tːsvaŋn];[Note 1] is a Swedish main battle tank based on the German Leopard 2 improved variant, just like the German Leopard 2A5, utilizing newer technology such as command-, control-, and fire-control systems, as well as reinforced armour and long-term combat capacity. Externally, the vehicle can be distinguished from the Leopard 2A5 by the French GALIX smoke dispensers, different storage bins, and the thicker crew hatches.[4]

Development[edit]

After the Strv 2000 was dismissed, the Swedish government decided in 1991 that a new main battle tank was to be procured to replace the Strv 101/102s and Strv 103s in service at the time. During the project "Strv Ny", three tank models were sent to Sweden to participate in trials: the American M1A2 Abrams, the German Leopard 2 Improved and a prototype variant of the French Leclerc.

Strv 121 with applied Barracuda IR-dampening camo net

The trials concluded with the Leopard 2 Improved as the winner with the M1A2 coming in a close second place. The shortcomings of the Leclerc were partly attributed to it still being in the development phase and not yet mature for service. In 1994 the Swedish government decided to acquire 120 new production tanks and 160 older Leopard 2A4s as a stopgap before the newer tanks were finished. The Leopard 2A4 in Swedish service became designated Strv 121 while the new production became the Strv 122. Of the 120 Strv 122, 29 were manufactured by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann while the other 91 were manufactured by Bofors and Hägglunds.[5]

Features[edit]

The Leopard PT A's width of 3.75 meters[3] has been kept, while the weight increased by only 350 kilograms (770 lb).[6]

The Stridsvagn 122 was designed to fight in Swedish conditions including heavily forested areas as well as urban terrain. The designation derives from the 12 cm gun, on the second tank in Swedish service featuring this calibre (the first being Strv 121, Leopard 2A4s fitted with Swedish lights and radios and painted in Swedish camouflage). Strv 122 also had to overcome the perceived flaws of the original German tank, and features the following abilities:[7]

  • Heavily reinforced armour to protect against man-portable anti-tank weapons.
  • An advanced CBRN defence system for protection against chemical, biological and radioactive weapons.
  • Wading capability to pass through water up to 1.4 meters deep.
  • Quick ability to discover, identify and lock on a target with the assistance of a laser rangefinder, thermographic camera, and a speed/distance/accuracy calculator for maximum accuracy.
  • Ability to lock onto numerous targets at once, enabling the tank to fight numerous enemy vehicles without having to manually re-aim the gun after every shot.
  • Active communication for improved cooperation between units.
  • Tank Command & Control System TCCS by Celsius Tech Systems AB.[3]

Production and service[edit]

As of 2013, 42 of these tanks remain in active service.[8] Most of the 160 Leopard 2 A4s (local designation Strv 121) that were originally leased are being returned to Germany.[9] The active tanks are divided between three companies, two at P 4, Skövde and one at I 19, Boden.[10] In 2015, the Swedish government decided that another tank company should be established at the P 18 regiment on the island of Gotland. This company was to be trained at P 4 and transferred to P 18 in 2019. [11][12]

In 2016, Sweden ordered new upgrades for the Strv 122 from Krauss-Maffei, with delivery slated to be between 2018 and 2023.[13] Apart from routine renovation, Stridsledningssystem Bataljon (tactical command system battalion from SAAB), a new observation/gun sight (TIM) for the commander, as well as new communication systems for international missions, will be added together with a modular 360° ballistic protection system. This new upgraded version is designated Strv 122C if the vehicle is an upgraded 122A variant or Strv 122D if the upgrade is applied to an Strv 122B.[14][15]

Variants[edit]

  • Strv 122A - Baseline variant. Entered service in 1997.[15]
  • Strv 122B - Variant with improved mine protection, modification of existing Strv 122A models in 2002.[15]
  • Strv 122B Int. - Modified for international deployments in warmer climates. Command & Control Systems were made NATO-compatible. Barracuda camo-nets that dampen infrared signature were applied. [15][16]
  • Strv 122C - Renovated Strv 122A with updated Command & Control systems by FMV's FSV Mv division and KMW.[15]
  • Strv 122D - Renovated Strv 122B with updated Command & Control systems by FMV's FSV Mv division and KMW.[15]
  • Strv 122B+ Evolution - Prototype made by IBD and Åkers Krutbruk Protection AB in 2010. Increased protection levels using more advanced composite materials.[17]

Comparison with other main battle tanks[edit]

Comparison of some main battle tanks of the same generation
Strv 122
Sweden
M1A2
United States
T-90
Russia
Leopard 2A5
Germany
Challenger 2
United Kingdom
Unit cost US$5.74 million[18] US$6.21 million[19] US$4.25 million[20] US$6.86 million[21] US$6.53 million[22]
Weight 62.5 t[2][3] 63.09 t[23] 46 t[24] 62.3 t[25] 74.9 t[26]
Length 9.97 meters[27] 9.77 meters[23] 9.63 meters[24] 9.97 meters[25] 11.50 meters[26]
Width 3.75 meters[27] 3.7 meters[23] 3.78 meters[24] 3.75 meters[25] 3.5 meters[26]
Height 3 meters[27] 2.4 meters[23] 2.22 meters[24] 3 meters[25] 2.49 meters[26]
Crew 4[27] 4[23] 3[24] 4[25] 4[26]
Armor 3rd generation composite[27] Depleted Uranium composite[23] Composite/reactive[24] 3rd generation composite[25] Dorchester Level 2 (classified)[26]
Main armament 1x 120 mm Rheinmetall L/44 smoothbore gun[27] 1x M256 120 mm L/44 smoothbore gun[23] 1x 125 mm L/48 smoothbore gun[24] 1x 120 mm Rheinmetall L/44 smoothbore gun[25] 1x 120 mm L30 L/55 rifled gun[26]
Main ammunition 42 rounds[27] 42 rounds[23] 42 rounds[24] 42 rounds[25] 50 rounds[26]
Secondary armament 2x 7.62mm machine guns[27] 1x 12.7mm heavy machine gun
2x 7.62mm machine guns[23]
1x 12.7mm heavy machine gun
1x 7.62mm machine gun[24]
2x 7.62mm machine guns[25] Coaxial 7.62×51mm L94A1 EX-34 (chain gun),
7.62×51mm L7A2 (GPMG) Loader's Pintle Mounted Machine Gun[26]
Secondary ammunition 4,750 rounds[27] 900 rounds
10,000 rounds[23]
7,000 rounds[24] 4,750 rounds[25] 4,000 rounds[28]
Engine power 1,500 hp[27] 1,500 hp[23] 1,000 hp[24] 1,500 hp[25] 1,200 bhp
Power/weight 24.00 hp/t[27] 23.54 hp/t[23] 21.74 hp/t[24] 24.07 hp/t[25] 19.2 hp/t[26]
Suspension Torsion-bar suspension[27] Torsion-bar suspension[23] Torsion-bar suspension[24] Torsion-bar suspension[25] Hydropneumatic[26]
Fuel capacity 1,200 liters[27] 1,900 liters[23] 1,600 liters (with auxiliary drums) [29] 1,200 liters[25] 1,592 liters[26]
Operational range 550 km[2][3] 425 km[23] 550 km[24] 550 km[25] 450 km[26]
Speed 68 km/h[2][3] 68 km/h[23] 65 km/h[24] 72 km/h[25] 59 km/h[26]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Strv" is the Swedish military abbreviation of stridsvagn, Swedish for chariot and tank (literally combat wagon), while the number "122" comes from the Swedish designation system for tanks, were the two initial numbers, 12, indicates the calibre of the tank’s main gun, 12 cm, and the last number indicating that it is the second tank model with that calibre to enter service with the Swedish military.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Lindström, Rickard O. "Strv 121 & Strv 122". ointres.se. Archived from the original on 2021-02-25. Retrieved 2021-05-09.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Lindström, Rickard O. and Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf (2009). Svenskt Pansar 90 år av svensk stridsfordonsutveckling, p. 112. Bookwell, Finland. ISBN 978 91 85789 375.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Leopard 2 – Stridsvagn 122 Facts". Swedish Defence Materiel Administration. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  4. ^ "Stridsvagn 122". Försvarets materielverk. 10 February 2005. Archived from the original on 10 February 2005. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  5. ^ "Projekt "Stridsvagn Ny"". www.ointres.se. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  6. ^ "New MBT122B Evolution with Unprecedented Protection" (PDF). IBD Deisenroth Engineering. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
  7. ^ "Stridsvagn 122 - Försvarsmakten" (in Swedish). Försvarsmakten. Archived from the original on 21 November 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  8. ^ "Strv 122 Tank". fighting-vehicles.com. Archived from the original on 27 November 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017. 42 Strv 122 remain in active service.
  9. ^ "Sydsvenskan: Stridsvagnar kör sista varvet" (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 2014-07-18. Retrieved 2014-09-22.
  10. ^ "Stridsvagn 122 (Strv 122) Main Battle Tank (1998)". Militaryfactory.com. 2011. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  11. ^ Leino, Per (2017-12-13). "Klartecken för Gotlands regemente". helagotland.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2022-10-03.
  12. ^ Försvarsmakten. "Verksamhet på Gotland". Försvarsmakten (in Swedish). Retrieved 2022-10-03.
  13. ^ Hellgren, Magnus. "Stridsvagnssystem". fmv.se. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  14. ^ "Nu rustas Leopardstridsvagnen". Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  15. ^ a b c d e f "Strv 121 / Strv 122". www.ointres.se. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  16. ^ "Stridsvagn | SPHF" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  17. ^ Lindström, Richard (2011). "Stridsvagn 122B+ Evolution" (PDF). Ointes.se. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 31, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  18. ^ Foss, p. 116.
  19. ^ Foss, pp. 149–153
  20. ^ "Denial of Defense Procurement MBT T-90 is not connected with the qualitative characteristics of this sample of military equipment – Ministry of Industry of the Russian Federation". Arms-Tass. March 17, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
  21. ^ Foss, p. 114.
  22. ^ Foss, pp. 130–135
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Pike, John (2013). "M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank". Global security.org. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "T-90 Main Battle Tank (MBT) (1995)". MilitaryFactory.com. 2 February 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Genys, Andrius (2014). "Leopard 2A5 Main Battle Tank". Military-today.com. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Challenger 2 Main Battle Tank (1998)". Militaryfactory.com. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Foss, p. 117.
  28. ^ Challenger 2 main battle tank
  29. ^ "T-90 MBT main battle tank technical data pictures video | Russia Russian army tank heavy armoured vehicles U | Russia Russian army military equipment vehicles UK".

Bibliography[edit]

  • Foss, Christopher F. (2002). Jane's Armour and Artillery. Jane's Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7106-0964-9.

External links[edit]