A super-Jupiter is an astronomical object that is more massive than the planet Jupiter. For example, companions at the planet–brown dwarf borderline have been called super-Jupiters, such as around the star Kappa Andromedae.
By 2011 there were 180 known super-Jupiters, some hot, some cold. Even though they are more massive than Jupiter, they remain about the same size as Jupiter up to 80 Jupiter masses. This means that their surface gravity and density goes up proportionally with their mass. The increased mass compresses the planet due to gravity, thus keeping it from being larger. In comparison, somewhat lighter planets than Jupiter can be larger, so-called "puffy planets" (gas giants with a large diameter but low density). An example of this may be the exoplanet HAT-P-1b with about half the mass of Jupiter but about 1.38 times larger diameter.
Corot-3b, with a mass around 22 Jupiter masses, is predicted to have an average density of 26.4 g/cm3, greater than osmium (22.6 g/cm3), the densest natural element under standard conditions. Extreme compression of matter inside it causes the high density, because it is likely composed mainly of hydrogen. The surface gravity is also high, over 50 times that of Earth.
- "Astronomers Directly Image Massive Star's 'Super-Jupiter'". NASA. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Kitchin, Chris (2012). Exoplanets: Finding, Exploring, and Understanding Alien Worlds. pp. 167–168. ISBN 9781461406440.
- Chang, Kenneth (2010-11-11). "Puzzling Puffy Planet, Less Dense Than Cork, Is Discovered". The New York Times.
- Deleuil, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Rouan, D.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J. M.; et al. (2008). "Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. VI. CoRoT-Exo-3b: the first secure inhabitant of the brown-dwarf desert". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 491 (3): 889–897. arXiv:. Bibcode:2008A&A...491..889D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810625.
- Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G.; Barman, T. S.; Allard, F.; Hauschildt, P. H. (2003). "Evolutionary models for cool brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets. The case of HD 209458". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 402 (2): 701–712. arXiv:. Bibcode:2003A&A...402..701B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20030252.
- "Image of the "super-Jupiter" Kappa Andromedae b". NASA/JPL. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
|This extrasolar-planet-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|