The Great Escape (film)

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The Great Escape
The Great Escape (film) poster.jpg
Directed byJohn Sturges
Produced byJohn Sturges
Screenplay by
Based onThe Great Escape
by Paul Brickhill
Starring
Music byElmer Bernstein
CinematographyDaniel L. Fapp
Edited byFerris Webster
Production
company
Distributed byUnited Artists
Release date
  • June 20, 1963 (1963-06-20) (premiere, London)
  • July 4, 1963 (1963-07-04) (US)
Running time
172 minutes
CountryUnited States
Language
  • English
  • German
  • French
Budget$3.8 million[1]
Box office$11,744,471

The Great Escape is a 1963 American epic war film starring Steve McQueen, James Garner, and Richard Attenborough and featuring James Donald, Charles Bronson, Donald Pleasence, James Coburn, and Hannes Messemer. It was filmed in Panavision.

The film is based on Paul Brickhill's 1950 nonfiction book of the same name, a firsthand account of the mass escape by British Commonwealth prisoners of war from German POW camp Stalag Luft III in Sagan (now Żagań, Poland), in the province of Lower Silesia, Nazi Germany. The film was based on the real events but deviated significantly from historical events, depicting a heavily fictionalised version of the escape with numerous compromises for its commercial appeal, such as including Americans among the escapees.

It was made by The Mirisch Company, released by United Artists, and produced and directed by John Sturges. The film had its Royal World Premiere at the Odeon Leicester Square in London's West End on 20 June 1963.[2] The film became very popular and is now considered a classic.[3]

Plot[edit]

In 1943, having expended enormous resources on recapturing escaped Allied POWs, the Germans move the most determined to a new, high-security prisoner of war camp. The commandant, Luftwaffe Colonel von Luger, tells the senior British officer, Group Captain Ramsey, "There will be no escapes from this camp." Hungry to get back to the fight and eager to prove as much of an annoyance to their captors as possible, the POWs mount an audacious plan to tunnel out of the camp in order to secure the escape of 250 prisoners, not only to escape, but also to draw German forces away from battle to search for fugitives, to the point that as many troops and resources as possible will be wasted on finding POWs instead of being used on the front line. Led by RAF Squadron Leader Roger Bartlett, known as "Big X", the POWs organise into teams. American Flight Lieutenant Robert Hendley is "the scrounger" who finds needed materials, from a camera to clothes and identity cards. Australian Flying Officer Louis Sedgwick, "the manufacturer", makes tools like picks for digging and bellows for pumping air into the tunnels. Flight Lieutenants Danny Velinski and William "Willie" Dickes are "the tunnel kings" in charge of the digging. Flight Lieutenant Andrew MacDonald acts as intelligence provider and Bartlett's second-in-command. Lieutenant Commander Eric Ashley-Pitt of the Royal Navy devises a method of spreading soil from the tunnels over the camp, under the guards' noses. Flight Lieutenant Griffith acts as "the tailor", creating civilian outfits from scavenged cloth. Forgery is handled by Flight Lieutenant Colin Blythe. The prisoners work on three tunnels simultaneously, calling them "Tom", "Dick", and "Harry". The work noise is covered by the prisoner choir led by Flt. Lt. Denis Cavendish.

USAAF Captain Virgil Hilts, the "Cooler King", irritates guards with frequent escape attempts and irreverence. Hilts has a habit for bouncing a baseball against the cooler cell wall to entertain himself, as he plans an escape attempt. Hilts and Scottish RAF Flying Officer Archibald "Archie" Ives, conceive an escape attempt through a short tunnel at a blind spot near the edge of the camp, a proposal which is accepted by Bartlett on the grounds that vetoing every independent escape attempt would raise suspicion of the collective escape attempt being planned. However, Hilts and Ives are caught and returned to the cooler. Upon release from the cooler, Bartlett requests that Hilts use his next escape attempt as an opportunity for a reconnaissance of the area immediately surrounding the camp; Hilts turns down Bartlett's request but does assist the prisoners as a scrounger. Meanwhile, Hendley forms a friendship with German guard Werner, which he exploits on several occasions to smuggle documents and other items of importance to the prisoners. Soon, Bartlett orders "Dick" and "Harry" to be sealed off, as "Tom" is closest to completion.

While the POWs enjoy a 4th of July celebration arranged by Hilts, Hendley and 2nd Lt. Goff, the guards discover "Tom". The mood drops to despair, and Ives frantically climbs the barbed wire surrounding the camp, in view of the guards; he is shot dead. The prisoners switch their efforts to "Harry", and Hilts agrees to reconnoiter outside the camp and allow himself to be recaptured. The information he brings back is used to create maps to guide the escapees. Blythe discovers that he is slowly going blind due to progressive myopia caused by intricate work by candlelight; Hendley takes it upon himself to be Blythe's guide in the escape.

The last part of the tunnel is completed on the scheduled night, but it proves to be twenty feet short of the woods. Knowing there are no other options, Bartlett orders the escape to go ahead, and Hilts improvises a rope signal system to allow them to exit the tunnel between sweeps of the guards on patrol. The claustrophobic Danny nearly refuses to go, but is helped along by Willie. Seventy-six prisoners escape, aided by an air-raid blackout: once back on the rope, however, Griffith impatiently exits the tunnel in view of the guards, and the escape is discovered.

All 76 POWs attempt to flee though various parts of the Third Reich. Cavendish hitches a ride in a truck, but is delivered to the authorities, discovering another POW, Haynes, captured in his German soldier disguise. Hendley and Blythe steal a plane to fly over the Swiss border, but the engine fails, and they crash-land. Blythe is shot by soldiers. As he dies, he thanks Hendley for getting him out. Hendley is captured. Hilts steals a motorcycle at a checkpoint and is pursued by German soldiers; he jumps a first-line barbed wire fence at the German-Swiss border but before he's able to jump the second-line fence, the motorcycle is shot, causing it and him to become entangled in the bigger, second line of the fence and be captured. While waiting to pass through a Gestapo investigation checkpoint at a railway station, Bartlett is recognized by Kuhn, a Gestapo agent who had transferred Barlett to the camp, but Ashley-Pitt sacrifices himself by killing Kuhn and letting himself be chased and killed by soldiers. The resulting confusion allows Bartlett and MacDonald to slip away, but they are later caught while boarding a bus after MacDonald blunders by accidentally replying to a suspicious English-speaking Gestapo officer. MacDonald is quickly apprehended, but Bartlett escapes until he is recognized and arrested by Untersturmführer Steinach, a SS agent who also had transferred Barlett to the camp.

As three truckloads of recaptured POWs are driven down a country road, the trucks stop in a field, and the POWs, which include Bartlett, MacDonald, Cavendish, Haynes and others, are invited to stretch their legs in a field, whereupon they are all shot dead on the orders of a vengeful Adolf Hitler under the pretense that they were trying to escape. In all, 50 escapees are murdered; Hendley and 10 others are returned to the camp.

Only three POWs make it to freedom: Danny and Willie steal a rowboat and proceed downriver to the Baltic coast, where they board a Swedish merchant ship. Sedgwick steals a bicycle, then rides hidden on a freight train to France, where he is guided by the Resistance to Spain. Hilts is returned to the camp just as Von Luger is relieved of command of the camp by Steinach for having failed to prevent the breakout: von Luger says to Hilts, "It looks, after all, as if you will see Berlin before I do." The camp is now placed under the control of the Gestapo, to make life more difficult for the remaining POWs. Hilts is taken back to the cooler, as Goff fetches Hilts's baseball and glove and throws them to him when Hilts and his guards pass. The guard locks him in his cell and walks away, but momentarily pauses when he hears the familiar sound of Hilts optimistically bouncing his baseball against his cell wall, planning his next escape as he did so many times before.

Cast[edit]

  • Steve McQueen as Virgil Hilts "The Cooler King": One of three Americans in the camp, Hilts irritates guards with frequent escape attempts and irreverence. He has a habit for bouncing a baseball against the cooler cell wall to entertain himself, as he plans an escape attempt.
  • James Garner as Robert Hendley "The Scrounger": An American flier in the RAF Eagle Squadron, having enlisted there before the Americans entered the war. He is responsible for finding materials that will be necessary for the POWs on the outside.
  • Richard Attenborough as Roger Bartlett "Big X": An ambitious RAF officer, himself a veteran escaper and a survivor of torture by the Gestapo, Bartlett is the principal organizer of escapes and is known as "Big X" of the camp escape committee and mounts an audacious plan to tunnel out of the camp.
  • James Donald as Ramsey "The SBO": A British officer who serves as an intermediary between the POWs and the Germans. Due to his disability (he walks with a cane), he is unable to participate in the escape.
  • Charles Bronson as Danny Velinski "Tunnel King": A Polish refugee who escaped Nazi held Poland and went to England to join up in the fight against the Nazis. He suffers from claustrophobia and is fearful of tunnel collapses, primarily coming from his previous experience digging 17 escape tunnels.
  • Donald Pleasence as Colin Blythe "The Forger": A mild-mannered and good-natured man who has a love for bird watching.
  • James Coburn as Louis Sedgwick "The Manufacturer": An Australian officer who constructs objects necessary for the escape to occur.
  • Hannes Messemer as Oberst Von Luger "The Kommandant": The commandant of the camp and a senior Luftwaffe officer, Von Luger is very civil with the POWs, and is openly anti-Nazi, especially embittered with the SS and Gestapo. When Gestapo agent Kuhn orders that Bartlett receive strict confinement, Von Luger refuses treating the command with complete contempt, and saying that Allied prisoners of war are the Luftwaffe's responsibility.
  • David McCallum as Eric Ashley-Pitt "Dispersal": A Royal Navy officer who finds an ingenious way to get rid of the dirt being brought up from the tunnels.
  • Gordon Jackson as Andrew MacDonald "Intelligence": Bartlett's second-in-command in planning the escape.
  • John Leyton as William "Willie" Dickes "Tunnel King": Danny's best friend, who often seeks to encourage Danny during his struggles with claustrophobia.
  • Angus Lennie as Ives "The Mole": A Scottish airman who has an intense desire to escape, leading him to the precipice of paranoia.
  • Nigel Stock as Dennis Cavendish "The Surveyor": A Flight Lieutenant who has an important duty for the building of the tunnel.
  • Robert Graf as Werner "The Ferret": A young, naive guard, with whom Hendley forms a friendship with, which he exploits as a means of obtaining his private documents, and then as blackmail to get hold of other items for the escape.
  • Jud Taylor as 2nd Lt. Goff: The third American in camp.
  • Harry Riebauer as Stabsfeldwebel Strachwitz
  • William Russell as Sorren
  • Robert Freitag as Hauptmann Posen
  • Lawrence Montaigne as Haynes "Diversions"
  • Robert Desmond as Griffith "Tailor"
  • Til Kiwe as Frick
  • Heinz Weiss as Kramer
  • Tom Adams as Dai Nimmo "Diversions"
  • Ulrich Beiger as Preissen: A high-ranking Gestapo official, and an ardent Nazi. He has a condescending attitude and is the one who brings the captured Bartlett to the camp. He has disdain for Von Luger and the Luftwaffe's honor towards the prisoners, and believes that the camp should be brought under the jurisdiction of the SS – the Gestapo in particular.
  • Hans Reiser as Kuhn: A Gestapo agent and associate of Preissen. He accompanies Preissen when they bring the captured Bartlett to the camp. An ardent Nazi, he orders Von Luger that Bartlett be kept under the most restrictive permanent security confinement, to which Von Luger refuses. Kuhn warns Bartlett that if he escapes again, he will be shot.
  • George Mikell as SS Obersturmführer Dietrich: One of SS agents who had Barlett transferred to the camp.
  • Karl-Otto Alberty as SS Untersturmführer Steinach: One of SS agents who had Barlett transferred to the camp.

Production[edit]

Model of the set used to film The Great Escape. It depicts a smaller version of a single compound in Stalag Luft III. The model is now at the museum near where the prison camp was located.

The book has been previously adapted as a live adaptation screened on January 27, 1951 by NBC TV broadcast as an episode of The Philco Television Playhouse.[4] The live broadcast was praised for engineering an ingenious set design for the live broadcast, including creating the illusion of underground tunnels.[5]

In 1963, the Mirisch brothers worked with United Artists to adapt the book to produce the film adaptation. The story was adapted by James Clavell, W. R. Burnett, and Walter Newman from Paul Brickhill's book The Great Escape. Brickhill had been a prisoner at Stalag Luft III during World War II. In the book, Brickhill noted he had been a very minor member of the X Organization, one of the "stooges" who monitored German movements in the POW compound.

Steve McQueen (left) with Wally Floody, a former Canadian POW who was part of the real Great Escape and acted as a technical advisor in production of the film.

Casting[edit]

Steve McQueen, in a role based on at least three pilots, David M. Jones, John Dortch Lewis,[6] and William Ash,[7][8][9] has been credited with the most significant performance. Critic Leonard Maltin wrote that "the large, international cast is superb, but the standout is McQueen; it's easy to see why this cemented his status as a superstar."[10]

Richard Attenborough was cast as Sqn Ldr Roger Bartlett RAF ("Big X"), a character based on Roger Bushell, the South African-born British POW who was the mastermind of the real Great Escape.[11] This was the film that first brought Attenborough to common notice in the United States. During the Second World War, Attenborough served in the Royal Air Force. He volunteered to fly with the Film Unit and after further training, where he sustained permanent ear damage, qualified as a sergeant, flying on several missions over Europe filming from the rear gunner's position to record the outcome of Bomber Command sorties. (Richard Harris was originally announced for the role.)[12]

Group Captain Ramsey RAF (the "SBO") was based on Group Captain Herbert Massey, a WWI veteran who had volunteered in WWII. He is played by James Donald. Massey walked with a limp, and so did Ramsey in the movie who walked with a cane. Massey had suffered severe wounds to the same leg in both wars. There would be no escape for him but as Senior British Officer, he had to know what was going on. Group Captain Massey had been a veteran escaper himself and had been in trouble with the Gestapo. His experience allowed him to offer sound advice to the X-Organisation.[13] Another officer that had most likely inspired the character of Ramsey was Wing Commander Harry Day. There was an uncanny resemblance between "Wings" Day and James Donald as Group Captain Ramsey in this picture.

Flt Lt Colin Blythe RAF ("The Forger") was based on Tim Walenn and played by Donald Pleasence.[14] Pleasence himself had served in the Royal Air Force during World War II. He was shot down and spent a year in German prisoner-of-war camp Stalag Luft I.

Charles Bronson had been a gunner in the USAAF and was wounded, but had not been shot down. Like his character, Danny Valinski, he was a coal miner and suffered from claustrophobia.

James Garner had been a soldier in the Korean War and was twice wounded. He was a scrounger during that time, as is his character Flt Lt Hendley.[15]

Hannes Messemer was cast as the Kommandant of Stalag Luft III, "Colonel von Luger," a character based on Oberst Friedrich Wilhelm von Lindeiner-Wildau.[16] He had been a POW in Russia during World War II and had escaped by walking hundreds of miles to the German border.[17]

Angus Lennie's Flying Officer Archibald Ives, "The Mole", was based on Jimmy Kiddel, who was shot dead while trying to scale the fence.[18]

The film is accurate in showing that only three escapees made home runs, although the people who made them differed from those in the film. The escape of Danny and Willie in the film is based on two Norwegians who escaped by boat to Sweden, Per Bergsland and Jens Müller. The successful escape of James Coburn's Australian character Sedgwick (the manufacturer) via Spain was based on Dutchman Bram van der Stok. Coburn, an American, was cast in the role of Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Flying Officer Louis Sedgwick who was an amalgamation of Flt Lt Albert Hake, an Australian serving in the RAF and the camps compass maker, and Johnny Travis, the real manufacturer.

Tilman 'Til Kiwe' Kiver played the German guard "Frick". He is the one who fires his pistol at Steve McQueen's character during the escape. Kiwe had been a German paratrooper officer who was captured and held prisoner at a POW camp in Colorado. He made several escape attempts, dyeing his uniform and carrying forged papers. He was captured in the St. Louis train station during one escape attempt. He won the Knight's Cross before his capture and was the cast member who had actually done many of the exploits shown in the film.

Location and set design[edit]

The film was made at the Bavaria Film Studio in the Munich suburb of Geiselgasteig in rural Bavaria, where sets for the barrack interiors and tunnels were constructed. The camp was built in a clearing of the Perlacher forest near the studio.[19][20] The German town near the real camp was Sagan (now Żagań, Poland); it was renamed Neustadt in the film.[20] Many scenes were filmed in and around the town of Füssen in Bavaria, including its railway station. The nearby district of Pfronten[21] with its distinctive St. Nikolaus Church and scenic background also features often in the film.[20] Many scenes involving the railway were filmed near Deisenhofen station and on the Großhesselohe – Holzkirchen line.[22] The castle Hendley and Blythe fly by while attempting to escape is Neuschwanstein Castle.[23]

The motorcycle used by Ekins for stunts in the film.

The motorcycle chase scenes with the barbed wire fences were shot on meadows outside Füssen, and the "barbed wire" that Hilts crashes into before being recaptured was simulated by strips of rubber tied around barbless wire, constructed by the cast and crew in their spare time.[24] The final jump scene was performed by stuntman Bud Ekins in place of Steve McQueen. Other parts of the chase were done by McQueen, playing both Hilts and the soldiers chasing him, because of his ability on a motorcycle.[25] The motorcycle was a Triumph TR6 Trophy which was painted to look like a German machine. The restored machine is currently on display at Triumph's factory at Hinckley, UK.[26]

Music[edit]

Intrada Records album[edit]

Disc one[edit]
Disc two[edit]
Disc three[edit]

Historical accuracy[edit]

End of the real "Harry" tunnel (on the other side of the road) showing how it does not reach the cover of the trees

The film was largely fictional, with changes made to increase its drama and appeal, and to serve as vehicle for its box-office stars. Many details of the actual escape attempt were changed for the film, including the roles of American personnel in both the planning and the escape. While the characters are fictitious, they were based on real men, and in most cases are composites of several people. The screenwriters significantly increased the involvement of American POWs; the real escape was by largely British and other Allied personnel, with the exception of Johnnie Dodge, naturalized British but retaining US citizenship (he married an American). He served in the Royal Navy, British Army, and (by manipulation of records) the RAF. A few other American officers in the camp initially helped dig the tunnels, and worked on the early plans; however, they were moved away seven months before the escape, ending their involvement.[27][28][29]

The film omits to mention the crucial role Canadians played in building the tunnels and in the escape itself. Of the 1,800 or so POWs, 600 were involved in preparations out of which 150 were Canadian. Wally Floody, an RCAF pilot and mining engineer who was the real-life "tunnel king," was engaged as a technical advisor for the film.[30]

The film depicts the tunnel codenamed Tom as having its entrance under a stove and Harry's as in a drain sump in a washroom. In reality, Dick's entrance was the drain sump, Harry's was under the stove, and Tom's was in a darkened corner next to a stove chimney.[31]

Ex-POWs asked film-makers to exclude details about the help they received from their home countries, such as maps, papers, and tools hidden in gift packages, lest it jeopardise future POW escapes. The film-makers complied.[32]

The film omits to mention that many Germans willingly helped in the escape itself. The film suggests that the forgers were able to make near-exact replicas of just about any pass that was used in Nazi Germany. In reality, the forgers received a great deal of assistance from Germans who lived many hundreds of miles away on the other side of the country. Several German guards, who were openly anti-Nazi, also willingly gave the prisoners items, and assistance in any way to aid their escape.[33]

The need for such accuracy produced much eyestrain, but unlike in the film, there were no cases of blindness. Some, such as Frank Knight, gave up forging because of the strain, but he certainly did not suffer the same ocular fate as the character of Colin Blythe in the film.[33]

The film depicts the escape taking place in exceptionally fine weather, whereas at the time it was freezing and thick snow lay around.[33]

In reality there were no escapes by aircraft or motorcycle: the motorcycle sequence was asked for by McQueen, a keen motorcyclist, who did the stunt riding himself (except for the final jump, done by Bud Ekins).[34] The movie shows the murders of the fifty prisoners as a single massacre; in reality, they were shot individually or in pairs.

In addition, the film suggests the three prisoners who escaped to freedom were British, Polish, and Australian; in reality, they were Norwegian (Jens Müller and Per Bergsland) and Dutch (Bram van der Stok).[35]

In 2009, seven POWs returned to Stalag Luft III for the 65th anniversary of the escape[36] and watched the film. According to the veterans, many details of the first half depicting life in the camp were authentic, e.g. the machine-gunning of Ives, who snaps and tries to scale the fence, and the actual digging of the tunnels.

The film has resulted in the story and the memory of the fifty executed airmen remaining widely known, if in a distorted form.[37]

Reception[edit]

The Great Escape grossed $11.7 million at the box office,[38] after a budget of $4 million.[39] It became one of the highest-grossing films of 1963, despite heavy competition. In the years since its release, its audience has broadened, cementing its status as a cinema classic.[3] It was entered into the 3rd Moscow International Film Festival where McQueen won the Silver Prize for Best Actor.[40]

Critical and public response has mostly been enthusiastic, with a 93% rating on Rotten Tomatoes.[41] In 1963 The New York Times critic Bosley Crowther wrote: "But for much longer than is artful or essential, The Great Escape grinds out its tormenting story without a peek beneath the surface of any man, without a real sense of human involvement. It's a strictly mechanical adventure with make-believe men."[42] British film critic Leslie Halliwell described it as "pretty good but overlong POW adventure with a tragic ending".[43] The Time magazine reviewer in 1963 wrote: "The use of color photography is unnecessary and jarring, but little else is wrong with this film. With accurate casting, a swift screenplay, and authentic German settings, Producer-Director John Sturges has created classic cinema of action. There is no sermonizing, no soul probing, no sex. The Great Escape is simply great escapism".[44]

In a 2006 poll in the United Kingdom, regarding the family film that television viewers would most want to see on Christmas Day, The Great Escape came in third, and was first among the choices of male viewers.[45]

Despite episodes of danger and human tragedy, the film, along with the film The Colditz Story, delight in a continual boyish game of escape and ingenuity, celebrating the courage and the defiant spirit of the prisoners of war, and treating war as fun.[46]

Awards and honors[edit]

Legacy[edit]

On 24 March 2014, the 70th anniversary of the escape, the RAF staged a commemoration of the escape attempt, with 50 serving personnel carrying a photograph of one of the men shot.[47]

On 24 March 2019, the RAF are planning another event for the 75th anniversary of the escape. There will be a screening of the film at London's Eventim Apollo Hammersmith hosted by Dan Snow. The film will be simulcast over UK cinemas nationwide.[48]

In popular culture[edit]

Sequel[edit]

A fictional, made-for-television sequel, The Great Escape II: The Untold Story, was released in 1988, with different actors, directed by Jud Taylor (in the 1963 original Taylor had played 2nd Lt. Goff).[52] The film is not a true sequel, as it dramatizes the escape itself just as the original film does, although mostly using the real names of the individuals involved (whereas the original film fictionalized them and used composite characters). It depicts the search for the culprits responsible for the murder of the 50 Allied officers. Pleasence appeared in a supporting role as a member of the SS.[49]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Balio, Tino (1987). United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 174. ISBN 9780299114404.
  2. ^ "The Great Escape, premiere". The Times. London. June 20, 1963. p. 2.
  3. ^ a b Eder, Bruce (2009). "Review: The Great Escape". AllMovie. Macrovision Corporation. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  4. ^ The Great Escape, the Internet Movie Database. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0674407/
  5. ^ Wade, Robert J. "The Great Escape." Radio Age 10.3 (April 1951). Available at https://archive.org/stream/radioageresearch195052newyrich#page/n103/mode/2up
  6. ^ Kaufman, Michael T. (August 13, 1999). "John D. Lewis, 84, Pilot in 'The Great Escape'". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  7. ^ Bishop, Patrick (30 August 2015). "William Ash: The cooler king". BBC Online. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  8. ^ Foley, Brendan (29 April 2014). "Bill Ash obituary". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  9. ^ "William Ash – obituary". The Daily Telegraph. London. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  10. ^ Maltin, Leonard (1999). Leonard Maltin's Family Film Guide. New York: Signet. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-451-19714-6.
  11. ^ Whalley, Kirsty (November 10, 2008). "Escape artist's inspiring exploits". This is Local London. Newsquest Media Group / A Gannett Company. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
  12. ^ 'Mutiny' Director Find Make Deals: Bogarde in 'Living Room'; Du Pont Scion Plans Three Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times 2 Mar 1962: C13.
  13. ^ Gill, Anton (2002). The Great Escape. London: Review. p. 96. ISBN 9780755310388.
  14. ^ Vance 2000, p. 44: "Now sporting a huge, bushy moustache ... he set to work arranging the operations of the forgery department"
  15. ^ DVD extra
  16. ^ Carroll, Tim (2004). The Great Escapers. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84018-904-9.
  17. ^ Rubin, Steven Jay (2011-07-25). Combat Films: American Realism, 1945–2010, 2d ed. – Steven Jay Rubin – Google Books. ISBN 9780786486137. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
  18. ^ Hall, Allan (March 24, 2009). "British veterans mark Great Escape anniversary". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
  19. ^ Riml, Walter (2013). Behind the scenes... The Great Escape. Helma Turk & Dr. Christian Riml. pp. 28, 44ff. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  20. ^ a b c Whistance, Don J. (2014). "The Great Escape Locations Site". thegreatescapelocations.com. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  21. ^ Riml (2013), p.110ff.
  22. ^ Riml (2013), p.58ff.
  23. ^ Warren, Jane (2008-08-06). "The Truth About The Great Escape | Express Yourself | Comment | Daily Express". Express.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
  24. ^ Rufford, Nick (February 13, 2009). "Video: The Great Escape, re-enacted". The Times. Times Newspapers Ltd. Archived from the original on October 20, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
  25. ^ Stone, Matt (2007). McQueen's Machines: The Cars and Bikes of a Hollywood Icon. Minneapolis, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-0-7603-38957. There's a chase sequence in there where the Germans were after [McQueen], and he was so much a better rider than they were, that he just ran away from them. And you weren't going to slow him down. So they put a German uniform on him, and he chased himself!
  26. ^ "Great Escape motorcycle goes on show". BBC News. November 2017.
  27. ^ Wolter, Tim (2001). POW baseball in World War II. McFarland. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-7864-1186-3.
  28. ^ Craig, Phil (October 24, 2009). "He shot the hero of the Great Escape in cold blood. But was this one Nazi who DIDN'T deserve to hang?". Daily Mail Online. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  29. ^ Brickhill, Paul, The Great Escape
  30. ^ "Canadians and the Great Escape". Canada at War. July 11, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  31. ^ Vance 2000, pp. 116–118.
  32. ^ The Great Escape: Heroes Underground documentary, available on The Great Escape DVD Special Edition.
  33. ^ a b c Walters, Guy (2013). The Real Great Escape. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-0-593-07190-8.
  34. ^ Brissette, Pete (July 15, 2005). "Steve McQueen 40 Summers Ago..." Motorcycle.com. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  35. ^ Hansen, Magne; Carlsen, Marianne Rustad (February 26, 2014). "Hollywood droppet nordmenn" [Hollywood dropped Norwegians]. NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  36. ^ Paterson, Tony (March 25, 2009). "Veterans of the Great Escape visit old Stalag". The Independent. London: INM. ISSN 0951-9467. OCLC 185201487. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  37. ^ Warren, Jane (2008-08-06). "The Truth About The Great Escape | Express Yourself | Comment |". The Daily Express. Northern andShell Media. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  38. ^ "The Great Escape – Box Office Data". The Numbers. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  39. ^ Lovell, Glenn (2008). Escape Artist: The Life and Films of John Sturges. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 224.
  40. ^ "3rd Moscow International Film Festival (1963)". MIFF. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
  41. ^ "The Great Escape". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  42. ^ Crowther, Bosley (August 8, 1963). "P.O.W.'s in 'Great Escape':Inmates of Nazi Camp Are Stereotypical – Steve McQueen Leads Snarling Tunnelers". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
  43. ^ Walker, John (1997). "Halliwell's Film and Video Guide". London: HarperCollins: 311. ISSN 1098-206X.
  44. ^ "Cinema: The Getaway". Time. Time Inc. July 19, 1963. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
  45. ^ "TV classics are recipe for Christmas Day delight". Freeview. December 11, 2006. Archived from the original on September 5, 2009. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
  46. ^ Wigley, Samuel. "10 great prisoner-of-war films". British Film Institute. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
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