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Reservoir Dogs

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Reservoir Dogs
Reservoir Dogs.png
Theatrical release poster
Directed byQuentin Tarantino
Produced byLawrence Bender
Written byQuentin Tarantino
CinematographyAndrzej Sekuła
Edited bySally Menke
Distributed byMiramax Films
Release date
  • January 21, 1992 (1992-01-21) (Sundance)
  • October 9, 1992 (1992-10-09) (United States)
Running time
99 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
Budget$1.2–1.5 million[1][2]
Box office$2.8 million (North America)[1]

Reservoir Dogs is a 1992 American neo-noir[3][4] crime film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino in his feature-length debut. It stars Harvey Keitel, Tim Roth, Chris Penn, Steve Buscemi, Lawrence Tierney, Michael Madsen, Tarantino, and Edward Bunker, as diamond thieves whose planned heist of a jewelry store goes terribly wrong. The film depicts the events before and after the heist. Kirk Baltz, Randy Brooks and Steven Wright also play supporting roles. It incorporates many motifs that have become Tarantino's hallmarks: violent crime, pop culture references, profanity, and nonlinear storytelling.

The film is regarded as a classic of independent film and a cult film,[5] and was named "Greatest Independent Film of all Time" by Empire. Although controversial for its depictions of violence and use of profanity, Reservoir Dogs was generally well received, with the cast being praised by many critics. Despite not being heavily promoted during its theatrical run, the film became a modest success in the United States after grossing $2.8 million against its $1.2 million budget, and was more successful in the United Kingdom, grossing nearly £6.5 million. It achieved higher popularity after the success of Tarantino's next film, Pulp Fiction (1994). A soundtrack was released featuring songs used in the film, which are mostly from the 1970s.


Somewhere in Los Angeles, eight men eat breakfast at a diner before carrying out a diamond heist. Mob boss Joe Cabot and his son and underboss "Nice Guy" Eddie Cabot are responsible for planning the job. The rest of the men use aliases issued by Joe Cabot: Mr. Brown, Mr. White, Mr. Blonde, Mr. Blue, Mr. Orange and Mr. Pink.The crew complains about Mr. Pink not giving tip to waitresses. The men then exit the diner in a slow-motion scene where the title card appears.

After the heist, White flees with Orange, who was shot during the escape and is bleeding severely in the back of White's car. At Joe's warehouse, White and Orange rendezvous with Pink, who believes that the job was a setup, and that the police were waiting for them. Orange passes out from blood loss.

The story then flashes to White's story (real name Larry Dimmick) on how he got involved in the robbery.Joe received a telegram from a friend about the heist and White is recruited.

Back in the present, White informs Pink that Brown is dead, Blue and Blonde are missing, and Blonde murdered several civilians during the heist; White is furious that Joe would employ Blonde, whom he describes as a psychopath. Pink has hidden the diamonds nearby. He argues with White over whether or not they should get medical attention for Orange, then because White told Orange his real name and hometown. The pair end up having a fight and draw guns at each other. They stand down when Blonde arrives drinking a soft drink with a kidnapped policeman, Marvin Nash, in the trunk of his car. The men then bring Marvin in the warehouse and beat him.

The story then cuts to Blonde (real name Vic Vega) on how he got involved with the robbery. Blonde, after serving a 4 year sentence, meets with the Cabots. To reward him for not having given Joe's name to the authorities for a lighter sentence, they offer him a no-show job. Blonde insists that he wants to get back to "real work," and they recruit him for the heist.

In the present, Eddie arrives and orders the thieves to retrieve the diamonds and ditch the getaway vehicles, leaving Blonde in charge of Nash and Orange. Nash denies knowledge, but Blonde ignores him and tortures Nash while dancing to "Stuck in the Middle with You" by Stealers Wheel. Blonde then cuts off the police officer's ear with a razor before going to his car to get a gas can. He is about to set the cop ablaze, but Orange wakes up and shoots Blonde dead. Orange then reveals to Nash that he is an undercover police officer, and that the police are waiting for Joe Cabot to enter the warehouse. Nash says that he knows Orange from before the robbery and that they met a few months ago, and Orange doesn't remember this event at all.

The story now flashes to Orange (real name Freddy Newandyke) and his infiltration into the crew of thieves. The story follows him as he uses an elaborate tale of a drug delivery to gain acceptance and befriends Mr. White, who takes Orange under his wing as the veteran thief.

In the middle of the heist, Brown, White and Orange attempt to escape. As they are fleeing in the car, Brown gets shot in the head and crashes the car. He dies soon after, White kills two police officers and the duo flees the scene. Shortly after, they attempt to hijack a car, but the driver shoots Orange in the gut, who in response, shoots the driver to death. Then, Orange is shown bleeding and screaming in the back of the car that White is driving.

Back to the present, Eddie, Pink, and White return, and Orange tries to convince them that Blonde planned to kill them all and steal the diamonds for himself. Eddie shoots Nash to death and accuses Orange of lying, since Blonde was loyal to his father. Then, an infuriated Joe arrives at the warehouse. He is about to execute Orange, whom he suspects is the traitor behind the setup, but White intervenes and holds Joe at gunpoint, saying that Orange is not an undercover officer. Eddie aims at White, creating a Mexican standoff. All three fire; both Cabots are killed, and White and Orange are hit. Pink, who was hiding during the standoff, takes the diamonds and flees, but the police are waiting outside, and Pink's fate remains unknown. As White cradles the dying Orange in his arms, Orange confesses that he is an undercover officer; White sobs and presses his gun to Orange's head. The police storm the warehouse and order White to drop his gun. White shoots Orange, and then the police shoot White dead.


The film's opening credits sequence, a slow-motion scene featuring the eight criminals, accompanied by "Little Green Bag" by the George Baker Selection


Quentin Tarantino had been working at Video Archives, a video store in Manhattan Beach, California, and originally planned to shoot the film with his friends on a budget of $30,000 in a 16 mm black-and-white format, with producer Lawrence Bender playing a police officer chasing Mr. Pink.[6] Bender gave the script to his acting teacher, whose wife gave the script to Harvey Keitel.[7] Keitel liked it enough to sign as a co-producer so Tarantino and Bender would have an easier job finding funding; with his assistance, they raised $1.5 million.[2] Keitel also paid for Tarantino and Bender to host casting sessions in New York, where the duo found Steve Buscemi, Michael Madsen, and Tim Roth.[8]

Reservoir Dogs was, according to Tarantino, influenced by Stanley Kubrick's The Killing. Tarantino said: "I didn't go out of my way to do a rip-off of The Killing, but I did think of it as my 'Killing', my take on that kind of heist movie."[2] The film's plot was suggested by the 1952 film Kansas City Confidential.[9] Additionally, Joseph H. Lewis's 1955 film The Big Combo and Sergio Corbucci's 1966 Spaghetti Western Django inspired the scene where a police officer is tortured in a chair.[9][10] Tarantino has denied that he plagiarized with Reservoir Dogs and instead said that he does homages.[11] Having the main characters named after colors (Mr. Pink, White, Brown, etc.) was first seen in the 1974 film The Taking of Pelham One Two Three.[12] The film also contains key elements similar to those found in Ringo Lam's 1987 film City on Fire.[13]

The warehouse used in the film was in reality an abandoned mortuary. This explains the hearse Blonde is sitting on while White and Pink are arguing. In scenes with Orange in his apartment, the second floor of the mortuary was used and dressed up to look like living quarters. The location has since been demolished.[14]

Of his decision not to show the heist itself, Tarantino has said that the reason was initially budgetary but that he had always liked the idea of not showing it and stuck with that idea in order to make the details of the heist ambiguous. He has said that the technique allows for the realization that the film is "about other things", a similar plot outline that appears in the stage play Glengarry Glen Ross and its film adaptation in which the mentioned robbery is never shown on camera.[2] Tarantino has compared this to the work of a novelist, and has said that he wanted the film to be about something that is not seen and that he wanted it to "play with a real-time clock as opposed to a movie clock ticking".[15]

The title for the film came from a customer at the Video Archives, who requested Louis Malle's 1987 film Au revoir les enfants, but mispronounced the title "reservoir".[16]


Box office[edit]

Reservoir Dogs premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in January 1992. It became the festival's most talked-about film, and was subsequently picked up for distribution by Miramax Films.[17] After being shown at several other film festivals, including in Cannes, Sitges and Toronto,[17] Reservoir Dogs opened in the United States in 19 theaters with a first week total of $147,839.[1] It was expanded to 61 theaters and totaled $2,832,029 at the domestic box office.[1] The film grossed more than double that in the United Kingdom,[18] where it did not receive a home video release until 1995.[19] During the period of unavailability on home video, the film was re-released in UK cinemas in June 1994.[20]

Critical reception[edit]

Reservoir Dogs is regarded as an important and influential milestone of independent filmmaking.[21][22] Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an approval rating of 91% based on 69 reviews (63 positive, 6 negative), and an average rating of 8.81/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Thrumming with intelligence and energy, Reservoir Dogs opens Quentin Tarantino's filmmaking career with hard-hitting style."[23] On Metacritic the film had an average score of 79 out of 100, based on 24 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[24] Empire magazine named it the "Greatest Independent Film" ever made.[25]

At the film's release at the Sundance Film Festival, film critic Jami Bernard of the New York Daily News compared the effect of Reservoir Dogs to that of the 1895 film L'Arrivée d'un Train en Gare de la Ciotat, when audiences supposedly saw a moving train approaching the camera and ducked. Bernard said that Reservoir Dogs had a similar effect and people were not ready for it.[22] Vincent Canby of The New York Times enjoyed the cast and the usage of non-linear storytelling. He similarly complimented Tarantino's directing and liked the fact that he did not often use close-ups in the film.[26] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times also enjoyed the film and the acting, particularly that of Buscemi, Tierney and Madsen, and said "Tarantino's palpable enthusiasm, his unapologetic passion for what he's created, reinvigorates this venerable plot and, mayhem aside, makes it involving for longer than you might suspect."[27] Critic James Berardinelli was of a similar opinion; he complimented both the cast and Tarantino's dialogue writing abilities.[28] Hal Hinson of The Washington Post was also enthusiastic about the cast, complimenting the film on its "deadpan sense of humor".[29]

Roger Ebert was less enthusiastic; he felt that the script could have been better and said that the film "feels like it's going to be terrific", but Tarantino's script does not have much curiosity about the characters. He also said that Tarantino "has an idea, and trusts the idea to drive the plot." Ebert gave the film two and a half stars out of four and said that while he enjoyed it and that it was a very good film from a talented director, "I liked what I saw, but I wanted more."[30] Ebert's biggest praise was the acting in the film.

The film has received substantial criticism for its strong violence and language. One scene that viewers found particularly unnerving was the ear-cutting scene; Madsen himself reportedly had great difficulty finishing it, especially after Kirk Baltz ad-libbed the desperate plea "I've got a little kid at home."[31] Many people walked out during the film. During a screening at Sitges Film Festival, 15 people walked out, including horror film director Wes Craven and special makeup effects artist Rick Baker.[32] Baker later told Tarantino to take the walkout as a "compliment" and explained that he found the violence unnerving because of its heightened sense of realism.[32] Tarantino commented about it at the time: "It happens at every single screening. For some people the violence, or the rudeness of the language, is a mountain they can't climb. That's OK. It's not their cup of tea. But I am affecting them. I wanted that scene to be disturbing."[2]

Critical analysis[edit]

Reservoir Dogs has often been seen as a prominent film in terms of on-screen violence.[21][33][34] J.P. Telotte compared Reservoir Dogs to classic caper noir films and points out the irony in its ending scenes.[35] Mark Irwin also made the connection between Reservoir Dogs and classic American noir.[36] Caroline Jewers called Reservoir Dogs a "feudal epic" and paralleled the color pseudonyms to color names of medieval knights.[37]

Critics have observed parallels between Reservoir Dogs and other films. For its nonlinear storyline, Reservoir Dogs has often been compared to Rashomon.[11] Critic John Hartl compared the ear-cutting scene to the shower murder scene in Psycho and Tarantino to David Lynch. He furthermore explored parallels between Reservoir Dogs and Glengarry Glen Ross.[2] Todd McCarthy, who called the film "undeniably impressive", was of the opinion that it was influenced by Mean Streets, Goodfellas and The Killing.[38] After this film, Tarantino himself was also compared to Martin Scorsese, Sam Peckinpah, John Singleton, Gus Van Sant, and Abel Ferrara.[11]

A frequently cited comparison has been to Tarantino's second and more successful film Pulp Fiction,[15][36][37] especially since the majority of audiences saw Reservoir Dogs after the success of Pulp Fiction. Comparisons have been made regarding the black humor in both the films, the theme of accidents,[15] and more concretely, the style of dialogue and narrative that Tarantino incorporates into both films.[39] Specifically the relationship between whites and blacks plays a big part in the films—though underplayed in Reservoir Dogs. Stanley Crouch of The New York Times compared the way the white criminals speak of black people in Reservoir Dogs to the way they are spoken of in Scorsese's Mean Streets and Goodfellas. Crouch observed the way black people are looked down upon in Reservoir Dogs, but also the way that the criminals accuse each other of "verbally imitating" black men and the characters' apparent sexual attraction to black actress Pam Grier.[39]

In February 2012, as part of an ongoing series of live dramatic readings of film scripts being staged with the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), director Jason Reitman cast black actors in the originally white cast: Laurence Fishburne as Mr. White; Terrence Howard as Mr. Blonde; Anthony Mackie as Mr. Pink; Cuba Gooding Jr. as Mr. Orange; Chi McBride as Joe Cabot; Anthony Anderson as Nice Guy Eddie (Joe Cabot's son); Common as both Mr. Brown and Officer Nash (the torture victim of Mr. Blonde), and Patton Oswalt as Holdaway (the mentor cop who was originally played by Randy Brooks, the only black actor in the film). Critic Elvis Mitchell suggested that Reitman's version of the script was taking the source material back to its roots since the characters "all sound like black dudes."[40]


The film was screened out of competition at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival.[41] It won the Critic's Award at the 4th Yubari International Fantastic Film Festival in February 1993 which Tarantino attended.[42] The film was also nominated for the prestigious Grand Prix of the Belgian Syndicate of Cinema Critics.[43] Steve Buscemi won the 1992 Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male.[44] Reservoir Dogs ranks at No. 97 in Empire magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Films of All Time.[45]

Home media[edit]

In the United Kingdom, release of the VHS rental video was delayed until 1995 due to the British Board of Film Classification initially refusing the film a home video certificate (UK releases are required to be certified separately for theatrical release and for viewing at home).[19] The latter is a requirement by law due to the Video Recordings Act 1984.[19] Following the UK VHS release approval, Polygram released a "Mr Blonde Deluxe Edition",[46] which included an interview with Tarantino and several memorabilia associated with the character Mr. Blonde, such as sunglasses and a chrome toothpick holder.

Region 1 DVDs of Reservoir Dogs have been released multiple times. The first release was a single two-sided disc from LIVE Entertainment, released in June 1997 and featuring both pan-and-scan and letterbox versions of the film.[47] Five years later, on August 27, 2002, Artisan Entertainment (who changed their name from LIVE Entertainment in the interim) released a two-disc 10th anniversary edition on DVD and VHS featuring multiple covers color-coded to match the nicknames of four of the characters (Pink, White, Orange, Blonde and Brown) and a disc of bonus features such as interviews with the cast and crew.[48]

For the film's 15th anniversary, Lionsgate (which had purchased Artisan in the interim) produced a two-disc anniversary edition with a remastered 16:9 transfer and a new supplement, but not all of the extra features from the 10th Anniversary edition.[49] In particular, interviews with the cast and crew were removed, and a new 48-minute-long feature called "Tributes and Dedications" was included.[49]


Reservoir Dogs
Soundtrack album by
Various Artists
ReleasedOctober 13, 1992
Quentin Tarantino film soundtracks chronology
Reservoir Dogs
True Romance
Professional ratings
Review scores
AllMusic4.5/5 stars link

The Reservoir Dogs: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack was the first soundtrack for a Quentin Tarantino film and set the structure his later soundtracks would follow.[50] This includes the extensive use of snippets of dialogue from the film. The soundtrack has selections of songs from the 1960s to '80s. Only the group Bedlam recorded original songs for the film. Reasoning that the film takes place over a weekend, Tarantino decided to set it to a fictional radio station 'K-Billy' (presumably KBLY)'s show "K-Billy's Super Sounds of the Seventies Weekend", a themed weekend show of broadcasts of songs from the seventies. The radio station played a prominent role in the film.[51] The DJ for the radio was chosen to be Steven Wright, a comedian known for his deadpan delivery of jokes.[52]

An unusual feature of the soundtrack was the choice of songs; Tarantino has said that he feels the music to be a counterpoint to the on-screen violence and action.[53] He also stated that he wished for the film to have a 1950s feel while using '70s music.[53] A prominent instance of this is the torture scene to the tune of "Stuck in the Middle with You".[54]

Bedlam was a 1990s rock group from Nashville fronted by Jay Joyce, who were signed to MCA Records. Their album Into the Coals was released in 1992. Further members were Chris Feinstein (bass) and Doug Lancio.[55] "Magic Carpet Ride" is a cover of the 1968 Steppenwolf song. "Harvest Moon" is written by Jay Joyce.

Sandy Rogers' "Fool for Love" initially was title song to Robert Altman's 1985 film Fool for Love.[56]

Track listing
  1. "And Now Little Green Bag..." – dialogue extract performed by Steven Wright (0:15)
  2. "Little Green Bag" – The George Baker Selection (3:15)
  3. "Rock Flock of Five" – dialogue extract performed by Steven Wright (0:11)
  4. "Hooked on a Feeling" – Blue Swede (2:53)
  5. "Bohemiath" – dialogue extract performed by Steven Wright (0:34)
  6. "I Gotcha" – Joe Tex (2:27)
  7. "Magic Carpet Ride" – Bedlam (5:10)
  8. "Madonna Speech" – dialogue extract performed by Quentin Tarantino, Edward Bunker, Lawrence Tierney, Steve Buscemi, and Harvey Keitel (0:59)
  9. "Fool for Love" by Sandy Rogers (3:25)
  10. "Super Sounds" – dialogue extract performed by Steven Wright (0:19)
  11. "Stuck in the Middle with You" – Stealers Wheel (3:23)
  12. "Harvest Moon" – Bedlam (2:38)
  13. "Let's Get a Taco" – dialogue extract performed by Harvey Keitel and Tim Roth (1:02)
  14. "Keep on Truckin'" – dialogue extract performed by Steven Wright (0:16)
  15. "Coconut" – Harry Nilsson (3:50)
  16. "Home of Rock" – dialogue extract performed by Steven Wright (0:05)


Region Certification Certified units/sales
Australia (ARIA)[57] Platinum 70,000^
Canada (Music Canada)[58] Gold 50,000^
New Zealand (RMNZ)[59] Platinum 15,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[60] Platinum 300,000^
United States 863,000[61]

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

Video games[edit]

A video game based on the film was released in 2006 for PC, Xbox, and PlayStation 2. However, the game does not feature the likeness of any of the actors with the exception of Michael Madsen. GameSpot called it "an out and out failure".[62] It caused controversy for its amount of violence and was banned in Australia[63] and New Zealand.[64]

Another video game, Reservoir Dogs: Bloody Days, was released in 2017.[65]

On December 14, 2017[66], Overkill Software added a heist to Payday 2 in which the player is contracted to rob a jewelry store in Los Angeles with the Cabot family. It is unique in that the heist is played in reverse order, with day two occurring prior to day one. The music featured during day two bears some resemblance to "Stuck in the Middle with You" by Stealers Wheel.[67]


Kaante, a Bollywood film released in 2002, is a remake of Reservoir Dogs, combined with elements of City on Fire.[68] The film also borrows plot points from The Usual Suspects, Heat and The Killing. Tarantino has been quoted as saying that Kaante is his favorite among the many films inspired by his work.[69] Tarantino later screened Kaante at his New Beverly Cinema alongside Reservoir Dogs and City on Fire.[70]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e "Reservoir Dogs". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Hartl, John (October 29, 1992). "'Dogs' Gets Walkouts and Raves". The Seattle Times. pp. Arts, Entertainment, page F5. Archived from the original on January 1992. Retrieved January 18, 2009.
  3. ^ Silver, Alain; Ward, Elizabeth; eds. (1992). Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference to the American Style (3rd ed.). Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press. ISBN 0-87951-479-5
  4. ^ Sanders, Steven; Skoble, Aeon G. (2008). The Philosophy of TV Noir. University of Kentucky Press. p. 3.
  5. ^ Tobias, Scott (December 18, 2008). "The New Cult Canon – Reservoir Dogs". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
  6. ^ Taubin, Amy. "The Men's Room". Sight & Sound.
  7. ^ McKenna, Kristine (October 18, 1992). "Harvey Keitel". Movies; Leaps of Faith; Harvey Keitel's Search for God Often Involves Confronting his Darker Self; Case in Point; "Reservoir Dogs". Los Angeles Times. pp. Calendar, Page 7, Calendar Desk. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  8. ^ Dawson, Jeff (February 1993). "Classic Feature: Reservoir Dogs". Empire. No. 44. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  9. ^ a b Hughes, Howard (2006). Crime Wave: The Filmgoers' Guide to the Great Crime Movies. London: I.B.Tauris. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-84511-219-6.
  10. ^ "Django". Slant Magazine. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  11. ^ a b c de Vries, Hilary (September 11, 1994). "Cover Story; A Chat with Mr. Mayhem; Quentin Tarantino Quickly Acquired Quite the Reputation for Violence; His 1992 Film, "Reservoir Dogs", was a Cult Hit, Now Comes "Pulp Fiction". Is he Trying to Outgun Himself or all of Hollywood?". Los Angeles Times. pp. Calendar, p. 6, Calendar desk.
  12. ^ "The Taking of Pelham One Two Three". The New York Times.
  13. ^ Norman, Marc (2007). What Happens Next: A History of American Screenwriting. New York: Harmony Books. p. 458. ISBN 978-0-307-39388-3. [W]ebsites posted lengthy exegeses comparing Reservoir Dogs side by side with […] City on Fire […]. But Tarantino had always advertised his sources; The Taking of Pelham One Two Three, a 1974 thriller […] and the Reservoir Dogs screenplay title page dedicated the movie to, among others, Roger Corman, Chow Yun Fat, Godard, Melville, and the obscure 1950s action director Andre De Toth.
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  20. ^ "12 Famous Movies That Have Been Banned In Certain Countries". NME. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  21. ^ a b Gormley, Paul (August 1, 2005). The New-brutality Film: Race and Affect in Contemporary Hollywood. Intellect Ltd. pp. 137–139. ISBN 1-84150-119-0.
  22. ^ a b Persall, Steve (August 27, 2002). "The 'Reservoir' watershed". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
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  25. ^ Dirks, Tim. "Empire's 50 Greatest Independent Films". Empire. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
  26. ^ Canby, Vincent (October 23, 1992). "Vincent Canby review of Reservoir Dogs". The New York Times. pp. Section C, page 14, column 1.
  27. ^ Turan, Kenneth (October 23, 1992). "Movie Reviews; City Mauls, N.Y. to L.A.; Reservoir Dogs, Tarantino's Brash Debut Film, Announces a Director to be Reckoned with". Los Angeles Times. pp. Calendar, Part F, Page 1, Column 4, Entertainment Desk.
  28. ^ Berardinelli, James. "Reservoir Dogs". ReelViews. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
  29. ^ Hinson, Hal (October 24, 1992). "Reservoir Dogs". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 11, 2008.
  30. ^ Ebert, Roger (October 26, 1992). "Reservoir Dogs". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
  31. ^ D'Angelo, Mike (January 23, 2012). "Reservoir Dogs". The A.V. Club.
  32. ^ a b Clarkson, Wensley (1995). Quentin Tarantino – Shooting From The Hip. London: Piatkus. pp. 180–181. ISBN 0-7499-1555-2.
  33. ^ McKinney, Devin (Summer 1993). "Violence: The Strong and the Weak". Film Quarterly. University of California Press. 46 (4): 16–22. doi:10.1525/fq.1993.46.4.04a00030. ISSN 0015-1386. JSTOR 1213142.
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  35. ^ Telotte, J.P. (1996). "Fatal Capers, Strategy and Enigma in Film Noir". Journal of Popular Film and Television. p. 163.
  36. ^ a b Irwin, Mark (March 1998). "Pulp and the Pulpit: The Films of Quentin Tarantino and Robert Rodriguez". Literature and Theology. pp. vol. 12, no. 1.
  37. ^ a b Jewers, Caroline (Spring 2000). "Heroes and Heroin: From True Romance to Pulp Fiction". The Journal of Popular Culture. 33 (4): 39–61. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.2000.3304_39.x. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
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  39. ^ a b Crouch, Stanley (October 16, 1994). "Film Comment; Pulp Friction: Director Quentin Tarantino's Movies are Best Known for their Wit and Mayhem, but What You Don't Hear About is their Original Take on Race". Los Angeles Times. pp. Calendar, Page 5, Calendar Desk.
  40. ^ Breznican, Anthony (February 17, 2012). "Laurence Fishburne as Mr. White! Inside the all-black (almost) 'Reservoir Dogs' reading". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
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  42. ^ "Archive: Yubari International Fantastic Adventure Film Festival '93". Archived from the original on April 7, 2004. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
  43. ^ De Decker, Jacques (January 10, 1994). "Le Grand Prix de l'UCC, "Raining Stones" vainqueur". Le Soir (in French). p. 8. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  44. ^ Wiener, Tom (August 13, 2002). The Off-Hollywood Film Guide: The Definitive Guide to Independent and Foreign Films on Video and DVD. Reservoir Dogs: Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 9780679647379.
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  52. ^ Howe, Desson (October 23, 1992). "Reservoir Dogs". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
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