The Ring (franchise)

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Ring
Ring (film franchise logo).png
Created byKoji Suzuki
Original workRing (1991)
OwnerKadokawa Corporation
Print publications
Novel(s)
Comics
  • Ring (1996)
  • Ring – Volume 1 (1999)
  • Ring – Volume 2 (1999)
  • Ring 2 (1999)
  • Spiral (1999)
  • Birthday (1999)
  • Ring 0: Birthday (2000)
Films and television
Film(s)
Short film(s)Rings (2005)
Television series
Games
Video game(s)
Audio
Radio program(s)
  • Ring (1996)
  • Birthday (2000)
  • Ring (2015)
Soundtrack(s)
  • Ring / Rasen (1998)
  • Ring 2 (1999)
  • Ring: The Final Chapter (1999)
  • The Ring Virus (1999)
  • Rasen (1999)
  • Ring 0: Birthday (2000)
  • The Ring / The Ring Two (2005)
  • Rings (2017)

Ring (Japanese: リング, romanizedRingu), also known as The Ring, is a Japanese horror media franchise, based on the novel series of the same name written by Koji Suzuki. The franchise includes eight Japanese films, two television series, six manga adaptations, three English-language film remakes, a Korean film remake, and two video games; The Ring: Terror's Realm and Ring: Infinity.

The films revolve around a cursed videotape that kills anyone who watches it seven days later. The videotape was created by a psychic, Sadako Yamamura, who was murdered by her adoptive father and thrown into a well. After her supposed death, she returned as a ghostly serial killer, killing anyone who fails to copy and then send the videotape to someone else under a seven-day deadline (constricted to a two-day deadline in Sadako vs. Kayako).

Japanese media[edit]

Novels[edit]

The franchise began with Koji Suzuki's 1991 novel Ring. It was the first of a trilogy, with two sequels: Spiral (1995) and Loop (1998).[1] Several later novels based on Ring were released: Birthday (1999) [which contains a prequel to Ring, an epilogue to Loop, and details what happened to a key character in Spiral], S (2012), and Tide (2013).

Films[edit]

In 1998, Hideo Nakata made a new Japanese adaptation of the book in his film Ring (also known as The Ring or Ringu). The movie was a critical and commercial success, being credited with revolutionizing the J-horror genre and influencing many future films in the wider horror genre.[2][3][4]

The first sequel to the 1998 film was Rasen (also known as The Spiral or simply Spiral). It was an adaptation of Spiral, Suzuki's sequel to his first Ring book. It was released on 31 January, 1998, the same day as Ring. It was a critical and commercial failure compared with the first film. It was directed by George Lida, who had previously worked as the writer for the television film, Ring (1995).

A new sequel, Ring 2, was released in 1999. The film continues the storyline of Ring (1998) and ignores the events of Spiral (1998) and many cast members from the original film return. Hideo Nakata also returned to direct. This was the first film in the franchise not based on any of Suzuki's novels. While not as critically well-received as the first film, the movie was a financial success, becoming the second-highest grossing Japanese film of 1999.[5]

A prequel, Ring 0: Birthday, was released in 2000. The movie is based on the short story "Lemon Heart" from Suzuki's 1999 book, Birthday (the fourth book in the series). This film delved into a uniquely different mythos surrounding Sadako Yamamura and the cursed videotape.

In 2012, Sadako 3D was released, adapted from Suzuki's book S that released the same year. A direct sequel, Sadako 3D 2 was released in 2013. Both were directed by Tsutomu Hanabusa and continued the timeline established in Spiral.

In 2016, Sadako vs. Kayako, directed by Kōji Shiraishi, was released, a crossover of the Ju-on series of horror films. It features Sadakaya, a ghost that resulted from the fusion of Sadako and the Ju-on antagonist Kayako Saeki. It is not canon to either timeline and the deadline for the video tape is 2 days instead of 7.

Sadako was released on May 24, 2019. It saw the return of director Hideo Nakata to the Japanese film series for the first time since Ring 2, 20 years prior. The film is loosely based on Tide, the final novel in the series.

Sadako DX, directed by Hisashi Kimora, will be released in fall 2022.[6] The story stars Fuka Koshiba as a college student attempting to unravel the curse of Sadako with the help of a psychic and a fortune teller.[7]

Television[edit]

The first adaption of Ring was the Japanese television film Ring (titled Ring: Kanzenban for home video release), released in 1995. This remained the closest to the book but didn't have the success and recognition of the later films.

Ring: The Final Chapter is a 12 episode self-contained miniseries that aired in 1999, and is loosely based on the original Ring novel. It is not connected to the films or the previous television adaptation.

In the same year, a sequel television miniseries titled Rasen was made, consisting of 13 episodes.

Manga[edit]

Several manga series have been published by Kadokawa Shoten based on the films. The second manga adaptation is a two-volume series based on the first novel and the first Hideo Nakata film. The manga was written Hiroshi Takahashi and illustrated by Misao Inagaki. Both volumes were released on January 21, 1999.[8][9] Dark Horse Comics compiled the first two volumes and released an english-language version on November 12, 2003.[10]

The third adaptation, of Nakata’s Ring 2 film, was written by Hiroshi Takahashi and illustrated by Meimu, was released on February 3, 1999.[11] Dark Horse Comics released it on May 19, 2004 as the second volume of the Ring manga series.[12]

The fourth adaptation, titled Spiral (らせん, Rasen), is based on the novel and film of the same name. The manga was written by Koji Suzuki, illustrated by Sakura Mizuki, and released on September 10, 1999.[13] Dark Horse released it on August 18, 2004 as volume 3 of the Ring manga series.[14]

The fifth adaptation, titled Birthday (バースデイ, Bāsudei), is based on the novel of the same name. The manga was written by Koji Suzuki, illustrated by Meimu and released on December 22, 1999.[15] Dark Horse Comics released it on November 3, 2004 as volume 4 of the Ring manga series.[16]

The sixth, named "Ring 0", based on the film of that name, was also written by Hiroshi Takahashi and illustrated by Meimu, and released on January 28, 2000.[17] Dark Horse Comics released it on March 30, 2005 as "Volume 0" of the Ring manga series.[18]

The Ring
1995Ring: Kanzenban
1996–1997
1998Ring
Spiral
1999Ring 2
Ring: The Final Chapter
The Ring Virus (Korean Remake)
Rasen (TV Series)
2000Ring 0: Birthday
2001
2002The Ring
2003–2004
2005The Ring Two
2006–2011
2012Sadako 3D
2013Sadako 3D 2
2014–2015
2016Sadako vs. Kayako
2017Rings
2018
2019Sadako
2020–2021
2022Sadako DX

Korean remake[edit]

The Ring Virus was the first remake to be made, in 1999, where the villain is renamed as Park Eun-suh, who is intersex, as Sadako was in the books. Though the film copied multiple scenes from Ring, it is, like Ring: Kanzenban, very faithful to the original novel series.

American films[edit]

In 2002, an English-language remake was made, titled The Ring, where the killer is renamed as Samara Morgan, who is a preteen instead of an adult. The Ring was one of the highest-grossing horror remakes, its box office gross surpassing that of Ring. Two sequels were made, including a short film.

The Ring (2002)[edit]

Journalist Rachel Keller investigates a videotape that may have killed four teenagers (including her niece). There is an urban legend about this tape: the viewer will die seven days after watching it. If the legend is correct, Rachel would have to run against time to save her son's and her own.

Rings (2005 short film)[edit]

Jake Pierce, a young teenager, watches a cursed video tape after joining a teen cult named "Rings".

The Ring Two (2005)[edit]

High school student Jake Pierce tries to make his girlfriend Emily watch the cursed videotape. After discovering that Emily covered her eyes and didn't watch the tape, he is killed by Samara Morgan from the first film. Rachel Keller learns of Jake's death and realizes she has to save her son Aidan from Samara.

Rings (2017 feature film)[edit]

Julia becomes worried about her boyfriend when he explores a dark subculture surrounding a mysterious videotape said to kill the watcher seven days after they view the tape. She sacrifices herself to save her boyfriend and hence makes a horrifying discovery: there is a "movie within the movie" that no one has ever seen before.

Future[edit]

In September 2019, The Grudge director Nicolas Pesce expressed interest in a crossover film between The Grudge and the English-language The Ring film series.[19]

Japanese cast and crew[edit]

Cast[edit]

Key
  • A Y indicates the actor portrayed the role of a younger version of the character.
  • A P indicates the actor or actress portrayed their film character as possessed by another.
  • An A indicates an appearance through archival footage.
  • A C indicates a cameo appearance.
  • A dark gray cell indicates the character was not in the film.
Character Ring Spiral Ring 2 Ring 0: Birthday Sadako 3D Sadako 3D 2 Sadako Sadako DX
1998 1999 2000 2012 2013 2019 2022
Sadako Yamamura
mysterious girl
Rie Inō Hinako Saeki
Miki NakataniP
Rie Inō
Mebuki TsuchidaY
Yukie Nakama Ai Hashimoto Satomi IshiharaP Himeka Himejima TBD
Shizuko Yamamura Masako   Masako  
Mai Takano Miki Nakatani  
Dr. Heihachiro Ikuma Daisuke Ban   Daisuke Ban  
Takashi Yamamura Yoichi Numata   Yoichi Numata Mahito Ohba  
Reiko Asakawa Nanako Matsushima Nanako MatsushimaA Nanako Matsushima  
Ryuji Takayama Hiroyuki Sanada  
Masami Kurahashi Hitomi Satō   Hitomi Satō   Hitomi Satō  
Yoichi Asakawa Rikiya Otaka Mentioned Rikiya Otaka  
Okazaki Yūrei Yanagi   Yūrei Yanagi  
Takanori Ando   Ryûichi SugaharaY   Koji Seto  
Akane Ayukawa   Satomi Ishihara
Yuna TairaY
Satomi Ishihara  
Seiji Kashiwada   Yusuke Yamamoto  
Detective Yugo Koiso   Ryosei Tayama  
Tomoko Ōishi Yūko Takeuchi  
Yoshino Yutaka Matsushige  
Kōichi Asakawa Katsumi Muramatsu Mentioned  
Mitsuo Ando   Koichi Sato  
Miyashita   Shingo Tsurumi  
Yoshino   Yutaka Matsushige  
Shashin Gakari   Kozo Sato  
Department Store Manager   Kôji SuzukiC  
Kanae Sawaguchi   Kyoko Fukada  
Ishi Kawajiri   Fumiyo Kohinata  
Detective Keiji Omuta   Kenjirō Ishimaru  
Hiroshi Toyama   Seiichi Tanabe  
Etsuko Tachihara   Kumiko Asō  
Kaoru Arima   Atsuko Takahata  
Akiko Miyaji   Yoshiko Tanaka  
Enoki   Shota Sometani  
Fuko Ando   Miori Takimoto  
Fumika Kamimura   Itsumi Osawa  
Mayu Akikawa   Elaiza Ikeda  
Yusuke Ishida   Takashi Tsukamoto  
Hatsuko Sobue   Rie Tomosaka  
Ayaka Ichijō   Fuka Koshiba
Oji Maeda   Kazuma Kawamura
Kenshin   Hiroyuki Ikeuchi

Crew[edit]

Crew/Detail Ring Spiral Ring 2 Ring 0: Birthday Sadako 3D Sadako 3D 2 Sadako Sadako DX
1998 1999 2000 2012 2013 2019 2022
Director Hideo Nakata George Lida Hideo Nakata Norio Tsuruta Tsutomu Hanabusa Hideo Nakata Hisashi Kimura
Producer(s) Shinya Kawai

Taka Ichise

Takenori Sento

Takashige Ichise

Shinya Kawai

Takenori Sento

Takashige Ichise

Shin Ishihara

Shinji Ogawa

Masao Nagai

Takasige Ichise

Atsuyuki Shimoda Reiko Imayasu  
Writer(s) Screenplay by
Hiroshi Takahashi
Based on
Ring
by Koji Suzuki
Screenplay by
George Lida
Based on
Spiral
by Koji Suzuki
Story by Koji Suzuku Screenplay by
Hiroshi Takahashi
Based on
Lemon Heart from Birthday
by Koji Suzuki
Screenplay by
Koji Suzuku

Tsutomu Takahashi
Based on
S
by Koji Suzuki

Screenplay by
Daisuke Hosaka

Noriaki Sugihara

Screenplay by
Noriaki Sugihara

Based on
Tide
by Koji Suzuki

Screenplay by
Yuya Takahashi
Composer Kenji Kawai La Finca Kenji Kawai Shinichiro Ogata Kenji Kawai  
Cinematographer Junichiro Hayashi Makoto Watanabe Hideo Yamamoto Takahide Shibanushi Nobushige Fujimoto  
Editor(s) Nobuyuki Takahashi Hirohibe Abe Nobuyuki Takahashi Hiroshi Sunaga  
Production companies Ring/Spiral Production Committee Asmik Ace Entertainment Ring 0 Production Group Production Kadokawa Shoten Kadokawa ShotenTohokushinsha Film Kadokawa  
Distributor Toho Kadokawa Shoten Kadokawa  
Release date January 31, 1998 January 23, 1999 January 22, 2000 May 12, 2012 August 30, 2013 March 24, 2019 Fall 2022
Running time 95 minutes 98 minutes 95 minutes 99 minutes 96 minutes 96 minutes 99 minutes TBD

American cast and crew[edit]

Cast[edit]

Key
  • A Y indicates the actor portrayed the role of a younger version of the character.
  • A V indicates the actor or actress lent only his or her voice for his or her film character.
  • A P indicates the actor or actress portrayed their film character as possessed by another.
  • An A indicates an appearance through archival footage.
  • A C indicates a cameo appearance.
  • A dark gray cell indicates the character was not in the film.
Characters Main films Short film
The Ring The Ring Two Rings Rings
2002 2005 2017 2005
Samara Morgan Daveigh Chase Daveigh ChaseA Kelly Stables
David DorfmanP Bonnie Morgan
Kelly Stables Kelly Stables Zoe PessinV
Matilda LutzP
Caitlin MavromatesY Caitlin MavromatesA
Anna Morgan Shannon Cochran Shannon CochranA
Rachel Keller Naomi Watts   Mentioned
Aidan Keller David Dorfman  
Noah Clay Martin Henderson  
Richard Morgan Brian Cox  
Ruth Embry Lindsay Frost  
Katherine "Katie" Embry Amber Tamblyn  
Rebecca "Becca" Kotler Rachael Bella  
Evelyn Borden (née Osorio)   Sissy Spacek
Mary Elizabeth WinsteadY
Kayli Carter
Mary Elizabeth WinsteadA
 
Jake Pierce   Ryan Merriman   Ryan Merriman
Emily   Emily VanCamp   Emily VanCamp
Eddie   Justin AllenVC   Justin Allen
Max Rourke   Simon Baker  
Dr. Emma Temple   Elizabeth Perkins  
Galen Burke   Mentioned Vincent D'Onofrio  
Julia   Matilda Lutz  
Holt Anthony   Alex Roe  
Gabriel Brown   Johnny Galecki  
Skye Johnston   Aimee Teegarden  
Carter   Zach Roerig  
Faith   Laura Slade Wiggins  
Kelly   Lizzie Brocheré  
Vanessa   Alexandra Breckenridge
Timothy "Tim" Rivers   Josh Wise

Crew[edit]

Crew/Detail Main films Short film
The Ring The Ring Two Rings Rings
2002 2005 2017 2005
Director Gore Verbinski Hideo Nakata F. Javier Gutiérrez Jonathan Liebesman
Producer(s) Walter F. Parkes
Laurie MacDonald
Jeanette Volturno
Arnon Manor
Writer(s) Screenplay by
Ehren Kruger
Based on
Ring
by Koji Suzuki
Ehren Kruger Screenplay by
David Loucka
Jacob Aaron Estes
Akiva Goldsman
Story by
David Loucka
Jacob Aaron Estes
Based on
Spiral
by Koji Suzuki
Screenplay by
Ehren Kruger
Story by
Jonathan Liebesman
Composer Hans Zimmer Henning Lohner
Martin Tillman
Matthew Margeson Hans Zimmer
Director of photography Bojan Bazelli Gabriel Beristain Sharone Meir Lukas Ettlin
Editor(s) Craig Wood Michael N. Knue Jeremiah O'Driscoll
Steve Mirkovich
Sheila Moreland
Production companies BenderSpink
Parkes/MacDonald Productions
Parkes/MacDonald + Imagenatation
Vertigo Entertainment
BenderSpink
Parkes/MacDonald Productions
Distributor DreamWorks Pictures Paramount Pictures DreamWorks Pictures
Release date October 18, 2002 March 18, 2005 February 3, 2017 March 8, 2005
Running time 115 minutes 110 minutes 102 minutes 17 minutes

Reception[edit]

The original 1991 novel Ring sold 500,000 copies by January 1998, and 1.5 million copies by July 2000.[1]

Box office performance[edit]

Japanese films
Film Release date Box office gross Budget
Japan South Korea Other territories
Ring January 31, 1998 ¥1,700,000,000[20] ₩341,970,000[21][22] $6,261,738[a] $1.5 million[1]
Rasen (Spiral) January 31, 1998 ¥1,700,000,000[20] ₩25,482,000[29][30] N/A ?
Ring 2 January 23, 1999 ¥3,570,000,000[20] ₩771,180,000[29][30] $117,493[31][25][26]
Ring 0: Birthday January 22, 2000 ¥1,600,000,000[32] ₩40,642,000[29][33] N/A
Sadako 3D May 12, 2012 ¥1,350,000,000[34] ₩1,128,635,032[29] $3,486,438[b]
Sadako 3D 2 August 30, 2013 ¥688,494,993[37] ₩92,668,200[29] $1,375,682[38]
Sadako vs. Kayako June 18, 2016 ¥1,000,000,000[39] ₩202,716,000[29] $704,922[40]
Sadako May 24, 2019 ¥164,000,000[41] N/A N/A
Regional total ¥11,772,494,993 ($142,079,440) ₩2,603,293,232 ($2,367,292) $11,946,273 $1.5 million+
Worldwide total $156,495,481
American films
Film Release date Box office gross Budget Ref.
North America Other territories Worldwide
The Ring October 18, 2002 $129,128,133 $120,220,800 $249,348,933 $48 million [42]
The Ring Two March 18, 2005 $76,231,249 $87,764,700 $163,995,949 $50 million [43]
Rings February 3, 2017 $27,793,018 $55,287,872 $83,080,890 $25 million [44]
Total $233,152,400 $263,273,372 $496,425,772 $123 million [45]
South Korean film
Film Release date Box office gross (South Korea) Budget
The Ring Virus June 12, 1999 ₩1,994,124,000[29][22] ($1,689,326)[26] ?
Total
Japanese films American films South Korean film Box office total
$156,495,481 $496,425,772 $1,689,326 $654,610,579

Critical and audience response[edit]

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic CinemaScore[46]
Ring 97% (38 reviews)[47] N/A N/A
Ring 2 0% (13 reviews)[48] N/A N/A
The Ring 71% (206 reviews)[49] 57 (36 reviews)[50] B−
The Ring Two 20% (189 reviews)[51] 44 (37 reviews)[52] C+
Sadako vs. Kayako 48% (21 reviews)[53] N/A N/A
Rings 8% (111 reviews)[54] 25 (23 reviews)[55] C−
Sadako 22% (23 reviews)[56] N/A N/A

In his review of Sadako (2019), the film critic and psychoanalyst Pieter-Jan Van Haecke remarked that while Sadako does not work as a horror movie, the atmospheric tension that marks the films turn the film into an enjoyable experience.

Unofficial films[edit]

In 2015, Hikiko-san vs Sadako (or simply Hikiko vs Sadako), directed by Nagaoka Hisaaki was released. While the DVD cover features a character resembling Sadako emerging from a well, the character in the film is named Sadako Takamura.[57]

In 2016 and 2017, Bunshinsaba vs Sadako and Bunshinsaba vs Sadako 2, both directed by River Huang, a crossover with the Bunshinsaba film series, were released. A third film, Bunshinsaba vs Sadako 3, was originally scheduled for release in 2020, but was delayed and its release date is unknown.

The Return of Sadako[c], released in 2018, was the first stand-alone Chinese Ring film to be made following the crossover film Bunshinaba vs. Sadako in 2016; produced by Scarecrow Pictures, the film's killers renamed as sisters Sadako and Kawako, who flee to China alongside their father after the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, before turning against one another for the love of a Japanese boy; years later a projector is discovered in their house with their souls imprinted upon it. Though the film was marketed as an unofficial sequel to Sadako 3D 2, it is in-fact a remake.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ring (1998) overseas box office:
    • Chile and United Kingdom – $59,001[23]
    • France – €506,160[24][25] ($452,737)[26]
    • Hong Kong – HK$31.2 million (US$4.03 million)[27]
    • Taiwan – NT$50.83 million[28] (US$1.72 million)
  2. ^ Sadako 3D (2012) overseas box office:
    • Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan – US$2,263,295[35]
    • Russia, Thailand – $1,223,143[36]
  3. ^ 贞子归来

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "The "Ring" Master: Interview With Hideo Nakata". Offscreen. July 21, 2000. Archived from the original on February 10, 2001. Retrieved February 10, 2001.
  2. ^ Smith, Adam (n.d.), 'Review of Ring', Empire Online.
  3. ^ Balmain, Colette (2008), Introduction to Japanese Horror film (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).
  4. ^ Martin, Daniel (2009), 'Japan’s Blair Witch: Restraint, Maturity, and Generic Canons in the British Critical Reception of Ring', Cinema Journal 48, Number 3, Spring: 35-51.
  5. ^ "1999年(1月~12月)" (in Japanese). Motion Picture Publishers of Japan. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  6. ^ Miska, Brad (2022-02-18). "They Made Another 'Ringu' Sequel: 'Sadako DX'!". Bloody Disgusting!. Retrieved 2022-05-14.
  7. ^ "Kazuma Kawamura appearing in movie". LDH - LOVE + DREAM + HAPPINESS TO THE WORLD -. Retrieved 2022-05-14.
  8. ^ "リング 上巻" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
  9. ^ "リング 下巻" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
  10. ^ "Ring Volume 1 TPB". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
  11. ^ "リング 2" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
  12. ^ "Ring Volume 2 TPB". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
  13. ^ "らせん" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
  14. ^ "Ring Volume 3: Spiral TPB". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
  15. ^ "バースデイ" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
  16. ^ "Ring Volume 4; Birthday TPB". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
  17. ^ "リング0" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
  18. ^ "Ring Volume 0 TPB". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
  19. ^ "New Film 'The Grudge' Takes Place at Same Time as the 2004 Version [Exclusive]". 20 September 2019.
  20. ^ a b c "邦画興行収入ランキング". SF MOVIE DataBank. General Works. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  21. ^ "영화정보". KOFIC. Korean Film Council. Retrieved 1 February 2019. The Ring
  22. ^ a b Park, Seung Hyun (2000). "Average Ticket Prices in Korea, 1974–1997". A Cultural Interpretation of Korean Cinema, 1988–1997. Indiana University. p. 119. 1997 [...] Foreign [...] 6,000
  23. ^ "Ringu". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  24. ^ "Ring (1998)". JP's Box Office. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  25. ^ a b "Dissemination of European cinema in the European Union and the international market" (PDF). Jacques Delors Institute. UniFrance. November 2014. p. 28. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  26. ^ a b c "Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average)". World Bank. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  27. ^ Ma, Kevin. "Doraemon sets box office record in Hong Kong". Film Business Asia. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  28. ^ "破鬼后貞子17年紀錄 《你的名字》稱霸台北日片票房 – 自由娛樂". Liberty Times. 2016-11-04. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g "영화정보". KOFIC. Korean Film Council. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  30. ^ a b "Korean Film Newsletter #7". KoreanFilm.org. August 7, 2000. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  31. ^ "Ring 2 (1999)". JP's Box-Office. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  32. ^ "2000年(平成12年)興収10億円以上番組" (PDF). Eiren (in Japanese). Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  33. ^ "Screen Industry Snapshot Korea". Austrade. Government of Australia. 26 September 2017. p. 49. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  34. ^ "2012". Eiren. Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  35. ^ "Sadako 3D (2012) - International". The Numbers. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  36. ^ "Sadako 3D (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  37. ^ "Japanese Box Office, September 28–29". Anime News Network. 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
  38. ^ "Sadako 2 3D". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  39. ^ "2016". Eiren. Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  40. ^ "Sadako vs. Kayako". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  41. ^ Komatsu, Mikikazu (28 May 2019). "Japan Box Office: Aircraft Carrier Ibuki Debuts at 2nd with Modest 246 Million Yen". Crunchyroll. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  42. ^ "The Ring". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  43. ^ "The Ring Two". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  44. ^ "Rings". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  45. ^ "The Ring series". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  46. ^ "CinemaScore". CinemaScore. Archived from the original on April 13, 2022. Retrieved April 15, 2022.
  47. ^ "Ringu (Ring) (1998)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  48. ^ "Ringu 2 (Ring 2) (2005)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  49. ^ "The Ring". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2014-07-29.
  50. ^ "The Ring". Metacritic. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  51. ^ "The Ring Two". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  52. ^ "The Ring Two Reviews, Ratings, Credits". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  53. ^ "Sadako Vs Kayako (2016)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  54. ^ "Rings (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  55. ^ "Rings reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  56. ^ "Sadako (2019)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  57. ^ ひきこさん VS 貞子 [Hikiko-san VS Sadako] (DVD) (in Japanese). Interfilm. そして今回登場するのは、“御加美千鶴子”“長瀬郁子”そして“高村貞子”。