Theodore Bikel

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Theodore Bikel
Theodore Bikel (4133239868 24c25ac837 z) (cropped).jpg
Bikel in 2009
Born
Theodore Meir Bikel

(1924-05-02)May 2, 1924
DiedJuly 21, 2015(2015-07-21) (aged 91)
Resting placeHillside Memorial Park Cemetery
OccupationActor, folk singer
Years active1943–2007
Spouse(s)
  • (m. 1942; div. 1943)
  • Rita Weinberg Call
    (m. 1967; div. 2008)
  • (m. 2008; died 2012)
  • Aimee Ginsburg
    (m. 2013)
Children2
9th President of the American Actors' Equity Association
In office
1973–1982
Preceded byFrederick O'Neal
Succeeded byEllen Burstyn

Theodore Meir Bikel (/bɪˈkɛl/ bih-KEL; May 2, 1924 – July 21, 2015) was an Austrian-American actor, folk singer, musician, composer, unionist, and political activist. He appeared in films, including The African Queen (1951), Moulin Rouge (1952), The Kidnappers (1953), The Enemy Below (1957), I Want to Live! (1958), My Fair Lady (1964), The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming (1966), and 200 Motels (1971). For his portrayal of Sheriff Max Muller in The Defiant Ones (1958), he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.[1]

He made his stage debut in Tevye the Milkman in Tel Aviv, Israel, when he was in his teens. He later studied acting at Britain's Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, and made his London stage debut in 1948 and in New York in 1955. He was also a widely recognized and recorded folk singer and guitarist. In 1959, he co-founded the Newport Folk Festival, and created the role of Captain von Trapp opposite Mary Martin as Maria in the original Broadway production of Rodgers & Hammerstein's The Sound of Music. In 1969, Bikel began acting and singing on stage as Tevye in the musical Fiddler on the Roof, a role he performed more often than any other actor to date. The production won nine Tony Awards, and was one of the longest-running musicals in Broadway history.

Bikel was president of the Associated Actors and Artistes of America until 2014, and was president of Actors' Equity in the late 1970s and early 1980s. He served as the chairman of the board of directors of Partners for Progressive Israel,[2] where he also lectured.

Early years[edit]

Theodore Bikel was born into a Jewish family[3] in Vienna, Austria, the son of Miriam (née Riegler) and Josef Bikel,[4] from Bukovina. As an active Zionist, his father named him after Theodor Herzl, the founder of modern Zionism. Following the German annexation of Austria in 1938, Bikel's family fled to Mandatory Palestine, where his father's contacts helped the family obtain British passports. Bikel studied at the Mikve Yisrael agricultural school and joined Kibbutz Kfar HaMaccabi.[5]

Bikel started acting while in his teens. He performed with Habimah Theatre in 1943, and was one of the founding members of the Cameri Theatre, which became a leading Israeli theatre company.[5][6] He described his acting experience there as similar to, if not better than, the method acting techniques taught at the Actors Studio in New York. "The Habimah people were much closer to the Method, indeed, than Lee Strasberg was, because they were direct disciples of Stanislavski."[7]

In 1945, he moved to London to study at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art.[8] Bikel moved to the United States in 1954 and became a naturalized citizen in 1961.[9]

Bikel did not return to live in Israel, nor did he take part in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Bikel wrote in his autobiography, Theo: "A few of my contemporaries regarded [not returning to Israel] as a character flaw, if not a downright act of desertion. In me there remains a small, still voice that asks whether I can ever fully acquit myself in my own mind."[10]

Career[edit]

Actor[edit]

Bikel (back, center), performing in The Elgin Hour, 1955, with (l-r) Joe Mantell, Orson Bean, Polly Bergen

In 1948, Michael Redgrave recommended Bikel to his friend Laurence Olivier as understudy for the parts of both Stanley Kowalski and Harold "Mitch" Mitchell in the West End premiere of Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire.[11] Aside from being an understudy, Bikel's main role in the production was the relatively minor part of Pablo Gonzales.[12] He graduated from supporting actor and understudy, though, to star opposite the director's wife, Vivien Leigh, with a sudden, unplanned performance when a co-star, playing the role of Mitch, came down with a case of flu. Bikel showed up backstage and went directly to Leigh's dressing room to ask if she wanted to rehearse with him, to make sure he was right for the role. She replied that she did not need to: "Go and do it," she said. "You are a professional, and Larry gave you this job because he trusted you to do it well." After the show, Leigh told him, "Well done."[7]

For most of his acting career, he was known for his versatility in playing characters of different nationalities; he claimed he took on those different personalities so his acting would "never get stale."[9] On television, he played an Armenian merchant on Ironside, a Polish professor on Charlie's Angels, an American professor on The Paper Chase, a Bulgarian villain on Falcon Crest, a Belarusian on Star Trek: The Next Generation, and an Italian on Murder, She Wrote.[9]

In movies, he played a German officer in The African Queen (1951) and The Enemy Below (1957), a Southern sheriff in The Defiant Ones, and a Russian submarine captain in the comedy he Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming (1966). He also portrayed the sadistic General Jouvet in The Pride and the Passion (1957), and was screen tested for the role of Auric Goldfinger in the James Bond film Goldfinger (1964), though the part ultimately fell to German actor Gert Fröbe.[13] In My Fair Lady (1964), he played the overbearing Hungarian linguist Zoltan Karpathy.[9]

He made his Broadway debut in 1955 in Tonight in Samarkand, and in 1958 was nominated for a Tony for The Rope Dancers. In 1959, he created the role of Captain von Trapp in the original production of The Sound of Music, which earned him a second Tony nomination.[6] Bikel did not like his role because his ability to sing was underused; neither did he like performing the same role of the captain repeatedly. When the composers, Rodgers and Hammerstein, realized Bikel was an accomplished folksinger, they wrote the song "Edelweiss" specifically for him to sing and accompany himself on the guitar.[14]

In 1964, he played Zoltan Karpathy, the dialect expert, in the film version of My Fair Lady. Since his first appearance as Tevye in the musical Fiddler on the Roof (1967), Bikel had performed the role more often than any other actor (more than 2,000 times). When an injury required 74-year-old fellow Israeli performer Chaim Topol (veteran of many productions of the stage show and star of the motion picture Fiddler on the Roof) to withdraw from a high-budget, much-promoted 2009 North American tour of the musical, Bikel substituted for him in several appearances in 2010.[15]

Bikel was a guest star on many popular television series. He appeared in an episode of the 1954 NBC legal drama Justice based on cases from the Legal Aid Society of New York.[16] He also appeared in the episode entitled "The Faithful Pilgrimage" of CBS's Appointment with Adventure anthology series. The particular episode was written by Rod Serling. He also appeared in a second episode of Appointment with Adventure entitled "Return of the Stranger". Bikel also appeared in an acting role in Frank Zappa's experimental film 200 Motels (1971).

Bikel later guest-starred on Rod Serling's The Twilight Zone (episode "Four O'Clock" as Oliver Crangle). He appeared on episodes of Wagon Train, Combat! in the season-three episode "Mountain Man" as Francois Perrault, Hawaii Five-O, Columbo (1977, "The Bye-Bye Sky High I.Q. Murder Case"), Charlie's Angels, The San Pedro Beach Bums, Cannon, Little House on the Prairie, Mission: Impossible, Gunsmoke, Dynasty, All in the Family, Knight Rider, Murder, She Wrote, Fantasy Island, Law & Order, and Mickey Spillane's Mike Hammer (episode "Elegy for a Tramp" as Gerringer that aired on January 28, 1987).

In the early 1990s, he appeared on Star Trek: The Next Generation, in the episode "Family", playing Sergey Rozhenko, Worf's Belarusian-born adoptive father. Bikel performed two roles in the Babylon 5 universe, in 1994 as Rabbi Koslov in the first-season episode "TKO" and in 1998, as Ranger leader Lenonn in the TV movie Babylon 5: In the Beginning.

Bikel was nominated for the Drama Desk Award in 2010 for outstanding solo performance for Sholom Aleichem: Laughter Through Tears, an off-Broadway play that he also wrote.[14][17] In 2012, Bikel played the title role in Visiting Mr. Green with the Harold Green Jewish Theatre Company in Toronto, Ontario.[18] In 2013, Bikel starred in Journey 4 Artists, a documentary that celebrates the power of music and religious diversity.[19][20]

Folk singer and composer[edit]

In 1955, at the suggestion of Jac Holzman of Elektra Records,[21] Bikel began recording songs, including several albums of Jewish folk songs and songs from Russia and other countries, making over 20 contemporary and folk music albums during his career.[22] For those, he played acoustic guitar alone or accompanied by other musicians. He was able to sing in 21 different languages, including Yiddish, Hebrew, German, Russian, Hungarian, Romanian, French, medieval Spanish, Zulu, and English. His early albums included Israeli Folk Songs (1955) and Songs of Russian Old & New (1960).[9] Bikel's live performances were issued on two albums: Bravo Bikel (1959), and Bikel on Tour(1963).[23]

In 1959, Bikel co-founded the Newport Folk Festival (together with Pete Seeger, Harold Leventhal, Oscar Brand, and George Wein). He performed a number of recorded duets with Judy Collins at various festivals and on television.[24][25] During an interview, when asked what inspired him to become involved in organizing a folk festival, he said that music was "one of the few answers to the chaos that we have," one of the only recourses to avoid social strife, and a means of giving youth hope for a better world.[9][26]

Bikel viewed then 21-year-old Bob Dylan as one of those young performers expressing emotional and social messages through song.[26] In 1963, Bikel joined Dylan, Seeger, Peter, Paul and Mary, and Joan Baez for the festival grand finale as they sang "Blowin' in the Wind" and "We Shall Overcome".[27] Following the festival, Bikel, Seeger, and Dylan traveled to a planned rally in Greenwood, Mississippi, to perform Dylan's newly written song, "Only a Pawn in Their Game", about the man who murdered Medgar Evers.[27] Originally, only Bikel and Seeger were scheduled to perform, but Bikel wanted Dylan to go with them. He told Dylan's manager, Albert Grossman, "I'll tell you what. Buy him a ticket. Don't tell him where it came from. Tell him it's time to go down and experience the South."[28]

Bikel's close friendship with Seeger was sometimes tested as a result of the festival's choice of performers. On one occasion, Seeger became infuriated and wished he had an ax to cut the electrical cables because of the poor audio during Bob Dylan's legendary performance accompanied by the Paul Butterfield Blues Band. Seeger expected Bikel to support him: "Theo, for Chrissake—tell them. Set them straight!" Bikel stepped forward and told Seeger, "Peter, this band, these rebels—they are us. They are what we were 20 years ago. Remember?" Seeger stared at him "like a trauma victim", as Bikel succeeded in calming Seeger down enough to let the group finish their songs.[29] In 1965, Bikel, as well as Seeger, was shocked when Bob Dylan turned electric at the festival, an event some call "Dylan's declaration of musical independence."[30][31]

In 1962, Bikel became the first singer besides Dylan to perform "Blowin' in the Wind" in public. His album A Folksinger's Choice (1964) featured Jim McGuinn (as he was then known) on banjo.[23] Bikel (with business partner Herb Cohen) opened the first folk music coffee house in Los Angeles, The Unicorn. Its popularity led to the two opening a second club, Cosmo Alley, which, in addition to folk music, presented poets such as Maya Angelou and comics including Lenny Bruce. Bikel became increasingly involved with civil-rights issues and progressive causes, and was a Eugene McCarthy delegate to the 1968 Democratic Convention.[32]

Personal life[edit]

Photograph of Bickel t Washington D.C. Kennedy Center as an Honoree, 2002
Bickel at Washington D.C. Kennedy Center as an Honoree, 2002

Bikel was married four times. He married Ofra Ichilov in 1942. They divorced the following year. His second marriage was in 1967 to Rita Weinberg Call, with whom he had two children. They divorced in 2008. He married conductor Tamara Brooks later that year. She died in 2012. He married journalist and foreign correspondent Aimee Ginsburg on December 29, 2013.[9]

Bikel died on July 21, 2015, at Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles of natural causes, according to publicist Harlan Boll, survived by Ms Ginsburg, his sons from his second marriage, Robert and Daniel, and three grandchildren.[9] He was buried at Hillside Memorial Park Cemetery in Culver City, California.

Political activism[edit]

Bikel was a longtime activist in the civil-rights and human-rights movements, participating as a fundraiser with performances.[9] He co-founded the Actors Federal Credit Union in 1962, and in 1968, he was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.[9] He was president of Actors' Equity from 1977 to 1982, in which office he supported human-rights causes. Since 1988, he had been president of the Associated Actors and Artistes of America.[33]

Upon hearing of his death, Actors’ Equity wrote: "From the time he joined Equity in 1954, Bikel has been an advocate for the members of our union and his extraordinary achievements paved the way for so many. No one loved theater more, his union better, or cherished actors like Theo did. He has left an indelible mark on generations of members past and generations of members to come. We thank you, Theo, for all you have done."[14]

Bikel was an active supporter and campaigner for John F. Kennedy. He did some of his campaigning during the run of The Sound of Music, which got him into trouble with the producers, who did not think it was becoming for an actor. He recalls, "I would go out sometimes between matinee and evening performances, go to a rally and speak from a flat-bed truck, and then come back to the theater." The producers stopped complaining, however, when after one show he was picked up backstage by a limousine carrying Eleanor Roosevelt, and he accompanied her to a Democratic rally as her special guest.[34]

At the 1977 AFL–CIO Convention, Bikel welcomed Russian dissident Vladimir Bukovsky upon his release from the Soviet Union.[35] He was arrested in front of the Soviet Embassy in Washington in 1986 while protesting the plight of Soviet Jews.[9]

President Jimmy Carter appointed him to serve on the National Council for the Arts in 1977 for a six-year term.[36] In 2007, he served as chair of the Board of Directors of Meretz USA (now Partners for Progressive Israel).[37]

He was a member of the high-IQ collective Mensa International.[38]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bikel, Theodore (1960). Folksongs and Footnotes: An International Songbook. Meridian Books, Inc.
  • Bikel, Theodore (2002). Theo: An Autobiography. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0299182847.

Awards and recognition[edit]

Discography[edit]

Filmography[edit]

Film[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1947 The Cherry Orchard TV film
1951 Appointment with Venus Man at Newspaper Vendor Uncredited
The African Queen First Officer
1952 Moulin Rouge King Milan I of Serbia
1953 Desperate Moment Anton Meyer
Never Let Me Go Lieutenant
Melba Paul Brotha
A Day to Remember Henri Dubot
The Kidnappers Dr. Willem Bloem
1954 The Love Lottery Parsimonious
Forbidden Cargo Max
The Young Lovers Joseph
Betrayed German Sergeant Uncredited
The Divided Heart Josip
1955 The Colditz Story Vandy
Above Us the Waves German Officer
1956 Flight from Vienna Colonel Sandor Kosice
1957 There Shall Be No Night Uncle Vlahos TV film
The Vintage Eduardo Uribon
The Pride and the Passion General Jouvet
The Enemy Below 'Heinie' Schwaffer
1958 Fräulein Colonel Dmitri Bucaron
The Defiant Ones Sheriff Max Muller
I Bury the Living Andy McKee
I Want to Live! Carl G.G. Palmberg
1959 The Angry Hills Dimitrios Tassos
Woman Obsessed Dr. R.W. Gibbs
The Blue Angel Klepert
1960 A Dog of Flanders Piet van Gelder
1964 My Fair Lady Zoltan Karpathy
1965 Who Has Seen the Wind? Josef Radek TV film
Sands of the Kalahari Dr. Bondarahkai
1966 The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming The Russian Captain
1967 The Desperate Ones Kisielev
The Diary of Anne Frank Hans Van Daan TV film
Saint Joan Robert de Baudricourt TV film
1968 Sweet November Alonzo
1969 My Side of the Mountain Bando
1970 Darker Than Amber Meyer
1971 200 Motels Rance Muhammitz
1972 Killer by Night Sergeant. Phl 'Sharkey' Gold TV film
The Little Ark The Captain
1975 Murder on Flight 502 Otto Gruenwaldt TV film
1976 Victory at Entebbe Yakov Shlomo TV film
1978 The Stingiest Man in Town Marley's Ghost TV film, voice role
1980 The Return of the King Aragorn TV film, voice role
1984 Prince Jack Georgi
1986 Very Close Quarters Victor
1988 A Stoning in Fulham County Abe Moser TV film
1989 Dark Tower Max Gold
See You in the Morning Bronie
The Final Days Henry Kissinger TV film
1991 Shattered Dr. Berkus
1992 Crisis in the Kremlin Leo
1993 Benefit of the Doubt Gideon Lee
My Family Treasure Grandpa Danieloff
1997 Shadow Conspiracy Professor Yuri Pochenko
1998 Babylon 5: In the Beginning Lenonn TV film
Second Chances Dutch John Hathaway
2000 H.U.D. Ambassador Bjorn Jorgenson TV film
2002 Crime and Punishment Captain Koch
2007 The Little Traitor Interrogator

Television[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1953 Johnny, You're Wanted Ferrari Mini-series
1954 The Philco Television Playhouse Episode: "The King and Mrs. Candle"
1955 The Elgin Hour Mr. Wu Episode: "San Francisco Fracas"
Studio One in Hollywood Machek Episode: "Passage of Arms"
Julius Caesar Episode: "Julius Casar"
Armstrong Circle Theatre Episode: "Perilous Night"
Star Tonight Episode: "Footfalls"
Appointment with Adventure Richter 2 episodes
Producers' Showcase Episode: "The King and Mrs. Candle"
Strange Experiences Episode: "Portrait of Paula"
Justice Episode: "Track of Fear"
Goodyear Television Playhouse Paul Laurent Episode: "Visit to a Small Planet"
The United States Steel Hour Fritz Gerhardy Episode: "Scandal at Peppernut"
1956 Grigor Dimitorski Episode: "Hunted"
The Alcoa Hour Il Vecchio Episode: "A Patch of Faith"
Studio One in Hollywood Grossman Episode: "The Power"
1957 Climax! Martin Humphries Episode: "The Mad Bomber"
Alfred Hitchcock Presents Sergeant Ottermole Episode: "The Hands of Mr. Ottermole"
Studio One in Hollywood Henri Blanchard Episode: "Death and Taxes"
1958 DuPont Show of the Month Episode: "The Bridge of San Luis Rey"
Playhouse 90 Rapp Episode: "Word from a Sealed-Off Box"
Folio Barbaso Episode: "The Hostage"
1959 Hotel de Paree Carmoody Episode: "Sundance Returns"
1960 The Play of the Week Sender Episode: "The Dybbuk"
Directions Host Episode: "Footnotes to Jewish Music"
1961 Naked City Nicholas Rozinski Episode: "Murder Is a Face I Know"
1962 Dr. Stanley Wilford Episode: "Portrait of a Painter"
Wagon Train Dr. Denker Episode: "The Dr. Denker Story"
The Twilight Zone Oliver Crangle Episode: "Four O'Clock"
The Dick Powell Show Captain Bellini Episode: "The Prison"
Nicholas Simonakis Episode: "Pericles on 31st Street"
General Electric Theater Rabbi Halevy Episode: "The Bar Mitzvah of Major Orlovsky"
Dr. Kildare Dr. Mahmel Homatka Episode: "The Visitors"
Route 66 Dr. Anton Koseloff Episode: "Only by Cunning Glimpses"
Sam Benedict Neil Bonney Episode: "So Various, So Beautiful"
Alcoa Premiere Stefan Tamarow Episode: "The Potentate"
1963 The DuPont Show of the Week Diamond Cutter – Herbert Vanderling Episode: "Diamond Fever"
East Side/West Side George Everett, Sr. Episode: "No Wings at All"
Theatre of Stars Ralph Traven Episode: "Corridor 400"
1964 The Doctors and the Nurses Dr. Kralik Episode: "The Forever Child"
Combat! Francois Perrault Episode: "Mountain Man"
Rawhide Pence Episode: "Canliss"
Burke's Law Vic Bates Episode: "Who Killed the Surf Board?"
1965 Senor Manfred Gonzales Episode: "Who Killed the Rest?"
Gunsmoke Martin Kellums Episode: "Song for Dying"
The Trials of O'Brien Ben Moravian Episode: "The Trouble with Archie"
1966 ABC Stage 67 Homer T. Hatch Episode: "Noon Wine"
1968 Mission: Impossible General Casimir Zepke Episode: "The Cardinal"
1969 Hawaii Five-O Professor Erich Stoss Episode: "Sweet Terror"
1971 Ironside Arschag Divinian Episode: "The Summer Soldier"
1972 Cannon Mike Tampa Episode: "Blood on the Vine"
1973 The Mod Squad Max Kalatsis Episode: "Cry Uncle"
1975 Medical Story Danzinger Episode: "Us Against the World"
1976 Calling Dr. Gannon Joseph Zankov Episode: "A Very Private War"
Ellery Queen Sergio Vargo Episode: "The Adventure of the Two-Faced Woman"
Little House on the Prairie Yuli Pyatakov Episode: "Centennial"
1977 Charlie's Angels Professor Peter Wycinski Episode: "Angels on a String"
Columbo Oliver Brandt Episode: "The Bye-Bye Sky High I.Q. Murder Case"
Testimony of Two Men Peter Hegger Mini-series
The San Pedro Beach Bums Rashid Episode: "Godfather's Five"
1978 Police Woman Adamus Tarash Episode: "Sons"
Loose Change Tom Feiffer Mini-series
The Amazing Spider-Man Mandak Episode: "The Curse of Rava"
Fantasy Island Ambassador Eric Soro Episode: "King for a Day/Instant Family"
All in the Family Albrecht 'Alvin' Klemmer 2 episodes
1982 Trapper John, M.D. Vladimir Lopatkin Episode: "Russians and Ruses"
1983 Knight Rider Graham Deauville Episode: "Chariot of Gold"
1984 Glitter Episode: "On Your Toes"
1985 Hotel Constantin Markos Episode: "New Beginnings"
Cover Up Assad Episode: "Rules to Die By"
The Fall Guy Kamal Episode: "Reel Trouble"
Hell Town Episode: "Fast Louie"
Dynasty Warnick 4 episodes
1986 The Paper Chase Professor George Ballard Episode: "Suppressed Desires"
1987 The New Mike Hammer Russell Garringer Episode: "Elegy for a Tramp"
Murder, She Wrote Professor Harold Crenshaw Episode: "Indian Giver"
1987–1988 Falcon Crest Marin Dimitrov Recurring role
1988 Buck James Episode: "Almost Perfect"
Beauty and the Beast Eli Episode: "Chamber Music"
The Equalizer Episode: "Day of the Covenant"
1989 Christine Cromwell Horace 3 episodes
Murder, She Wrote Rosanno Bertolucci Episode: "When the Fat Lady Sings"
1990 City Dr. Calagari Episode: "You Can't Bite City Hall"
Star Trek: The Next Generation CPO Sergey Rozhenko Episode: "Family"
1991 The New Lassie Scotty MacPherson Episode: "The Gathering of the Clans"
Memories of Midnight Napoleon Chotas Mini-series
Murder, She Wrote Yuri Lermentov Episode: "The List of Yuri Lermentov"
1992 L.A. Law Kurt Rubin Episode: "Great Balls Afire"
1994 Law & Order Sol Bregman Episode: "Snatched"
Babylon 5 Rabbi Koslov Episode: "TKO"
Murder, She Wrote Inspector Van Horn Episode: "Amsterdam Kill"
1996 The Burning Zone Old Priest Episode: "St. Michael's Nightmare"
1997 Brooklyn South Solomon Shuyler Episode: "Why Can't Even a Couple of Us Get Along?"
Michael Hayes Episode: "Death and Taxes"
1998 The Pretender Martin Zeller/Dr. Werner Krieg Episode: "Hazards"
2003 JAG Farmer with Plane Episode: "A Tangled Webb: Part 1"

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "THE 31ST ACADEMY AWARDS – 1959". Oscars.org. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  2. ^ "About Partners for Progressive Israel". Archived from the original on November 21, 2012.
  3. ^ Wills, Adam (May 7, 2009). "Top 5 Jewish moments in 'Trek'". JewishJournal.com. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  4. ^ "Theodore Bikel Biography (1924–)". filmreference.com. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  5. ^ a b David B. Green, This Day in Jewish History / Singer, actor and activist Theodore Bikel is born Haaretz, February 5, 2014. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Actor Theodore Bikel dies in LA at 91", Fox News Channel, July 21, 2015
  7. ^ a b Staggs, Sam. When Blanche Met Brando: The Scandalous Story of "A Streetcar Named Desire", Macmillan (2005) pp. 113–114
  8. ^ "Renowned actor and folk singer Theodore Bikel and conductor Tamara Brooks to visit Vassar College as Artists in Residence. February 10–18, 2008". Poughkeepsie, New York: Vassar College. January 15, 2008. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Severo, Richard; Blumenthal, Ralph (July 21, 2015). "Theodore Bikel, Master of Versatility in Songs, Roles and Activism, Dies at 91". The New York Times. p. A24.
  10. ^ Ivry, Benjamin (July 21, 2015). "Remembering Theo Bikel, a fighter to the end". The Forward. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  11. ^ Bikel, Theodore. Theo: An Autobiography, pp. 56–57 at Google Books
  12. ^ "Production of A Streetcar Named Desire | Theatricalia". Theatricalia.com.
  13. ^ Barnes, Alan; Hearn, Marcus (1998). Kiss Kiss Bang! Bang!. The Overlook Press. p. 34. ISBN 087951874X.
  14. ^ a b c "Theodore Bikel, ‘Fiddler on the Roof’ Star, Dies at 91", Variety, July 21, 2015
  15. ^ Slater, Robert (February 6, 2013). "One more fiddle for the road". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
  16. ^ "Justice". The Classic TV Archive. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
  17. ^ Hodges, Ben. Theatre World 2009–2010, Applause Theatre & Cinema (2011) p. 149
  18. ^ "VISITING MR. GREEN – Harold Green Jewish Theatre Company – Professional Plays in Toronto". Hgjewishtheatre.com. February 18, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  19. ^ "Journey 4 Artists (2013)". IMDb.com. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  20. ^ "Journey 4 Artists ; A Michele Noble film". Journey4artists.com. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  21. ^ "Theodore Bikel, Elektra Records". Archived from the original on September 25, 2015.
  22. ^ "Theodore Bikel, face of ‘Fiddler’s’ Tevye, dies at 91", The Times of Israel, July 21, 2015
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Strong, Martin C. (2010). The Great Folk Discography: Pioneers and Early Legends. Edinburgh: Polygon Books. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-1-84697-141-9.
  24. ^ Judy Collins & Theodore Bikel – Newport Festival 1942. YouTube. July 21, 2015.
  25. ^ Judy Collins & Theodore Bikel – Kisses Sweeter Than Wine, 1963, from HOOTENANNY. YouTube. December 12, 2013.
  26. ^ a b video: "THEODORE BIKEL – INTERVIW – 1963 NEWPORT FESTIVAL", 4 min.
  27. ^ a b MacAdams, Lewis. Birth of the Cool: Beat, Bebop, and the American Avant Garde, Simon and Schuster (2001) p. 259
  28. ^ Sounes, Howard. Down the Highway: The Life of Bob Dylan, Grove Press (2011) e-book
  29. ^ Spitz, Bob. Dylan: A Biography, W. W. Norton & Company (1989) p. 304
  30. ^ Colby, Paul. The Bitter End: Hanging Out at America's Nightclub, Rowman & Littlefield (2002) p. 170
  31. ^ Wald, Elijah. Dylan Goes Electric!: Newport, Seeger, Dylan, and the Night That Split the Sixties, Dey Street Books (July 2015) back cover
  32. ^ Rollins, Peter, ed. (September 12, 2010). Hollywood's White House: The American Presidency in Film and History. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0813127927.
  33. ^ "Theodore Bikel Dies: Actor & Longtime Union Activist Was 91", Deadline Hollywood, July 21, 2015
  34. ^ Davis, Ronald. Mary Martin, Broadway Legend, Univ. of Oklahoma Press (2008) p. 217
  35. ^ Chenoweth (1992, p. 4): Chenoweth, Eric (Summer 1992). "The gallant warrior: In memoriam Tom Kahn" (PDF). Uncaptive Minds: A Journal of Information and Opinion on Eastern Europe. 1718 M Street, NW, No. 147, Washington DC 20036, USA: Institute for Democracy in Eastern Europe (IDEE). 5 (20, number 2): 5–16. ISSN 0897-9669. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2015.CS1 maint: location (link)
  36. ^ Kennedy, Mark (July 21, 2015). "Home> Entertainment Stage and Film Star Theodore Bikel Dies in LA at 91". ABC News. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  37. ^ a b c "Jon Hammond with the great Theodore Bikel last night in Freight & Salvage Coffeehouse", CNN, March 9, 2013
  38. ^ Grosswirth, Marvin; Salny, Abbie F. (January 23, 1983). The Mensa genius quiz. Addison-Wesley Publishing. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-201-05958-8.
  39. ^ Bikel, Theodore (July 4, 2006). "Theodore Bikel – Bio". Bikel.com. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  40. ^ "Theodore Bikel to receive lifetime achievement award in Scottsdale", Scottsdale Independent, December 16, 2014
  41. ^ "Theodore Bikel". The Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. October 25, 2019.
  42. ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF) (in German). p. 1919. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  43. ^ "Judaica Sound Archives : Folk Songs Of Israel-Theodore Bikel & Nico Feldman". Faujsa.fau.edu. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  44. ^ Oxford Univ. Press (2011) pp. 166–168
  45. ^ a b c d Lambert, Philip. To Broadway, To Life!: The Musical Theater of Bock and Harnick, Oxford Univ. Press (2011) pp. 166–168
  46. ^ "Theodore Bikel – "Edelweiss" from THE SOUND OF MUSIC". YouTube. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  47. ^ This album was later retitled Theodore Bikel does "Song of Songs" and other Biblical Prophecies (reissued on Everest Records with Marian Seldes as Shulamit.).
  48. ^ "The King and I (Studio Cast Recording (1964)): Studio Cast of The King and I (1964): MP3 Downloads". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  49. ^ "THEODORE BIKEL – a new day LP – Amazon.com Music". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  50. ^ "Theodore Bikel: For The Young: Music". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  51. ^ Theodore Bikel. "Theodore Bikel: Classic Jewish Holiday & Shabbat Songs: Music". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  52. ^ "Sephardic Song, Yehezkel Braun, Andre Hajdu, Elliot Z. Levine, Louis Lewandowski, Charlie Morrow, Moyshe Oysher, Salomone Rossi, Western Wind Vocal Ensemble – The Passover Story – Narrated by Theodore Bikel with Traditional Music". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  53. ^ "Theodore Bikel, Western Wind Ensemble: Chanukkah Story: Music". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  54. ^ "Frieda Enoch Noble Voices Theodore Bikel – Rise Up and Fight! Songs of Jewish Partisans – Amazon.com Music". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  55. ^ Tevye the Dairyman and the Railroad Stories: Sholem Aleichem, Theodore Bikel, Hillel Halkin: 9781559273794: Amazon.com: Books. ISBN 1559273798.
  56. ^ "A Taste of Passover: Theodore Bikel: Movies & TV". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  57. ^ "Various Artists – A Taste of Chanukah – Amazon.com Music". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  58. ^ "Theodore Bikel". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  59. ^ "Freedman Catalogue lookup: work Theodore Bikel/Alberto Mizrahi / Our Song". upenn.edu.

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