Tin(II) sulfide

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Tin(II) sulfide[1]
Names
IUPAC name
Tin(II) sulfide
Other names
Tin monosulfide
Herzenbergite
Identifiers
3D model (Jmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.013.863
EC Number 215-248-7
Properties
SnS
Molar mass 150.775 g/mol
Appearance dark brown solid
Density 5.22 g/cm3
Melting point 882 °C (1,620 °F; 1,155 K)
Boiling point about 1230 ˚C
Insoluble
Structure
GeS type (orthorhombic), oP8
Pnma, No. 62
a = 11.18 Å, b = 3.98 Å, c = 4.32 Å[2]
asymmetric 3-fold (strongly distorted octahedral)
Hazards
Main hazards Irritant
Related compounds
Other anions
Tin(II) oxide
Tin selenide
Tin telluride
Other cations
Carbon monosulfide
Silicon monosulfide
Germanium monosulfide
Lead(II) sulfide
Related compounds
Tin(IV) sulfide
Tributyl tin sulfide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Tin(II) sulfide is a chemical compound of tin and sulfur. The chemical formula is SnS. Its natural occurrence concerns herzenbergite, a rare mineral.

Synthesis[edit]

Tin(II) sulfide can be prepared by reacting tin with sulfur, or tin(II) chloride with hydrogen sulfide.

Sn + S → SnS
SnCl2 + H2S → SnS + 2HCl

Properties[edit]

Tin(II) sulfide is a brown solid, insoluble in water, but soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Tin (II) sulfide is soluble in (NH4)2S. It has a layer structure similar to that of black phosphorus.[3] As per black phosphorus, tin(II) sulfide can be ultrasonically exfoliated in liquids to produce atomically thin semiconducting SnS sheets that have a wider optical band gap (>1.5 eV) compared to the bulk crystal.[4]

Photovoltaic Applications[edit]

Tin(II) sulfide is an interesting potential candidate for next generation thin film solar cells. Currently, both Cadmium Telluride and CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Sulfide) are used as p-type absorber layers, but they are formulated from toxic, scarce constituents.[5] Tin(II) sulfide, by contrast, is formed from cheap, earth abundant elements, and is nontoxic. This material also has a high optical absorption coefficient, p-type conductivity, and a mid range direct band gap of 1.3-1.4 eV, required electronic properties for this type of absorber layer.[6] Based on the a detailed balance calculation using the material bandgap, the power conversion efficiency of a solar cell utilizing a tin(II) sulfide absorber layer could be as high as 32%, which is comparable to crystalline silicon.[7] Finally, Tin(II) sulfide is stable in both alkaline and acidic conditions.[8] All aforementioned characteristics suggest tin(II) sulfide as an interesting material to be used as a solar cell absorber layer.

At present, tin(II) sulfide thin films for use in photovoltaic cells are still in the research phase of development with power conversion efficiencies currently less than 5%.[9] Barriers for use include a low open circuit voltage and an inability to realize many of the above properties due to challenges in fabrication, but tin(II) sulfide still remains a promising material if these technical challenges are overcome.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Record of Tin(II) sulfide in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, accessed on 4/9/2007
  2. ^ del Bucchia, S.; Jumas, J.C.; Maurin, M. (1981). "Contribution a l'etude de composes sulfures d'etain (II): Affinement de la structure de Sn S". Acta Crystallogr. B. 37: 1903. doi:10.1107/s0567740881007528. 
  3. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 1233. ISBN 0-08-037941-9. 
  4. ^ Brent et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137 (39), pp 12689–12696
  5. ^ Ginley, D.; Green, M.A. (2008). "Solar energy conversion towards 1 terawatt". MRS Bulletin. 33. 
  6. ^ Andrade-Arvizu, Jacob A.; Courel-Piedrahita, Maykel; Vigil-Galán, Osvaldo (2015-04-14). "SnS-based thin film solar cells: perspectives over the last 25 years". Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics. 26 (7): 4541–4556. doi:10.1007/s10854-015-3050-z. ISSN 0957-4522. 
  7. ^ a b Nair, P. K.; Garcia-Angelmo, A. R.; Nair, M. T. S. (2016-01-01). "Cubic and orthorhombic SnS thin-film absorbers for tin sulfide solar cells". physica status solidi (a). 213 (1): 170–177. doi:10.1002/pssa.201532426. ISSN 1862-6319. 
  8. ^ Sato, N.; Ichimura, E. (2003). "Characterization of electrical properties of SnS thin films prepared by the electrochemical deposition method". Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion. A. 
  9. ^ Jaramillo, R.; Steinmann, V.; Yang, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Poindexter, J. R. (2015). "Making Record-efficiency SnS Solar Cells by Thermal Evaporation and Atomic Layer Deposition". J. Vis. Exp. (99). doi:10.3791/52705.