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3D model (Jmol)
|Molar mass||150.775 g/mol|
|Appearance||dark brown solid|
|Melting point||882 °C (1,620 °F; 1,155 K)|
|Boiling point||about 1230 ˚C|
|GeS type (orthorhombic), oP8|
|Pnma, No. 62|
a = 11.18 Å, b = 3.98 Å, c = 4.32 Å
|asymmetric 3-fold (strongly distorted octahedral)|
Tributyl tin sulfide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
- Sn + S → SnS
- SnCl2 + H2S → SnS + 2HCl
Tin(II) sulfide is a brown solid, insoluble in water, but soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Tin (II) sulfide is soluble in (NH4)2S. It has a layer structure similar to that of black phosphorus. As per black phosphorus, tin(II) sulfide can be ultrasonically exfoliated in liquids to produce atomically thin semiconducting SnS sheets that have a wider optical band gap (>1.5 eV) compared to the bulk crystal.
Tin(II) sulfide is an interesting potential candidate for next generation thin film solar cells. Currently, both Cadmium Telluride and CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Sulfide) are used as p-type absorber layers, but they are formulated from toxic, scarce constituents. Tin(II) sulfide, by contrast, is formed from cheap, earth abundant elements, and is nontoxic. This material also has a high optical absorption coefficient, p-type conductivity, and a mid range direct band gap of 1.3-1.4 eV, required electronic properties for this type of absorber layer. Based on the a detailed balance calculation using the material bandgap, the power conversion efficiency of a solar cell utilizing a tin(II) sulfide absorber layer could be as high as 32%, which is comparable to crystalline silicon. Finally, Tin(II) sulfide is stable in both alkaline and acidic conditions. All aforementioned characteristics suggest tin(II) sulfide as an interesting material to be used as a solar cell absorber layer.
At present, tin(II) sulfide thin films for use in photovoltaic cells are still in the research phase of development with power conversion efficiencies currently less than 5%. Barriers for use include a low open circuit voltage and an inability to realize many of the above properties due to challenges in fabrication, but tin(II) sulfide still remains a promising material if these technical challenges are overcome.
- Record of Tin(II) sulfide in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, accessed on 4/9/2007
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