||This article appears to contradict itself about whether "bufotoxin" refers only to the steroids or to all toxic substances found in toad venom. (March 2014)|
Bufotoxins are a family of toxic steroid lactones. They occur in the parotoid glands, skin and poison of many toads (genus Bufo) and other amphibians, and in some plants and mushrooms. The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain: 5-MeO-DMT, bufagins, bufalin, bufotalin, bufotenin, bufothionine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The term bufotoxin can also be used specifically to describe the conjugate of a bufagin with suberylargine.
The toxic substances found in toads can be divided by chemical structure in two groups:
- bufadienolides which are cardiac glycosides (e.g. bufotalin, bufogenin)
- tryptamine related substances (e.g. bufotenin)
Toads known to secrete bufotoxin are:
- Bufo alvarius
- Bufo americanus
- Bufo arenarum
- Bufo asper
- Bufo blombergi
- Bufo boreas
- Bufo bufo
- Bufo bufo gargarizans
- Bufo Gutturalis
- Bufo formosus
- Bufo fowleri
- Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus)
- Bufo melanostictus
- Bufo peltocephalus
- Bufo quercicus
- Bufo regularis
- Bufo valliceps
- Bufo viridis
- Bufo vulgaris
Extract from the skin of certain Asian toads, such as Bufo bufo gargarizans, is often found in certain Chinese folk remedies.
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- Lincoff, Gary; Mitchel, Duane H. (1977). Toxic and Hallucinogenic Mushroom Poisoning: A Handbook for Physicians and Mushroom Hunters. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 978-0-442-24580-1.[page needed]
- Kißmer, B.; Wichtl, M. (1986). "Bufadienolide aus Samen von Helleborus odorus" [Bufadienolides from the Seeds of Helleborus odorus]. Planta Medica (in German). 52 (2): 152–3. doi:10.1055/s-2007-969103.
- Chen KK, Kovaríková A (December 1967). "Pharmacology and toxicology of toad venom". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 56 (12): 1535–41. doi:10.1002/jps.2600561202. PMID 4871915.
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