Truncated square tiling

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Truncated square tiling
Truncated square tiling
Type Semiregular tiling
Vertex configuration Truncated square tiling vertfig.png
4.8.8
Schläfli symbol t{4,4}
tr{4,4}
Wythoff symbol 2 | 4 4
4 4 2 |
Coxeter diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.png
Symmetry p4m, [4,4], (*442)
Rotation symmetry p4, [4,4]+, (442)
Bowers acronym Tosquat
Dual Tetrakis square tiling
Properties Vertex-transitive

In geometry, the truncated square tiling is a semiregular tiling by regular polygons of the Euclidean plane with one square and two octagons on each vertex. This is the only edge-to-edge tiling by regular convex polygons which contains an octagon. It has Schläfli symbol of t{4,4}.

Conway calls it a truncated quadrille, constructed as a truncation operation applied to a square tiling (quadrille).

Other names used for this pattern include Mediterranean tiling and octagonal tiling, which is often represented by smaller squares, and nonregular octagons which alternate long and short edges.

There are 3 regular and 8 semiregular tilings in the plane.

Uniform colorings[edit]

There are two distinct uniform colorings of a truncated square tiling. (Naming the colors by indices around a vertex (4.8.8): 122, 123.)

Uniform tiling 44-t12.png
2 colors: 122
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png
Uniform tiling 44-t012.png
3 colors: 123
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.png

Circle packing[edit]

The truncated square tiling can be used as a circle packing, placing equal diameter circles at the center of every point. Every circle is in contact with 3 other circles in the packing (kissing number).[1] Since there is an even number of sides of all the polygons, the circles can be alternately colored as shown below.

Truncated square tiling circle packing.png Truncated square tiling circle packing2.png

Variations[edit]

One variations on this pattern, often called a Mediterranean pattern, is shown in stone tiles with smaller squares and diagonally aligned with the borders. Other variations stretch the squares or octagons.

The Pythagorean tiling alternates large and small squares, and may be seen as topologically identical to the truncated square tiling. The squares are rotated 45 degrees and octagons are distorted into squares with mid-edge vertices.

A weaving pattern also has the same topology, with octagons flattened rectangles.

p4m, (*442) pmm (*2222) p4g, (4*2) cmm, (2*22)
Mediterranean tiling.png Octagon rectangle tiling.png Octagon rhombus tiling.png Distorted truncated square tiling 4.svg Distorted truncated square tiling.png Weaved truncated square tiling0.png Weaved truncated square tiling.png
p4m, (*442) pmm (*2222) p4, (442) p4g, (4*2) cmm, (2*22)
Mediterranean tiling2.png Truncated rhombic tiling.png Truncated rectangular tiling.png Distorted truncated square tiling 3.svg Distorted truncated square tiling2.png Weaved truncated square tiling0b.png Weaved truncated square tiling2.png
Mediterranean Stretched Pythagorean Weaving

Related polyhedra and tilings[edit]

The truncated square tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of uniform polyhedra and tilings with vertex figures 4.2n.2n, extending into the hyperbolic plane:

*n42 symmetry mutation of truncated tilings: 4.2n.2n
Symmetry
*n42
[n,4]
Spherical Euclidean Compact hyperbolic Paracomp.
*242
[2,4]
*342
[3,4]
*442
[4,4]
*542
[5,4]
*642
[6,4]
*742
[7,4]
*842
[8,4]...
*∞42
[∞,4]
Truncated
figures
Spherical square prism.png Uniform tiling 432-t12.png Uniform tiling 44-t01.png H2 tiling 245-3.png H2 tiling 246-3.png H2 tiling 247-3.png H2 tiling 248-3.png H2 tiling 24i-3.png
Config. 4.4.4 4.6.6 4.8.8 4.10.10 4.12.12 4.14.14 4.16.16 4.∞.∞
n-kis
figures
Spherical square bipyramid.png Spherical tetrakis hexahedron.png 1-uniform 2 dual.svg Order-5 tetrakis square tiling.png Order-6 tetrakis square tiling.png Hyperbolic domains 772.png Order-8 tetrakis square tiling.png H2checkers 2ii.png
Config. V4.4.4 V4.6.6 V4.8.8 V4.10.10 V4.12.12 V4.14.14 V4.16.16 V4.∞.∞

The 3-dimensional bitruncated cubic honeycomb projected into the plane shows two copies of a truncated tiling. In the plane it can be represented by a compound tiling, or combined can be seen as a chamfered square tiling.

Uniform tiling 44-t01.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png
Uniform tiling 44-t12.png
CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.png
Chamfered square tiling.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png + CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.png

Wythoff constructions from square tiling[edit]

Drawing the tiles colored as red on the original faces, yellow at the original vertices, and blue along the original edges, all 8 forms are distinct. However treating faces identically, there are only three unique topologically forms: square tiling, truncated square tiling, snub square tiling.

Uniform tilings based on square tiling symmetry
Symmetry: [4,4], (*442) [4,4]+, (442) [4,4+], (4*2)
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node h.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node h.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node h.png
Uniform tiling 44-t0.png Uniform tiling 44-t01.png Uniform tiling 44-t1.png Uniform tiling 44-t12.png Uniform tiling 44-t2.png Uniform tiling 44-t02.png Uniform tiling 44-t012.png Uniform tiling 44-snub.png Uniform tiling 44-h01.png
{4,4} t{4,4} r{4,4} t{4,4} {4,4} rr{4,4} tr{4,4} sr{4,4} s{4,4}
Uniform duals
CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node fh.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node fh.png
Uniform tiling 44-t0.png Tetrakis square tiling.png Uniform tiling 44-t0.png Tetrakis square tiling.png Uniform tiling 44-t0.png Uniform tiling 44-t0.png Tetrakis square tiling.png Tiling Dual Semiregular V3-3-4-3-4 Cairo Pentagonal.svg
V4.4.4.4 V4.8.8 V4.4.4.4 V4.8.8 V4.4.4.4 V4.4.4.4 V4.8.8 V3.3.4.3.4
*n42 symmetry mutation of omnitruncated tilings: 4.8.2n
Symmetry
*n42
[n,4]
Spherical Euclidean Compact hyperbolic Paracomp.
*242
[2,4]
*342
[3,4]
*442
[4,4]
*542
[5,4]
*642
[6,4]
*742
[7,4]
*842
[8,4]...
*∞42
[∞,4]
Omnitruncated
figure
Spherical octagonal prism2.png
4.8.4
Uniform tiling 432-t012.png
4.8.6
Uniform tiling 44-t012.png
4.8.8
H2 tiling 245-7.png
4.8.10
H2 tiling 246-7.png
4.8.12
H2 tiling 247-7.png
4.8.14
H2 tiling 248-7.png
4.8.16
H2 tiling 24i-7.png
4.8.∞
Omnitruncated
duals
Spherical octagonal bipyramid2.png
V4.8.4
Spherical disdyakis dodecahedron.png
V4.8.6
1-uniform 2 dual.svg
V4.8.8
Order-4 bisected pentagonal tiling.png
V4.8.10
Hyperbolic domains 642.png
V4.8.12
Hyperbolic domains 742.png
V4.8.14
Hyperbolic domains 842.png
V4.8.16
H2checkers 24i.png
V4.8.∞
*nn2 symmetry mutations of omnitruncated tilings: 4.2n.2n
Symmetry
*nn2
[n,n]
Spherical Euclidean Compact hyperbolic Paracomp.
*222
[2,2]
*332
[3,3]
*442
[4,4]
*552
[5,5]
*662
[6,6]
*772
[7,7]
*882
[8,8]...
*∞∞2
[∞,∞]
Figure Spherical square prism.png Uniform tiling 332-t012.png Uniform tiling 44-t012.png H2 tiling 255-7.png H2 tiling 266-7.png H2 tiling 277-7.png H2 tiling 288-7.png H2 tiling 2ii-7.png
Config. 4.4.4 4.6.6 4.8.8 4.10.10 4.12.12 4.14.14 4.16.16 4.∞.∞
Dual Spherical square bipyramid.png Spherical tetrakis hexahedron.png 1-uniform 2 dual.svg H2checkers 245.png H2checkers 246.png H2checkers 247.png H2checkers 248.png H2checkers 24i.png
Config. V4.4.4 V4.6.6 V4.8.8 V4.10.10 V4.12.12 V4.14.14 V4.16.16 V4.∞.∞

Tetrakis square tiling[edit]

The tetrakis square tiling is the tiling of the Euclidean plane dual to the truncated square tiling. It can be constructed square tiling with each square divided into four isosceles right triangles from the center point, forming an infinite arrangement of lines. It can also be formed by subdividing each square of a grid into two triangles by a diagonal, with the diagonals alternating in direction, or by overlaying two square grids, one rotated by 45 degrees from the other and scaled by a factor of √2.

Conway calls it a kisquadrille,[2] represented by a kis operation that adds a center point and triangles to replace the faces of a square tiling (quadrille). It is also called the Union Jack lattice because of the resemblance to the UK flag of the triangles surrounding its degree-8 vertices.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Order in Space: A design source book, Keith Critchlow, p.74-75, circle pattern H
  2. ^ John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass, The Symmetries of Things 2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 [1] (Chapter 21, Naming Archimedean and Catalan polyhedra and tilings, p288 table)
  3. ^ Stephenson, John, "Ising Model with Antiferromagnetic Next-Nearest-Neighbor Coupling: Spin Correlations and Disorder Points", Phys. Rev. B 1 (11): 4405–4409, doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.1.4405 .

External links[edit]