United States Senate elections, 1966

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United States Senate elections, 1966
United States
← 1964 November 8, 1966 1968 →

33 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate,
plus 2 mid-term vacancies

51 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Michael Joseph Mansfield.jpg EverettDirksen.jpg
Leader Mike Mansfield Everett Dirksen
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Montana Illinois
Seats before 67 33
Seats after 64 36
Seat change Decrease 3 Increase 3
Popular vote 12,358,323 13,169,332
Percentage 47.9% 51.0%
Swing Decrease 8.4% Increase 8.8%
Seats up 18 15
Races won 15 18

Us 1966 senate election map.svg
Results (including special elections)
     Democratic gain      Republican gain
     Democratic hold      Republican hold

Majority Leader before election

Mike Mansfield
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Mike Mansfield
Democratic

The United States Senate elections, 1966 was an election on November 8, 1966 for the United States Senate which occurred midway through the second (only full) term of President Lyndon B. Johnson. With divisions in the Democratic base over the Vietnam War, and with the traditional mid-term advantage of the party not holding the presidency, the Republicans took three Democratic seats. Despite Republican gains, the balance remained overwhelmingly in favor of the Democrats, who retained a 64–36 majority. This was also the first election that occurred after the Voting Rights Act of 1965 became law.

Retirements[edit]

Republican holds[edit]

  1. Massachusetts: Leverett Saltonstall (R) was replaced by Edward Brooke (R)
  2. Wyoming: Milward L. Simpson (R) was replaced by Clifford Hansen (R)

Republican gain[edit]

  1. Oregon: Maurine Brown Neuberger (D) was replaced by Mark Hatfield (R)

Incumbents who lost their seats[edit]

Democratic holds[edit]

  1. South Carolina: Appointee Donald S. Russell (D) lost nomination to finish the term to Ernest Hollings (D), who went on to win the general election
  2. Virginia: Absalom Willis Robertson (D) lost renomination to William B. Spong, Jr. (D), who went on to win the general election

Republican gains[edit]

  1. Illinois: Paul Douglas (D) lost to Charles H. Percy (R)
  2. Tennessee: Ross Bass (D) lost renomination to Frank G. Clement (D), who went on to lose the general election to Howard Baker (R)

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40 D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48 D49 D50
Ran
Majority → D51
Ran
D60
Ran
D59
Ran
D58
Ran
D57
Ran
D56
Ran
D55
Ran
D54
Ran
D53
Ran
D52
Ran
D61
Ran
D62
Ran
D63
Ran
D64
Ran
D65
Ran
D66
Ran
D67
Retired
R33
Retired
R32
Retired
R31
Ran
R21
Ran
R22
Ran
R23
Ran
R24
Ran
R25
Ran
R26
Ran
R27
Ran
R28
Ran
R29
Ran
R30
Ran
R20
Ran
R19
Ran
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the general elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40 D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48 D49 D50
Re-elected
Majority → D51
Re-elected
D60
Re-elected
D59
Re-elected
D58
Re-elected
D57
Re-elected
D56
Re-elected
D55
Re-elected
D54
Re-elected
D53
Re-elected
D52
Re-elected
D61
Re-elected
D62
Re-elected
D63
Re-elected
D64
Hold
R36
Gain
R35
Gain
R34
Gain
R33
Hold
R32
Hold
R31
Re-elected
R21
Re-elected
R22
Re-elected
R23
Re-elected
R24
Re-elected
R25
Re-elected
R26
Re-elected
R27
Re-elected
R28
Re-elected
R29
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R20
Re-elected
R19
Re-elected
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the November special elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40 D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48 D49 D50
Majority → D51
D60 D59 D58 D57 D56 D55 D54 D53 D52
D61 D62 D63
Appointee elected
D64
Hold
R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 89th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1966 or before January 3, 1967; ordered by election date, then state.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Donald S. Russell Democratic 1965 (Appointed) Incumbent lost nomination.
New senator elected November 6, 1966.
Democratic hold.
Ernest Hollings (Democratic) 51.4%
Marshall Parker (Republican) 48.7%
Virginia
(Class 1)
Harry F. Byrd, Jr. Democratic 1965 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 6, 1966. Harry F. Byrd, Jr. (Democratic) 53.3%
Lawrence M. Traylor (Republican) 37.4%
John W. Carter (Independent) 7.9%

Elections leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1967; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama John Sparkman Democratic 1946 (Special)
1948
1954
1960
Incumbent re-elected. John Sparkman (Democratic) 60.1%
John Grenier (Republican) 39.0%
Alaska Bob Bartlett Democratic 1958 (New seat)
1960
Incumbent re-elected. Bob Bartlett (Democratic) 75.5%
Lee L. McKinley (Republican) 24.5%
Arkansas John L. McClellan Democratic 1942
1948
1954
1960
Incumbent re-elected. John L. McClellan (Democratic)
Unopposed
Colorado Gordon L. Allott Republican 1954
1960
Incumbent re-elected. Gordon L. Allott (Republican) 58.0%
Roy Romer (Democratic) 41.9%
Delaware J. Caleb Boggs Republican 1960 Incumbent re-elected. J. Caleb Boggs (Republican) 59.1%
James M. Tunnell, Jr. (Democratic) 40.9%
Georgia Richard Russell, Jr. Democratic 1933 (Special)
1936
1942
1948
1954
1960
Incumbent re-elected. Richard Russell, Jr. (Democratic)
Unopposed
Idaho Leonard B. Jordan Republican 1962 (Appointed)
1962 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected. Leonard B. Jordan (Republican) 55.4%
Ralph R. Harding (Democratic) 44.6%
Illinois Paul Douglas Democratic 1948
1954
1960
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Charles H. Percy (Republican) 55.0%
Paul Douglas (Democratic) 43.9%
Iowa Jack Miller Republican 1960 Incumbent re-elected. Jack Miller (Republican) 60.9%
E. B. Smith (Democratic) 37.8%
Kansas James B. Pearson Republican 1962 (Appointed)
1962 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected. James B. Pearson (Republican) 52.2%
James Floyd Breeding (Democratic) 45.2%
Kentucky John Sherman Cooper Republican 1946 (Special)
1948 (Lost)
1952 (Special)
1954 (Lost)
1956 (Special)
1960
Incumbent re-elected. John Sherman Cooper (Republican) 64.5%
John Y. Brown, Sr. (Democratic) 35.5%
Louisiana Allen J. Ellender Democratic 1936
1942
1948
1954
1960
Incumbent re-elected. Allen J. Ellender (Democratic)
Unopposed
Maine Margaret Chase Smith Republican 1948
1954
1960
Incumbent re-elected. Margaret Chase Smith (Republican) 59.0%
Elmer H. Violette (Democratic) 41.1%
Massachusetts Leverett Saltonstall Republican 1944 (Special)
1948
1954
1960
Incumbent retired.
New senator re-elected.
Republican hold.
Edward Brooke (Republican) 60.7%
Endicott Peabody (Democratic) 38.7%
Michigan Robert P. Griffin Republican 1966 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected. Robert P. Griffin (Republican) 55.9%
G. Mennen Williams (Democratic) 43.8%
Minnesota Walter Mondale Democratic 1964 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected. Walter Mondale (Democratic) 53.9%
Robert A. Forsythe (Republican) 45.2%
Mississippi James Eastland Democratic 1942
1948
1954
1960
Incumbent re-elected. James Eastland (Democratic) 65.5%
Prentiss Walker (Republican) 26.8%
Clifton R. Whitley (Independent) 7.8%
Montana Lee Metcalf Democratic 1960 Incumbent re-elected. Lee Metcalf (Democratic) 53.2%
Tim M. Babcock (Republican) 46.8%
Nebraska Carl Curtis Republican 1954
1960
Incumbent re-elected. Carl Curtis (Republican) 61.2%
Frank B. Morrison (Democratic) 38.8%
New Hampshire Thomas J. McIntyre Democratic 1962 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Thomas J. McIntyre (Democratic) 54.0%
Harrison Thyng (Republican) 45.9%
New Jersey Clifford P. Case Republican 1954
1960
Incumbent re-elected. Clifford P. Case (Republican) 60.0%
Warren W. Wilentz (Democratic) 37.0%
New Mexico Clinton P. Anderson Democratic 1948
1954
1960
Incumbent re-elected. Clinton Presba Anderson (Democratic) 53.1%
Anderson Carter (Republican) 46.9%
North Carolina B. Everett Jordan Democratic 1958 (Appointed)
1958 (Special)
1960
Incumbent re-elected. B. Everett Jordan (Democratic) 55.6%
John S. Shallcross (Republican) 44.4%
Oklahoma Fred R. Harris Democratic 1964 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Fred R. Harris (Democratic) 53.7%
Pat H. Patterson (Republican) 46.3%
Oregon Maurine Brown Neuberger Democratic 1960 (Special)
1960
Incumbent retired.
New senator re-elected.
Republican gain.
Mark Hatfield (Republican) 51.7%
Robert B. Duncan (Democratic) 48.2%
Rhode Island Claiborne Pell Democratic 1960 Incumbent re-elected. Claiborne Pell (Democratic) 67.7%
Ruth M. Briggs (Republican) 32.3%
South Carolina Strom Thurmond Republican 1954
1954 (Appointed)
1956 (Resigned)
1956 (Special)
1960
Incumbent re-elected. Strom Thurmond (Republican) 62.2%
Bradley Morrah (Democratic) 37.8%
South Dakota Karl Earl Mundt Republican 1948
1948 (Appointed)
1954
1960
Incumbent re-elected. Karl Earl Mundt (Republican) 66.3%
Donn H. Wright (Democratic) 33.7%
Tennessee Ross Bass Democratic 1964 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Howard Baker (Republican) 55.7%
Frank G. Clement (Democratic) 44.3%
Texas John Tower Republican 1961 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. John Tower (Republican) 56.4%
Waggoner Carr (Democratic) 43.1%
Virginia A. Willis Robertson Democratic 1946 (Appointed)
1948
1954
1960
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
William B. Spong, Jr. (Democratic) 58.6%
James P. Ould, Jr. (Republican) 33.5%
F. Lee Hawthorne (Conservative) 7.9%
West Virginia Jennings Randolph Democratic 1958 (Special)
1960
Incumbent re-elected. Jennings Randolph (Democratic) 59.5%
Francis J. Love (Republican) 40.5%
Wyoming Milward L. Simpson Republican 1962 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator re-elected.
Republican hold.
Clifford Hansen (Republican) 51.8%
Teno Roncalio (Democratic) 48.2%

Alabama[edit]

Alaska[edit]

Arkansas[edit]

Colorado[edit]

Delaware[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Idaho[edit]

Illinois[edit]

Illinois election
Illinois
← 1960
1972 →
  Charles Percy.jpg Paul Douglas.JPG
Nominee Charles Percy Paul Douglas
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 2,100,449 1,678,147
Percentage 54.95% 43.90%

U.S. Senator before election

Paul Douglas
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Charles H. Percy
Republican

Incumbent Democrat Paul Douglas, seeking a fourth term in the United States Senate, faced off against Republican Charles H. Percy, a businessman and the 1964 Republican nominee for Governor of Illinois. Also running was Robert Sabonjian (I), Mayor of Waukegan. A competitive election ensued, featuring campaign appearances by former Vice-President Richard M. Nixon on behalf of Percy.[1] Ultimately, Percy ended up defeating Senator Douglas by a fairly wide margin, allowing him to win what would be the first of three terms in the Senate.

United States Senate election in Illinois, 1966[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Charles H. Percy 2,100,449 54.95% +9.75%
Democratic Paul H. Douglas (inc.) 1,678,147 43.90% -10.73%
Independent Robert Sabonjian 41,965 1.10%
Write-ins 2,163 0.05%
Majority 422,302 11.05% +1.61%
Turnout 3,822,724
Republican gain from Democratic Swing

Iowa[edit]

Kansas[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Louisiana[edit]

Maine[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts election
Massachusetts
← 1960
1972 →
  Edward Brooke.jpg Endicott Peabody Gov.jpg
Nominee Edward Brooke Endicott Peabody
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,213,473 774,761
Percentage 60.68% 38.74%

U.S. Senator before election

Leverett Saltonstall
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Edward Brooke
Republican

Republican State Attorney General Edward Brooke defeated his challengers. Republican incumbent, Leverett Saltonstall, was retiring after serving for 22 years. Brooke was the first black U.S. Senator elected since Reconstruction.

Democratic primary
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Endicott Peabody,
Governor of Massachusetts from January 3, 1963 to January 7, 1965.[3]
320,967 50.35%
Democratic John F. Collins,
Mayor of Boston since 1960.
265,016 41.85%
Democratic Thomas Boylston Adams,
Academician and business executive of the Adams political family, running as an anti-war candidate.
51,435 8.07%
General election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Edward Brooke,
Chairman of the Boston Finance Commission from 1961-1962 and Massachusetts Attorney General since 1962.[4]
1,213,473 60.68% +4.49%
Democratic Endicott Peabody 774,761 38.74% -4.72%
Socialist Labor Lawrence Gilfedder,
Candidate for Lt. Governor in 1948. Ran for Governor in 1952 and 1954. Ran for Senate in 1958, 1960, 1962, 1964, 1966, and 1970.[5]
6,790 0.34% +0.10%
Prohibition Mark R. Shaw,
Candidate for U.S. Senator from Massachusetts in 1946, 1952, 1958, 1969, 1962, and 1970. He was also the party's candidate for governor of Massachusetts in 1948 and again in 1956. In 1964 he served as Prohibition Party candidate for vice-president of the United States.
4,833 0.24% +0.12%

Michigan[edit]

Minnesota[edit]

Minnesota election
Minnesota
← 1960
1972 →
  Mondale as Senator.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Walter F. Mondale Robert A. Forsythe
Party DFL Republican
Popular vote 685,840 574,868
Percentage 53.94% 45.21%

U.S. Senator before election

Walter F. Mondale
DFL

Elected U.S. Senator

Walter F. Mondale
DFL

Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Walter Mondale, who had originally been appointed in 1964 to replace Hubert Humphrey after Humphrey was elected Vice President of the United States, defeated Republican challenger Robert A. Forsythe, to win a full term.

Democratic primary election results[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
DFL Walter F. Mondale (Incumbent) 410,841 90.97%
DFL Ralph E. Franklin 40,785 9.03%
Republican primary election results[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Robert A. Forsythe 211,282 81.19%
Republican Henry A. Johnsen 48,941 18.81%
General election results[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
DFL Walter F. Mondale (Incumbent) 685,840 53.94%
Republican Robert A. Forsythe 574,868 45.21%
Socialist Workers Joseph Johnson 5,487 0.43%
Industrial Government William Braatz 5,231 0.41%

Mississippi[edit]

Montana[edit]

Montana election
Montana
← 1960
1972 →
  Lee Warren METCALF.jpg No image.png
Nominee Lee Metcalf Tim Babcock
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 138,166 121,697
Percentage 53.17% 46.83%

U.S. Senator before election

Lee Metcalf
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Lee Metcalf
Democratic

Incumbent United States Senator Lee Metcalf, who was first elected to the Senate in 1960, ran for re-election. He won the Democratic primary uncontested, and moved on to the general election, where he was opposed by Tim Babcock, the Republican nominee and the Governor of Montana. Though the race remained close, Metcalf was able to expand on his 1960 margin of victory, and defeated Babcock to win a second term.

Democratic Party primary results[9]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Lee Metcalf (inc.) 73,975 100.00%
Total votes 73,975 100.00%
Republican Primary results[9]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Tim M. Babcock 54,828 100.00%
Total votes 54,828 100.00%
United States Senate election in Montana, 1966[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Lee Metcalf (inc.) 138,166 53.17% +2.44%
Republican Tim M. Babcock 121,697 46.83% -2.44%
Majority 16,469 6.34% +4.87%
Turnout 259,863
Democratic hold Swing

Nebraska[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

New Mexico[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Oklahoma[edit]

Oregon[edit]

Oregon election
Oregon
← 1960
1972 →
  Mark Hatfield – 1967.jpg Robert B. Duncan.jpg
Nominee Mark Hatfield Robert B. Duncan
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 354,391 330,374
Percentage 51.75% 47.25%

U.S. Senator before election

Maurine Brown Neuberger
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Mark Hatfield
Republican

Incumbent Senator Maurine Brown Neuberger did not seek re-election. Held during the escalation of United States involvement of the Vietnam War, the race was between Republican candidate and incumbent Governor of Oregon Mark Hatfield, who opposed the war, and Democratic congressman Robert B. Duncan, who supported the war. In an unusual move, Oregon's other Senator, Democrat Wayne Morse, who also opposed the war, crossed party lines to endorse Hatfield, who won in a close election, his first of five terms in the United States Senate.

In March 1960, first-term U.S. Senator Richard L. Neuberger died in office. Despite calls to appoint his widow, Maurine Brown Neuberger, to the position, Governor Mark Hatfield instead appointed Oregon Supreme Court justice Hall S. Lusk to fill the position until a November special election. Hatfield stated that he intended to have appointed Neuberger, but that he wanted to appoint someone who would be focused on completing the remaining eight months of the term and not running in the regular-term Senate election as Neuberger had announced she would.[10] Some observers noted that Hatfield, a Republican, though required by state law to appoint someone of the same political party as the late Senator Neuberger, did not want to give the other party the political advantage of incumbency.[10][11]

Neuberger went on to win the special election over former Oregon governor Elmo Smith,[11] but despite the urging of Oregon congressman Robert B. Duncan,[12] she chose not to run for a second term in 1966, citing health issues, poor relations with Oregon's senior Senator Wayne Morse, and the burden of fundraising.[11] Duncan also urged fellow Oregon congressperson Edith Green to run for the post, but Green also declined.[12]

On the seventh anniversary of his inauguration as Oregon's 29th governor, Hatfield announced his candidacy for the Republican nomination.[13] In his announcement, Hatfield focused on the economic achievements in the state since his election, citing record-high employment and the creation of 138,000 jobs.[14] Hatfield was considered vulnerable on the subject of the Vietnam War, which he opposed, in contrast with 75% of Oregonians, who favored the war.[15] Hatfield's views on the war had been strongly affected by his own experiences: as a U.S. Navy ensign in World War II, he had been among the first to walk through the devastation caused by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima; in a later assignment in Vietnam, he saw first-hand how imperialism led to incredible disparity, with countless Vietnamese living in poverty next to opulent French mansions.[15] The war issue gave Hatfield competition from several minor candidates on the right, but Hatfield nonetheless won by a wide margin, besting his nearest competitor, conservative evangelist Walter Huss, by a nearly 6–1 margin.[16]

Republican primary for the United States Senate from Oregon, 1966[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Mark Hatfield 174,280 75.18
Republican Walter Huss 31,368 13.53
Republican Jim Bacaloff 19,547 8.43
Republican George Altvater 6,637 2.86
Total votes 231,832 100.00

In March 1966, Duncan announced his candidacy for the Democratic nomination, which was quickly endorsed by Neuberger.[18] In his speech announcing his candidacy, Duncan reiterated his strong support for President Lyndon B. Johnson's escalation of the Vietnam War with its goal of stopping Communist expansion in Asia.[18] Duncan's strong announcement exposed a rift among Oregon Democrats, including Oregon's senior Senator Wayne Morse, a leading anti-war voice,[18] and Duncan's House colleague, Edith Green. Green had urged Duncan to run, but Duncan's hawkish statement troubled her.[19] Soon after Duncan announced his candidacy, Howard Morgan, a former member of the Federal Power Commission, announced he was running as an anti-war option to Duncan. Morgan had the support of Morse and Green (though Green's endorsement did not come until the final week of the campaign),[19][20][21] and Duncan had the endorsement of most of the party organization and the major newspapers in the state. When the results were announced, Duncan won by a nearly 2-1 margin in one of the first elections in which the Vietnam War was a central issue.[22]

Democratic primary for the United States Senate from Oregon, 1966[23]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Robert B. Duncan 161,189 62.20
Democratic Howard Morgan 89,174 34.41
Democratic Gilbert L. Meyer 8,788 3.39
Total votes 259,151 100.00

The general election was now set up between two participants whose views on the Vietnam War were in direct opposition to many in their party: Duncan, a pro-war Democrat and Hatfield, an anti-war Republican.[12][24] With more than three-quarters of Oregonians sharing his view on the war, Duncan used the issue to attack Hatfield, stating that the outcome of the war would determine "whether Americans will die in the buffalo grass of Vietnam or the rye grass of Oregon."[15][25] Duncan also stressed that his election was necessary to provide a pro-Government voice for Oregon to counteract the anti-war views of Senator Morse.[25] Morse, who had strongly supported Duncan's rival in the primary, now went across party lines and threw his support to Hatfield, though he did not campaign for him.[12][25]

Hatfield, whose popularity as Governor had made him the favorite in the race, soon found his campaign in trouble. Morse's support backfired among many Republicans; Morse had left their party in 1952 to join the Democrats a few years later, and many worried that Hatfield would follow the same path.[26][27] At a June conference of governors of all 50 states, Hatfield was the lone dissenter on a resolution expressing support for the war, calling the resolution a "blank check" for President Johnson's conduct of the war.[25][28] By the middle of the summer, fueled by the departure of Republican hawks (such as former Oregon State Treasurer and 1962 Senate candidate Sig Unander who wholeheartedly endorsed Duncan), and with a strong majority of voters in the state already registered as Democrats, Duncan surged to a lead in most polls.[26]

While Hatfield did not back away from his war stance, he sought to focus his campaign on other issues, chiefly focusing on the Johnson administration's economic policies that, in Hatfield's view, had created a recession that was creating unmployment in Oregon's timber industry.[12][26] As the election neared in early fall, Hatfield had pulled even with Duncan with momentum on his side.[26] Hatfield won in 27 of Oregon's 36 counties en route to a solid but narrow 52%-48% victory.[29][30] In his victory speech, Hatfield maintained that the vote was not a referendum on the war and that "neither Hanoi nor Washington should misread the results."[29]

United States Senate election in Oregon, 1966[31]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Mark Hatfield 354,391 51.75%
Democratic Robert B. Duncan 330,374 48.25%
Total votes 684,765 100.00%
Republican gain from Democratic

Hatfield would be re-elected to five more terms, most comfortably, before retiring from the Senate in 1996. Duncan sought revenge against Morse in the Democratic primary of the 1968 Senate election, but came in second in a close three-way primary that he might have won had not a third candidate drawn off some anti-Morse votes.[12] After Morse's loss to Bob Packwood in the 1968 general election, Duncan and Morse again squared off for the Democratic nomination in the 1972 Senate election to face Hatfield. Morse won again, and lost to Hatfield in the general election.[12] In 1974, Duncan was re-elected to the House of Representatives. He served three terms before being defeated in the Democratic primary by Ron Wyden in 1980.[12][32]

Rhode Island[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina election
South Carolina
← 1960
1972 →
  Strom Thurmond 91st Congress.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Strom Thurmond Bradley Morrah
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 271,297 164,955
Percentage 62.2% 37.8%

U.S. Senator before election

Strom Thurmond
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Strom Thurmond
Republican

Incumbent Senator Strom Thurmond, who had switched parties from Democratic to Republican in 1964, easily defeated state senator Bradley Morrah in the general election.

The two Democrats who could have defeated Thurmond competed against each other in the special election to serve the remaining two years of Olin D. Johnston's six-year term. As a result, little known state senator Bradley Morrah of Greenville won the South Carolina Democratic Party primary election on June 14 against John Bolt Culbertson to become the nominee in the general election.

Democratic Primary
Candidate Votes  %
Bradley Morrah 167,401 55.9%
John Bolt Culbertson 131,870 44.1%

Senator Strom Thurmond faced no opposition from South Carolina Republicans and avoided a primary election.

Morrah faced an uphill struggle against Senator Thurmond because the Democratic resources were primarily poured into the special election to help Fritz Hollings and in the gubernatorial contest for Robert Evander McNair. Furthermore, Thurmond refused to debate Morrah and Thurmond boasted of the endorsements he received from Southern Democratic Senators Richard Russell, Jr., John C. Stennis, and Herman Talmadge. Morrah was easily dispatched by Thurmond in the general election and he also lost re-election to his state senate seat. He would never again hold public office, which was a routine occurrence for Thurmond's opponents.

South Carolina U.S. Senate Election, 1966
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Strom Thurmond 271,297 62.2% +62.2%
Democratic Bradley Morrah 164,955 37.8% -62.2%
Majority 106,342 24.4% -75.6%
Turnout 436,252 49.1% -6.3%
Republican hold

South Carolina (Special)[edit]

The election resulted from the death of Senator Olin D. Johnston in 1965. Then-Governor Donald S. Russell entered in a prearranged agreement with Lieutenant Governor Robert Evander McNair in which Russell would resign his post so that he could be appointed Senator. However, former Governor Fritz Hollings won the Democratic primary election and went on to beat Republican state senator Marshall Parker in the general election to fill the remaining two years of the unexpired term.

In the 1962 gubernatorial election, Donald S. Russell had stated that he would he serve out a full term and not seek a higher office. However, midway through his term he resigned from the governorship so that he could be appointed to the United States Senate. Russell faced a challenge in the Democratic primary from former Governor Fritz Hollings, who had lost to Olin D. Johnston in the 1962 primary for the same Senate seat. On June 14, the South Carolina Democratic Party held their primary election and Hollings scored a comfortable victory over Russell to become the Democratic nominee.

Democratic Primary
Candidate Votes %
Fritz Hollings 196,405 60.8%
Donald S. Russell 126,595 39.2%

The South Carolina Republican Party was in the beginning stages of becoming a major political party in South Carolina politics. It had few elected officials in the state and when state senator Marshall Parker from Oconee County sought the Republican nomination, he did not face any opposition.

Parker faced an uphill battle in winning the Senate seat. First, the state was dominated by the Democratic Party and any Republican politician faced a tough time seeking election. Although there was hope for Republicans because Barry Goldwater had won the state in the 1964 presidential election. Secondly, most of the resources of the Republican party were allocated for Strom Thurmond's re-election campaign and Joseph O. Rogers, Jr. gubernatorial election. Nevertheless, Parker was able to kept the race close and almost unseated Hollings in the general election.

South Carolina U.S. Senate Special Election, 1966
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Fritz Hollings 223,790 51.3% -5.9%
Republican Marshall Parker 212,032 48.7% +5.9%
Majority 11,758 2.6% -11.8%
Turnout 435,822 49.1% +2.2%
Democratic hold

Hollings's first Senate victory was also his closest and he was easily re-elected in 1968 (full term), 1974, 1980, and 1986, with somewhat tougher races in 1992 and 1998, although neither with a margin as narrow as that of his initial election. He eventually became seventh longest-serving senator in history (just behind Robert Byrd, Thurmond, Ted Kennedy, Daniel Inouye, Carl Hayden and John C. Stennis). He and Thurmond were also the longest-serving Senate duo. Because of this, despite his length of service, Hollings spent 36 years as the junior Senator, even though - with his penultimate term - he had gained seniority of all but four of his colleagues - Byrd, Thurmond, Inouye and Kennedy. Hollings went on to become a nationally important political figure, e.g., serving as Chairman of the Budget committee.

South Dakota[edit]

Tennessee[edit]

Texas[edit]

Virginia[edit]

Virginia election
Virginia
← 1960
1972 →
  S000739.jpg No image.svg
Nominee William B. Spong Jr. James P. Ould Jr.
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 429,855 245,681
Percentage 58.6% 33.5%

 
Nominee F. Lee Hawthorne
Party Independent
Popular vote 58,251
Percentage 7.9%

U.S. Senator before election

A. Willis Robertson
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

William B. Spong Jr.
Democratic

Democratic State Senator William B. Spong Jr. defeated Republican James P. Ould Jr. and Independent F. Lee Hawthorne.

United States Senate election in Virginia, 1966[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic William B. Spong Jr. 429,855 58.57% -22.70%
Republican James P. Ould Jr. 245,681 33.48% +33.48%
Independent F. Lee Hawthorne 58,251 7.94%
Write-ins 92 0.01% -0.17%
Majority 184,174 25.10% -41.93%
Turnout 733,879
Democratic hold Swing

Virginia (Special)[edit]

Virginia special election
Virginia
← 1964
1970 →
  Hbyrdjr.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Harry F. Byrd Jr. Lawrence M. Traylor
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 389,028 272,804
Percentage 53.3% 37.4%

 
Nominee John W. Carter
Party Independent
Popular vote 57,692
Percentage 7.9%

U.S. Senator before election

Harry F. Byrd Jr.
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Harry F. Byrd Jr.
Democratic

Incumbent Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. had retired the previous year due to health reasons, and his son Harry F. Byrd Jr. had been appointed to replace him. Byrd defeated Republican Lawrence M. Traylor and independent candidate John W. Carter, and was able to finish the rest of his father's term.

United States Senate special election in Virginia, 1966[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Harry F. Byrd Jr. (inc.) 389,028 53.30% -10.50%
Republican Lawrence M. Traylor 272,804 37.38% +18.35%
Independent John W. Carter 57,692 7.90%
Independent J.B. Brayman 10,180 1.39% -1.91%
Write-ins 135 0.02% +0.01%
Majority 116,224 15.92% -28.85%
Turnout 729,839
Democratic hold

West Virginia[edit]

Wyoming[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Perlstein, Rick. Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America. New York: Scribner, 2008. Print.
  2. ^ a b c d "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1966" (PDF). Clerk.house.gov. Retrieved April 5, 2015. 
  3. ^ Endicott Peabody at ourcampaigns.com
  4. ^ Edward Brooke at ourcampaigns.com
  5. ^ Lawrence Gilfedder at ourcampaigns.com
  6. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=764413
  7. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=764416
  8. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=7080
  9. ^ a b "Report of the Official Canvass of the Vote Cast at the Primary Election Held in the State of Montana, August 16, 1966". Montana Secretary of State. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b "Oregon Justice, Democrat, gets Neuberger's seat in U. S. Senate". The New York Times. March 16, 1960. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c "Women in Congress: Maurine B. Neuberger, Senator from Oregon". United States Congress. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Mapes, Jeff (April 30, 2011). "Bob Duncan and his three losing—but history-making—U.S. Senate races". The Oregonian. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Hatfield seeks seat in Senate". The Register-Guard. January 12, 1966. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Hatfield announces his candidacy for the Senate". The New York Times. January 13, 1966. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  15. ^ a b c Walth, Brent (December 29, 1996). "Mark of distinction". The Oregonian. 
  16. ^ "Oregon: one war foe loses, another wins". The Miami News. May 25, 1966. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Unofficial Totals of Primary Election". The Register-Guard. May 26, 1966. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  18. ^ a b c Abell, Ron (March 2, 1966). "Duncan joins Senate race". The Register-Guard. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b Duscha, Julius (May 24, 1966). "Oregon anti-war candidate gains Rep. Green's support". The Spokesman-Review. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  20. ^ Abell, Ron (March 11, 1966). "Morgan joins Senate race". The Register-Guard. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Supporter of Viet war wins Oregon primary". The Rochester Sentinel. May 25, 1966. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  22. ^ Davies, Lawrence E (May 25, 1966). "Vietnam critic defeated". The New York Times. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  23. ^ "Oregon US Senate Democratic Primary Race, May 24, 1966". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  24. ^ Balmer, Donald G. (June 1967). "The 1966 Election in Oregon". The Western Political Quarterly. 20 (2): 593–601. JSTOR 446088. 
  25. ^ a b c d Johnson, Robert David (2006). Congress and the Cold War:. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-521-82133-9. 
  26. ^ a b c d Turner, Wallace (November 6, 1966). "Hatfield stages Oregon recovery". The New York Times. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  27. ^ Evans, Rowland; Robert Novak (October 5, 1966). "Oregon vote won't be Viet Nam referendum". The Free Lance Star. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Governors back Viet action". The Register-Guard. July 8, 1966. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  29. ^ a b "Hatfield, McCall win". The Register-Guard. November 9, 1966. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  30. ^ "Hatfield defeats Duncan in Oregon". The New York Times. November 9, 1966. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  31. ^ "Oregon US Senate Race, Nov 8, 1966". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  32. ^ "Five-Term Congressman is Defeated in Oregon". The New York Times. May 21, 1980. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 

References[edit]

  • Massachusetts Race details at ourcampaigns.com
  • "Supplemental Report of the Secretary of State to the General Assembly of South Carolina." Reports and Resolutions of South Carolina to the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina. Volume II. Columbia, SC: 1967, pp. 16, 41.
  • Bass, Jack; Marilyn W. Thompson (1998). Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond. Longstreet. pp. 222–223. 
  • "Supplemental Report of the Secretary of State to the General Assembly of South Carolina." Reports and Resolutions of South Carolina to the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina. Volume II. Columbia, SC: 1967, pp. 16, 41.
  • "South Carolina's New Senator". Time. April 30, 1965. Retrieved February 2, 2008.