Herman Talmadge

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Herman Talmadge
HermanTalmadge.jpg
United States Senator
from Georgia
In office
January 3, 1957 – January 3, 1981
Preceded by Walter F. George
Succeeded by Mack F. Mattingly
70th Governor of Georgia
In office
November 17, 1948 – January 11, 1955
Lieutenant Marvin Griffin
Preceded by Melvin E. Thompson
Succeeded by Marvin Griffin
In office
January 14, 1947 – March 18, 1947
Lieutenant Melvin E. Thompson
Preceded by Ellis Arnall
Succeeded by Melvin E. Thompson
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry
In office
January 1971 – January 3, 1981
Preceded by Allen Ellender
Succeeded by Jesse Helms
Personal details
Born Herman Eugene Talmadge
(1913-08-09)August 9, 1913
McRae, Telfair County, Georgia, USA
Died March 21, 2002(2002-03-21) (aged 88)
Hampton, Henry County
Georgia
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) 3rd: Lynda Cowart Pierce
Children

Herman Talmadge, Jr.

Robert Shingler Talmadge
Alma mater University of Georgia
Profession Lawyer
Religion Baptist
Military service
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch  United States Navy
Years of service 1941–1945
Rank Lieutenant Commander
Battles/wars World War II

Herman Eugene Talmadge (August 9, 1913 – March 21, 2002), was an attorney and a Democratic American politician from the state of Georgia, the son of former governor Eugene Talmadge. He ran his father's successful campaign for re-election in 1946 but his father died before taking office.

The younger Talmadge had been a write-in candidate and was one of three competitors serving briefly as the 70th Governor of Georgia before yielding to a court decision in favor of the elected lieutenant governor. Talmadge was elected as governor in a special election in 1948, and elected again to a full term in 1950, serving into 1955. After leaving office, Talmadge was elected in 1956 to the U.S. Senate, serving four terms from 1957 until 1981. He gained considerable power over the decades. He gained chairmanship by seniority of the powerful Senate Agriculture Committee.

After being censured by the Senate in 1979 for financial irregularities, Talmadge lost the 1980 general election to Republican Mack Mattingly, part of the shift of white conservatives in the South to the Republican Party. It was a reversal of party affiliation from the 19th century.

Early life, education and military service[edit]

Talmadge was born in 1913 in McRae in Telfair County in south central Georgia, the only son of Eugene Talmadge and his wife. His father served as Governor of Georgia during much of the 1930s and the 1940s. Herman Talmadge earned a degree from the University of Georgia School of Law in 1936, where he had been a member of the Demosthenian Literary Society and Sigma Nu fraternity.

He returned to McRae to set up a law practice. When World War II broke out, Talmadge joined the United States Navy, serving in combat in the South Pacific. He reached the rank of lieutenant commander.

The Three Governors Controversy[edit]

After returning from the war, Talmadge became active in Democratic Party politics. He ran his father's successful 1946 campaign for governor. Eugene Talmadge had been ill, and his supporters were worried about his surviving long enough to be sworn in. They studied the state constitution and found that if the governor-elect died before his term began, the Georgia General Assembly would choose between the second and third-place finishers for the successor. The elder Talmadge ran unopposed among Democrats, so the party officials arranged for write-in votes for Herman Talmadge as insurance.

In December 1946, the elder Talmadge died before taking office. Melvin E. Thompson, the lieutenant governor-elect; Ellis Arnall, the prior governor; and Herman Talmadge as write-in candidate, all arranged to be sworn in and were concurrently trying to conduct state business from the Georgia State Capitol. Arnall relinquished his claim in favor of Thompson. Ultimately, Thompson was supported by the Supreme Court of Georgia.

Career after 1946[edit]

Talmadge soon yielded to the state supreme court ruling. He prepared to run for the special gubernatorial election in 1948, and defeated incumbent Governor Thompson. Two years later, Talmadge was elected to a full term in the 1950 election. During his terms, Talmadge attracted new industries to Georgia. He remained a staunch supporter of racial segregation, even as the Civil Rights Movement gained momentum in the postwar years. Many African-American veterans began to seek social justice.

Talmadge was barred by law from seeking another full term as Governor in 1954. That year the United States Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregated public schools were unconstitutional, and advised school systems to integrate.

United States Senate career[edit]

Talmadge was elected to the United States Senate in 1956. Most blacks in Georgia were still disenfranchised under state laws passed by conservative white Democrats and discriminatory practices they had conducted since the turn of the 20th century. During his time as U.S. Senator, Talmadge continued as a foe of civil rights legislation, even as the African American Civil Rights Movement gained media coverage and increasing support across the country.

After President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Talmadge, along with more than a dozen other southern Senators, boycotted the 1964 Democratic National Convention.[1] With the help of Senator Richard Russell, Talmadge had gained appointment to the Agriculture Committee during his first year in Washington and to the Senate Finance Committee shortly thereafter. Given his successive re-elections from the one-party state of Georgia, Talmadge gained the chairmanship of the powerful Senate Agriculture Committee by seniority.[2] He sponsored bills to help farmers, an important constituency.

In 1968, Talmadge faced the first of his three Republican challengers for his Senate seat. E. Earl Patton (1927-2011), later a member of the Georgia State Senate, received 256,796 votes (22.5 percent) to Talmadge's 885,103 (77.3 percent). Patton, a real estate developer, was the first Republican in Georgia to run for the U.S. Senate since the Reconstruction era, when most Republicans had been African-American freedmen.[3] He was a sign of the shifting white electorate in the South, where white conservatives moved into the Republican Party.

Talmadge ran a disciplined office, requiring his staff to respond to every constituent letter within 24 hours of receipt.[4]

In early 1973, Talmadge was appointed to the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities (better known as the United States Senate Watergate Committee) which investigated the activities of members of the Nixon administration. He served on the committee until its final report was issued in June 1974.

Late in his Senate career, Talmadge became embroiled in a financial scandal. After an extensive investigation by the Senate, on October 11, 1979, Talmadge was censured by an 81–15 vote of the U.S. Senate for "improper financial conduct" between 1973 and 1978. He was found to have accepted reimbursements of $43,435.83 for official expenses not incurred, and to have improperly reported the "expenses" as campaign expenditures.[5][6]

In 1980 Talmadge and his wife divorced. That year he had a tough primary challenge from Democrat Zell Miller. Talmadge defeated Miller but lost the general election to Republican Mack Mattingly, marking the end of his family's political dynasty and the start of the rise of the Republican Party in Georgia.[7][8] Mattingly was the first Republican to represent Georgia in the Senate since Reconstruction and was a white conservative.

Later life[edit]

After his defeat, Talmadge retired to his home. He lived for more than two decades, dying at the age of 88. Talmadge and his wife had had two sons together, Herman E. Talmadge, Jr., and Robert Shingler Talmadge.

Awards[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kornacki, Steve (2011-02-03) "The 'Southern Strategy', fulfilled", Salon.com
  2. ^ Talmadge: A Political Legacy, A Politician's Life. Herman Talmadge with Mark Royden Winchell
  3. ^ Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections, p. 1441
  4. ^ Clymer, Adam (22 March 2002). "Herman Talmadge, Georgia Senator and Governor, Dies at 88". New York Times. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  5. ^ "Expulsion and Censure". United States Senate. Retrieved May 31, 2006. 
  6. ^ "Trial Of a Lion: Talmadge fights for survival". Time. 113 (20). May 14, 1979. Retrieved 21 June 2016. 
  7. ^ Minchin, Timothy J. (2015). "'An Historic Upset': Herman Talmadge's 1980 Senate Defeat and the End of a Political Dynasty". Georgia Historical Quarterly. 99 (3). Retrieved 21 June 2016. 
  8. ^ "Herman Talmadge during his last day as a Georgia senator, Atlanta, Georgia, December 5, 1980". Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive, Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 21 June 2016. 
  9. ^ "Honorary Degrees Awarded by Oglethorpe University". Oglethorpe University. Retrieved 2015-03-13. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Ellis Arnall
Governor of Georgia
1947
Succeeded by
Melvin E. Thompson
Preceded by
Melvin E. Thompson
Governor of Georgia
1948–1955
Succeeded by
Marvin Griffin
Preceded by
Allen J. Ellender
Louisiana
Chairman of Senate Agriculture Committee
1971–1981
Succeeded by
Jesse Helms
North Carolina
United States Senate
Preceded by
Walter F. George
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Georgia
1957–1981
Served alongside: Richard B. Russell, Jr., David H. Gambrell, Sam Nunn
Succeeded by
Mack Mattingly