USS Stark incident
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|USS Stark incident|
|Part of the Iran–Iraq War, Tanker War|
USS Stark listing after being struck by two Iraqi Exocet missiles in 1987.
|Commanders and leaders|
|Glenn R. Brindel||Unknown|
|United States Navy||Iraqi Armed Forces|
|Casualties and losses|
1 frigate damaged
The USS Stark incident occurred during the Iran–Iraq War on 17 May 1987, when an Iraqi jet aircraft fired missiles at the American frigate USS Stark. Thirty-seven United States Navy personnel were killed and twenty-one were wounded.
USS Stark, an Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided missile frigate, commanded by Captain Glenn R. Brindel, was part of the Middle East Task Force assigned to patrol off the Saudi Arabian coast near the Iran–Iraq War exclusion boundary. This is an area of sea off Iran and Iraq. An Iraqi pilot attacked in a Dassault Mirage F1 armed with 1,500 pounds (680 kg) Exocet missiles. It took off from the airbase of Shaibah at 20:00 and headed south into the Persian Gulf also along the coast. The Mirage was flying 5,000 feet (1,500 m) above the water at 550 mi (890 km) per hour. An AWACS plane on patrol nearby, with an American and Saudi Arabian crew, first detected the incoming Iraqi jet and informed the Stark, which picked up the aircraft on radar, 200 miles (320 km) out. When it came within view just before 22:00, the attacker was off Stark's port side beam.
Initially not alarmed, at 22:09 Captain Brindel followed protocol and ordered a radioman to send the message: "Unknown aircraft, this is U.S. Navy warship on your 078 (degrees) for twelve miles. Request you identify yourself." The Iraqi Mirage pilot did not respond to the message. The ship's captain ordered a second message sent, to which there was no reply. At 22:10 hrs Captain Brindel was informed the Iraqi aircraft had targeted his ship, locking his Cyrano-IV fire-control radar onto Stark. The Mirage F-1 then fired the first Exocet missile 22 miles (35 km) from the ship, and the second Exocet from 15 miles (24 km). The pilot then banked left and began to withdraw.
Stark's search radar and ESM systems failed to detect the incoming missiles and it was not until seconds before the first hit that the Americans realized they were under fire. The first Exocet missile tracked in a little over 10 feet (3.0 m) above the sea surface, and struck the port side of the ship near the bridge. Although it failed to explode, rocket fuel ignited and caused a large fire that quickly spread throughout the ship's post office, a store room, and the critical combat operations center (where the ship's weapons are controlled).
The second Exocet also struck the port side. This missile did detonate, leaving a 10 ft (3.0 m) by 15 ft (4.6 m) hole in the frigate's left side. Electronics for Stark's Standard Missile defense went out and Captain Brindel could not order his men to return fire. The AWACS plane was still in the area and just after witnessing the attack, it radioed a nearby Saudi airbase to send aircraft for an interception, but the ground controllers did not have the authority to order a sortie and the Iraqi jet escaped unharmed. The USN rules of engagement applicable at the time allowed Stark to defend herself after sufficiently warning the hostile aircraft. A total of 37 crew were killed in the attack, 29 from the initial explosion and fire, including two lost at sea. Eight would later die from their injuries. Twenty-one others survived their wounds.
Throughout the remainder of the night and the following day, Stark's crew, along with sailors from the destroyer USS Conyngham fought the fire, which burned for almost 24 hours. Captain Brindel ordered the starboard side flooded to keep the hole on the hull's port side above water. This helped prevent the Stark from sinking. Brindel quickly dispatched a distress call after the first missile hit. It was received by USS Waddell, which was in the area, and Conyngham with 2⁄3 of its crew on liberty in Bahrain. Waddell and Conyngham arrived to provide damage control and relief to Stark's crew. Temporary Electronics Communications were installed by ETC Perry and team while Conyngham provided an escort for Stark as she slowly made her way to Bahrain.
Stark arrived at Bahrain the following day on 18 May 1987, under her own power. There she was temporarily repaired by the destroyer tender USS Acadia before setting a course for Mayport Naval Station, Florida, the ship's home port. A court of inquiry under Rear Admiral Grant Sharp was formed to investigate the incident and later Captain Brindel was recommended for court-martial. It was found that Stark was 2 miles (3.2 km) outside the exclusion zone and had not violated neutrality as the Iraqis claimed. Iraq apologized, and Saddam Hussein said that the pilot mistook Stark for an Iranian tanker. American officials claimed that the Iraqi jet's pilot was not acting under orders from his government, and that he was later executed. This has been disputed, as an Iraqi Air Force officer later stated that the pilot was not punished and that he was still alive.
Iranian Prime Minister Mir Hossein Mousavi called it a "divine blessing" and reiterated the standard Iranian view that Persian Gulf "is not a safe place for the superpowers and it is in their interest not to enter this quicksand". Iraq Foreign Ministry spokesman said Iraq would never intentionally attack any target in the Gulf unless it was Iranian, and laid the blame on Iran.
Washington used the incident to turn up the heat on Iran, which later it blamed for the whole situation. President Reagan said "We’ve never considered them [Iraq's military] hostile at all", and "the villain in the piece is Iran".
Ironically, the Pentagon said that an Iranian helicopter had joined a Saudi Arabian vessel in rescue operations.
Captain Brindel was relieved of duty and retired for not defending his ship and Tactical Action Officer Lieutenant Basil E. Moncrief resigned. Back in the United States, President Ronald Reagan was criticized for putting American sailors in harm's way.
On 21 June 2011, agreement was reached between the governments of the United States and Iraq regarding claims of United States citizens against the regime of Saddam Hussein. The Iraqi government established a fund of $400 million to compensate prisoners of war and hostages in the Persian Gulf War, and those killed or injured in the 1987 attack on Stark. The US State Department is establishing a mechanism to process applications for compensation.
|USS Stark deaths|
|SN Doran H. Bolduc,
|RMSA Dexter D. Grissett,
|FCCS Robert L. Shippee,
Adams Center, NY
|BM1 Braddi O. Brown,
|FC3 William R. Hansen,
|SMSA Jeffrey C. Sibley,
|FC3 Jeffrey L. Calkins,
Richfield Springs, NY
|GMG3 Daniel Homicki,
|OS3 Lee Stephens,
|SN Mark R. Caouette,
|OSSN Kenneth D. Janusik, Jr.,
|TM2 James R. Stevens,
|SN John A. Ciletta, Jr., †
|OS1 Steven E. Kendall,
|ET3 Martin J. Supple,
North Olmsted, OH
|SR Brian M. Clinefelter,
San Bernardino, CA
|EMCS Stephen Kiser,
|FC1 Gregory L. Tweady,
|OS3 Antonio A. Daniels,
|SM1 Ronnie G. Lockett,
|ET3 Kelly R. Quick,
|ET3 Christopher DeAngelis, †
|GMM1 Thomas J. MacMullen,
|SN Vincent L. Ulmer,
Bay Minette, AL
|IC3 James S. Dunlap,
Osceola Mills, PA
|EW3 Charles T. Moller,
|EW3 Joseph P. Watson,
|STGSN Steven T. Erwin, †
|DS1 Randy E. Pierce,
|ET3 Wayne R. Weaver, II,
New Bethlehem, PA
|RM2 Jerry Boyd Farr,
|SA Jeffrei L. Phelps,
Locust Grove, VA
|OSSN Terrance Weldon,
|QMCS Vernon T. Foster,
|GM3 James Plonsky,
Van Nuys, CA
|IC2 Lloyd A. Wilson,
|SMSN Earl P. Ryals, †
Boca Raton, FL
|† Buried in Arlington National Cemetery|
A ceremony is held at Mayport Naval Station on 17 May each year to remember the 37 men who died in the incident. The ceremony in 2012 was the 25th anniversary of the tragedy.
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- "Formal Investigation into the Circumstances Surrounding the Attack of the USS Stark in 1987" (PDF). U.S.Department of Defense. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- Reed, Lt Col Robert M (2000). "Chapter 14—Chariots of fire: Rules of engagement in Operation Deliberate Force". In Owen, Col. Robert C. Deliberate force a case study in effective air campaigning. p. 391. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Fisk, Robert (2005). The Great War For Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East. Knopf Publishing.
- Doug Rossinow, The Reagan Era: A History of the 1980s, Columbia University Press, 2015, ISBN 9780231538657, page 276
- "Iraq Claims". US State Department Press Release. 21 June 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "Claims Settlement Agreement Between the Government of The United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Iraq". American Society of International Law. 2 September 2010. Archived from the original on 6 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- Reagan, Ronald (22 May 1987). "Remarks at a Memorial Service for Crewmembers of the U.S.S. Stark in Jacksonville, Florida". University of Texas. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- Browning, William (18 January 2015). "Mayport marks 25th anniversary of Iraqi attack on USS Stark that killed 37 sailors". Florida Times-Union. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
- Jeffrey L, Levinson, Randy L. Edwards, "Missile Inbound", Annapolis: Naval Institute Press (1997), ISBN 1-55750-517-9.
- RADM Grant Sharp, USN (September 1987). "Formal Investigation into the Circumstances Surrounding the Attack on the USS Stark (FFG-31) on May 17, 1987" (PDF). United States Navy, JAG Office. Retrieved 28 July 2013. (Broken link)
- "Attack on the USS Stark 17 May 1987 – Joint Investigation Group" (PDF). Office of the Secretary of Defense & Joint Staff FOIA Requester Service: US Department of Defense. Retrieved 28 July 2013. (Broken link)
- Levinson, Jeffrey L. and Randy L. Edwards (1997). Missile Inbound. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-517-9.
- Wise, Harold Lee (2007). Inside the Danger Zone: The U.S. Military in the Persian Gulf 1987–88. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-970-3.