UTA Flight 772
|Date||19 September 1989|
|Site||Ténéré, Niger |
16°51′54″N 11°57′13″E / 16.86493°N 11.953712°E
|Aircraft type||McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30|
|Operator||Union des Transports Aériens (UTA)|
|Registration||N54629 (United States)|
|Flight origin||Maya-Maya Airport,|
Brazzaville, People's Republic of the Congo
|Stopover||N'Djamena Int'l. Airport,|
|Destination||Charles de Gaulle Airport,|
UTA Flight 772 was a scheduled international passenger flight of the French airline Union de Transports Aériens (UTA) operating from Brazzaville in the People's Republic of the Congo, via N'Djamena in Chad, to Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris, France, that crashed into the Ténéré desert near Bilma, Niger, on 19 September 1989 with the loss of all 170 people on board, after an in-flight explosion caused by a suitcase bomb. It is the deadliest aviation incident to occur in Niger.
Aircraft and crew
The aircraft, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30, with American registration N54629, serial number 46852, was manufactured in 1973. It was the 125th DC-10 produced, and had accumulated 14,777 flight cycles over 60,276 flight hours at the time of its hull loss.
The captain, 40-year-old Georges Raveneau, was an experienced pilot, with a total of 11,039 flight hours, 2,723 of which were on the DC-10. The left-seat pilot, 38-year-old Jean-Pierre Hennequin, had a total of 6,442 flight hours, 28 of which were on the DC-10. The first officer, 41-year-old Michel Crézé, had a total of 8,357 flight hours, 754 of which were on the DC-10. The flight engineer, 28-year-old Alain Bricout, had a total of 597 flight hours, 180 of which were on the DC-10.
On Tuesday, 19 September 1989 the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 aircraft took off from N'Djamena International Airport at 13:13. Forty-six minutes later, at its cruising altitude of 35,100 feet (10,700 m), a suitcase bomb exploded in the cargo hold, causing UTA Flight 772 to break up over the Sahara 450 kilometres (280 mi; 240 nmi) east of Agadez in the southern Ténéré of Niger. The explosion scattered debris over hundreds of square miles of desert. All 156 passengers and 14 crew members died.
Among the victims was Bonnie Pugh (née Barnes), wife of Robert L. Pugh, American ambassador to Chad at the time.
Eight of the fatalities were oil workers (from Esso, Parker, Schlumberger) coming back from the completed drilling of the Kome-3 borehole in southern Chad.
After the plane was bombed, Leonardo Leonardi, a spokesperson for the Italian Embassy in Paris, said that the embassy believed that six Italians were on the flight. A spokesperson of the Friars Minor Capuchin religious order said that two members of the order were on board the aircraft. The bishop of Moundou was on the flight.
The victims came from 18 different countries, the majority being French, Chadian, and Congolese nationals. The other countries with victims were the United States, Italy, Cameroon, Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo), Canada, Central African Republic, Mali, Switzerland, Algeria, Bolivia, Belgium, Greece, Morocco, Senegal, and the United Kingdom.
An investigation commission of the International Civil Aviation Organization determined that a bomb placed in a container in location 13-R in the forward cargo hold caused the destruction of the aircraft. The commission suggested that the most plausible hypothesis was for the bomb to have been inside the baggage loaded at Brazzaville airport. Initial speculation over which groups might have been responsible for destroying UTA Flight 772 centered upon Islamic Jihad, who were quick to claim responsibility for the attack, and the "Secret Chadian Resistance" rebel group, which opposed president Hissen Habré. Five years previously, on 10 March 1984, a bomb destroyed another UTA aircraft from Brazzaville shortly after the DC-8 had landed at N'Djamena airport. There were no fatalities on that occasion and those responsible were never identified.
Trial in absentia
The investigators obtained a confession from one of the alleged terrorists, a Congolese opposition figure, who had helped recruit a fellow dissident to smuggle the bomb onto the aircraft. This confession led to charges being brought against six Libyans. French judge Jean-Louis Bruguière identified them, as follows:
- Abdullah Senussi, brother-in-law of Muammar Gaddafi, and deputy head of Libyan intelligence;
- Abdullah Elazragh, Counsellor at the Libyan embassy in Brazzaville;
- Ibrahim Naeli and Arbas Musbah, explosives experts in the Libyan secret service;
- Issa Shibani, the secret agent who purchased the timer that allegedly triggered the bomb; and,
- Abdelsalam Hammouda, Senussi's right-hand man, who was said to have coordinated the attack.
In 1999, the six Libyans were put on trial in the Paris Assize Court for the bombing of UTA Flight 772. Because Gaddafi would not allow their extradition to France, the six were tried in absentia and were convicted.
On 5 September 2012, the country of Mauritania extradited Abdullah Senussi to Libyan authorities. Senussi was to be tried in Libya for crimes he allegedly committed during the time he was the close assistant to Gaddafi. Senussi appeared in a Libyan court for a pre-trial hearing on 19 September 2013. On 11 October 2013, the International Criminal Court ruled that he can be tried in Libya and lifted their warrant.
The motive usually attributed to Libya for the UTA Flight 772 bombing is that of revenge against the French for supporting Chad against the expansionist projects of Libya toward Chad. Similar to the motives for the September 11 attacks where there was the presence of United States troops in Saudi Arabia.
The Chadian–Libyan conflict (1978–1987) ended in disaster for Libya following the defeat at the Battle of Maaten al-Sarra in the 1987 Toyota War. Muammar Gaddafi was forced to accede to a ceasefire ending the Chadian-Libyan conflict and his dreams of African and Arab dominance. Gaddafi blamed the defeat on French and United States "aggression against Libya". The result was Gaddafi's lingering animosity against the two countries which led to Libyan support for the bombings of Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA Flight 772.
The Paris court awarded the families of the UTA victims sums ranging from €3 000 to €30 000 depending on their relationship to the dead. Not content with this award, the French relatives' group "Les Familles du DC10 d'UTA" signed an agreement on 9 January 2004 with the Gaddafi International Foundation for Charity Associations accepting a compensation payment of US$170 million, or $1 million for each of the 170 UTA victims. By May 2007, it was reported that 95% of this compensation money had been distributed. However, the families of the seven American victims refused to accept their US$1 million awards and are pursuing the Libyan government through a federal court in Washington. On 19 September 2006, the court was asked to rule that the Libyan government and six of its agents were guilty of the destruction of UTA Flight 772 on 19 September 1989. Damages of more than US$2 billion were claimed for the loss of life and the destruction of the DC-10 jet.
In April 2007, D.C. District Judge Henry H. Kennedy found Libya directly responsible for the bombing and presided over a three-day bench trial from 13 August 2007 to 15 August 2007. On 15 January 2008, Judge Kennedy issued an order awarding US$6 billion in damages to the families and owners of the airliner. Libya has appealed this decision.
In October 2008 Libya paid $1.5 billion into a fund which will be used to compensate relatives of the
- Lockerbie bombing victims;
- American victims of the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing;
- American victims of the 1989 UTA Flight 772 bombing; and,
- Libyan victims of the 1986 US bombing of Tripoli and Benghazi.
As a result, U.S. President George W. Bush signed an executive order restoring the Libyan government's immunity from terror-related lawsuits and dismissing all of the pending compensation cases in the U.S. 
In Manipulations Africaines (African Manipulations), published in February 2001, Pierre Péan investigated the sabotage of UTA Flight 772. He alleged that evidence pointed to Iran and Syria (acting through the Hezbollah movement), but that due to political context (notably the Gulf War), France and the United States tried to put the blame on Libya. He accuses judge Jean-Louis Bruguière of deliberately neglecting proof of Lebanon, Syria and Iran being involved to pursue only the Libyan trail. He also accused Thomas Thurman, a Federal Bureau of Investigation explosives expert, of fabricating false evidence against Libya in both the Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA Flight 772 sabotages.
On 18 July 2011, former Libyan foreign minister Abdel Rahman Shalgham, who had defected from the Libyan government in March at the beginning of what would become the 2011 Libyan civil war, told al-Hayat that the Libyan government was responsible for the bombing of UTA Flight 772. He stated "The Libyan security services blew up the plane. They believed that opposition leader Mohammed al-Megrief was on board, but after the plane was blown up, it was found that he was not on the plane." He also claimed that "The Lockerbie operation was more complex ... the role of states and organizations has been discussed, and while the Libyan services were implicated, I do not think it was a purely Libyan operation."
In 2007 a memorial was created in the desert by Les Familles de l'Attentat du DC-10 d'UTA, an association of the victims' families. In order to retain the sanctity of the crash site, the memorial is about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) away from it. The memorial, at 16°51′53.748″N 11°57′13.362″E / 16.86493000°N 11.95371167°E, is constructed of black rock in the shape and dimensions of the DC-10 airplane inside a compass, with the starboard half of the plane's horizontal stabilizer used as a compass point, and 170 broken mirrors to reflect the victims of the crash. The stabilizer carries a plaque with the names of those on board. The memorial is visible in aerial imagery on Google Maps.
The organizer of the memorial was Frenchman Guillaume Denoix de Saint Marc, whose father, Jean-Henri, died on the flight.
In popular culture
Rush drummer Neil Peart mentioned this incident at length in his travel memoir, The Masked Rider: Cycling in West Africa, as he had taken this flight less than a year prior to the incident from N'Djamena to Paris once he was finished with his Cameroon bicycling tour.
- Air India Flight 182
- List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
- Pan Am Flight 73
- Pan Am Flight 103
- Pierre Péan
- ^ "FAA Registry (N54629)". Federal Aviation Administration.
- ^ UTA N54629 (Airfleets). Retrieved: 20 April 2014.
- ^ a b c Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 N54629 Ténéré desert". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20001120062600/http://aviation-safety.net/reports/890919-0.htm[bare URL]
- ^ Whitney, Craig R. (8 May 1997). "France Charges 6 Libyans With '89 Sahara Jet Bombing". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- ^ a b c "Court Awards US Victims More Than $6 Billion for 1989 Libyan Terrorist Bombing of French Airliner That Killed 170 People Over African Desert." PR Newswire. 15 January 2008. Retrieved on 3 June 2009.
- ^ "Plane with 171 aboard explodes." New Straits Times. Thursday 21 September 1989. Retrieved from Google News (1 of 24) on 27 April 2011.
- ^ a b "Les Familles de l'Attentat du DC10 d'UTA - membre de l'AfVT" [Families of the UTA DC10 Attack - AfVT member]. www.dc10-uta.org (in French). Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- ^ "BOMB BLAMED FOR CRASH OF FRENCH JET". Deseret News. 20 September 1989. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-8-63PF F-BOLL N'Djamena Airport (NDJ)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- ^ Péan, Pierre (1 March 2001). "Les preuves trafiquées du terrorisme libyen" [Tampered evidence of Libyan terrorism]. Le Monde diplomatique (in French). Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- ^ "Mauritania 'extradites Libya ex-spy chief Abdullah al-Senussi'". BBC News. 5 September 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- ^ "Gaddafi spy chief Abdullah al-Senussi in court". BBC News. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- ^ "Menu of ITA Websites". photius.com. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- ^ Greenwald, John (21 September 1987). "Disputes Raiders of the Armed Toyotas". TIME. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
- ^ "Les Familles de l'Attentat du DC10 d'UTA - membre de l'AfVT". www.dc10-uta.org. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- ^ Over $160 million of Libyan compensation distributed[permanent dead link]
- ^ Compensation claim by American relatives Archived 23 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "U.S. court orders Libya to pay $6 billion for bombing". Reuters. 16 January 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
- ^ Memorandum, Robert Pugh, et al. v. Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Civ. Action No. 02-2026-HHK (D.D.C. 15 January 2007)
- ^ "U.S. judge orders Libya to pay billions to plane victims," Houston Chronicle, 17 January 2008
- ^ "Libya compensates terror victims". BBC News. 31 October 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- ^ (in French) Les preuves trafiquées du terrorisme libyen
- ^ Pierre Péan (2001). "African Manipulations: Tainted Evidence of Libyan Terrorism". Retrieved 24 January 2009.
- ^ "Ex-foreign minister says Libya behind 1989 airline attack". Al Arabiya. 18 July 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- ^ "The Sahara memorial seen from space". BBC News. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- ^ "Les Familles de l'Attentat du DC-10 d'UTA". Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- ^ "UTA Flight 772 memorial". Google Sightseeing. 15 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- ^ "UTA Flight 772 Memorial from Google Earth". DigitalGlobe. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- ^ "I Noticed This Tiny Thing on Google Maps. When I Zoomed In… Well, Nothing Could Prepare Me". ViralNova.com. 2 November 2013.
- ^ "UTA Flight 772 Memorial". Snopes. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- ^ Venema, Vibeke (22 January 2014). "The Sahara memorial seen from space". BBC. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- Cody, Edward (21 September 1989). "FRENCH DC-10 CARRYING 170 MISSING AFTER STOP IN AFRICA". Washington Post.
- Cody, Edward (21 September 1989). "AIR CRASH ATTRIBUTED TO BOMB". Washington Post.
- Reynolds, Paul (19 August 2003). "UTA 772: The forgotten flight". BBC.
- Final report (Archive) (in French)
- English translation of final report Prepared by Harro Ranter, Aviation Safety Network (Archive)
- Les Familles de l'Attentat du DC10 d'UTA at the Wayback Machine (archive index) (in French)
- Additional photos of memorial and its construction
- Union de Transports Aériens accidents and incidents
- Airliner bombings
- Aviation accidents and incidents in 1989
- Terrorist incidents in Africa in 1989
- Aviation accidents and incidents in Niger
- History of the United Nations
- 1989 in Chad
- 1989 in Niger
- 1989 disasters in Niger
- 1989 in France
- 1989 in Libya
- 1989 in the Republic of the Congo
- Accidents and incidents involving the McDonnell Douglas DC-10
- Chadian–Libyan War
- Mass murder in 1989
- France–Libya relations
- 1989 crimes
- September 1989 events
- Terrorist incidents in Niger
- Terrorism committed by Libya