United States House of Representatives elections, 1864
Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1864 to elect Representatives to the 39th United States Congress. The election coincided with the presidential election of 1864, in which President Abraham Lincoln was re-elected.
In the midst of the American Civil War, the opposition Democrats were divided between the Copperheads, a group that demanded an immediate negotiated settlement with the Confederate States of America, and the War Democrats, who supported the war. The Democrats lacked a coherent message, and Lincoln's Republican Party gained 50 seats, increasing their majority over the Democrats. The National Union Party (formerly known as the Unionists) lost seven seats, retaining control of 18 seats (some classify the Representatives as including 13 Unconditional Unionists and five Unionists), all from the border states of Maryland, Tennessee, and Kentucky, as well as West Virginia.
One new seat was added for the new State of Nebraska and 8 vacancies were filled by the readmission of Tennessee, the first secessionist state to be readmitted. Three former Confederate States held elections in 1865 that were rejected by Congress.
|California||District[Note 5]||November 8, 1864
(Election Day)[Note 6]
|Indiana||District||October 10, 1864||11||9||5||2||5||0|
|Maine||District||September 11, 1864||5||5||1||0||1||0|
|Ohio||District||October 10, 1864||19||17||12||2||12||0|
|Oregon||At-large||June 5, 1864||1||1||0||0|
|Pennsylvania||District||October 10, 1864||24||16||4||8||4||0|
|Vermont||District||September 6, 1864||3||3||0||0|
|West Virginia||District||October 22, 1864||3||0||0||3|
|Connecticut||District||April 3, 1865||4||4||1||0||1||0|
|Kentucky||District||August 7, 1865||9||0||5||5||4||5|
|Nevada||At-large||November 7, 1865||1||1||0||0|
|New Hampshire||District||March 14, 1865||3||3||1||0||1||0|
|Rhode Island||District||April 5, 1865||2||2||0||0|
|Tennessee[Note 7]||District||August 3, 1865[Note 8]||8||0||0||8||8|
|Nebraska[Note 9]||At-large||June 2, 1866||1||1||1||0||0|
|Secessionist States not yet readmitted|
|Florida||At-large||November 29, 1865[Note 10]||1|
|Mississippi||District||October 2, 1865[Note 10]||5|
|North Carolina||District||November 9, 1865[Note 10]||7|
50 vacancies[Note 11]
Of the rejected elections, Florida's and Mississippi's claimants' parties are unknown, while North Carolina elected 4 Union and 3 Conservative Representatives.
Note: This was the first election in which California elected representatives from congressional districts.
|California 1||Donald C. McRuer (R) 58.2%
Joseph B. Crockett (D) 41.8%
|California 2||William Higby (R) 61.3%
James W. Coffroth (D) 38.7%
|California 3||John Bidwell (R) 55.8%
Jackson Temple (D) 44.2%
|Ohio 1||George H. Pendleton||Democratic||1856||Retired[Note 12]
|Ohio 2||Alexander Long||Democratic||1862||Lost re-nomination
|Ohio 3||Robert C. Schenck||Republican||1862||Re-elected||
|Ohio 4||John F. McKinney||Democratic||1862||Lost re-election
|Ohio 5||Francis C. Le Blond||Democratic||1862||Re-elected||
|Ohio 6||Chilton A. White||Democratic||1860||Lost re-election
|Ohio 7||Samuel S. Cox||Democratic||1862||Lost re-election
|Ohio 8||William Johnston||Democratic||1862||Lost re-election
|Ohio 9||Warren P. Noble||Democratic||1860||Lost re-election
|Ohio 10||James M. Ashley||Republican||1862||Re-elected|
|Ohio 11||Wells A. Hutchins||Democratic||1862||Lost re-election
|Ohio 12||William E. Finck||Democratic||1862||Re-elected|
|Ohio 13||John O'Neill||Democratic||1862||Retired
|Ohio 14||George Bliss||Democratic||1862||Lost re-election
|Ohio 15||James R. Morris||Democratic||1862||Lost re-election
|Ohio 16||Joseph W. White||Democratic||1882||Lost re-election
|Ohio 17||Ephraim R. Eckley||Republican||1862||Re-elected|
|Ohio 18||Rufus P. Spalding||Republican||1862||Re-elected|
|Ohio 19||James A. Garfield||Republican||1862||Re-elected||
- United States elections, 1864
- 38th United States Congress
- 39th United States Congress
- Excludes states admitted after the start of Congress.
- Including late elections.
- Includes 1 Independent Republican, John R. Kelso, elected to MO-04.
- Including Unconditional Unionists.
- Changed from at-large.
- In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
- Readmitted state.
- Not admitted until July 24, 1866.
- New state.
- Rejected election.
- There were a total of 50 vacancies remaining, after the readmission of Tennessee.
- Ran for Vice President.
- Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
- Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
- "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)